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African languagesEdit

In some African languages, such as Gogo, nh is a voiceless /n̥/.

In the pre-1985 orthography of Guinea for its languages, nh represented a velar [ŋ], which is currently written ŋ.

Asian languagesEdit

In the Gwoyeu Romatzyh romanization of Mandarin Chinese, initial nh- indicates an even tone on a syllable beginning in [n], which is otherwise spelled n-.

JapaneseEdit

Early romanizations of Japanese, influenced by Portuguese orthography, sometimes used nh to represent a prepalatal. Today, this is usually written ny.

VietnameseEdit

In Vietnamese, nh represents a palatal [ɲ] word-initially. It was formerly considered a distinct letter, but is no longer. When this digraph occurs word-finally, its phonetic value varies between dialects:

  • In the northern dialect, it represents a velar nasal (ŋ), just as ng does; however, its presence may alter the pronunciation of the preceding vowel. For example, banh is pronounced /baɪŋ/, as opposed to /baŋ/ (bang).
  • In the southern dialect, it represents an alveolar nasal (n) and shortens the preceding vowel.

The Vietnamese alphabet inherited this digraph from the Portuguese orthography.

Australian languagesEdit

In the transcription of Australian Aboriginal languages, nh represents a dental []. Due to allophony, it may also represent a palatal [ɲ].

American languagesEdit

In Purépecha and Pipil, it is a velar nasal, [ŋ].

In the Cuoq Orthography in Algonquin, and in the Fiero Orthography in Ojibwe and Odaawaa, it indicates the vowel preceding it is nasalized. While in the Cuoq orthograph it is ⟨nh⟩ in all positions, in the Fiero orthography it is a final form; its non-final form is written as ⟨ny⟩.

European languagesEdit

OccitanEdit

In Occitan, nh represents a palatal [ɲ].

For n·h, see Interpunct#Occitan.

PortugueseEdit

In Portuguese, nh represents a palatal [ɲ]. Due to allophony, it may represent the nasal approximant [ȷ̃] in most Brazilian, Santomean and Angolan dialects. It is not considered a distinct letter. Portuguese borrowed this digraph from Occitan.[1]

GalicianEdit

In Galician, there are two diverging norms which give nh differing values.

In both norms, nh is not considered a distinct letter.

WelshEdit

In Welsh, nh is a voiceless alveolar nasal, /n̥/.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Jean-Pierre JUGE (2001) Petit précis - Chronologie occitane - Histoire & civilisation, p. 25

External linksEdit