The Nguyễn dynasty (Chữ Nôm: 茹阮, Vietnamese: Nhà Nguyễn; Hán tự: 阮朝, Vietnamese: Nguyễn triều) was the last Vietnamese dynasty, which ruled the unified Vietnamese state largely independently from 1802 to 1884. During its existence, the empire expanded into modern-day southern Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos through a continuation of the centuries-long Nam tiến and Siamese–Vietnamese wars. After 1883, the Nguyễn emperors ruled nominally as heads of state of the French protectorates of Annam and Tonkin until the final months of WWII; they later nominally ruled over the Empire of Vietnam until the Japanese surrender.
Đại Việt quốc大越國 (1802–1804)
Việt Nam quốc越南國 (1804–1839, 1945)Đại Nam quốc大南國 (1839–1945)
|Status||Internal imperial system within Chinese tributary (1802–1884)French protectorate (1884–1945)Puppet state of the Empire of Japan (1945)|
|Capital||Phú Xuân (now Huế)|
|Official languages||VietnameseWritten Classical Chinese[a]French (from 1884)|
|Religion||Neo-Confucianism, Buddhism, Catholicism|
• 1802–1820 (first)
• 1884–1885 (last independent)
• 1926–1945 (last)
• Coronation of Gia Long
|1 June 1802|
|20 July 1802|
|1 September 1858|
|5 June 1862|
|25 August 1883|
|6 June 1884|
|9 March 1945|
|25 August 1945|
|Currency||Zinc and copper-alloy cash coins (denominated in phần, văn, mạch, and quán)|
Silver and gold cash coins and ingots (denominated in phân, nghi, tiền, and lạng / lượng)
French Indochinese piastre (from 1885)
|Today part of||Vietnam|
The Nguyễn Phúc family established feudal rule over large amounts of territory as the Nguyễn Lords by the 16th century before defeating the Tây Sơn dynasty and establishing their own imperial rule in the 19th century. The dynastic rule began with Gia Long ascending the throne in 1802, after ending the previous Tây Sơn dynasty. The Nguyễn dynasty was gradually absorbed by France over the course of several decades in the latter half of the 19th century, beginning with the Cochinchina Campaign in 1858 which led to the occupation of the southern area of Vietnam. A series of unequal treaties followed; the occupied territory became the French colony of Cochinchina in the 1862 Treaty of Saigon, and the 1863 Treaty of Huế gave France access to Vietnamese ports and increased control of its foreign affairs. Finally, the 1883 and 1884 Treaties of Huế divided the remaining Vietnamese territory into the protectorates of Annam and Tonkin under nominal Nguyễn Phúc rule. In 1887, Cochinchina, Annam, Tonkin, and the French Protectorate of Cambodia were grouped together to form French Indochina.
The Nguyễn dynasty remained the formal emperors of Annam and Tonkin within Indochina until World War II. Japan had occupied Indochina with French collaboration in 1940, but as the war seemed increasingly lost, overthrew the French administration in March 1945 and proclaimed independence for its constituent countries. The Empire of Vietnam under Emperor Bảo Đại was a nominally independent Japanese puppet state during the last months of the war. It ended with Bảo Đại's abdication following the surrender of Japan and August Revolution by the anti-colonial Việt Minh in the August 1945. This ended the 143-year rule of the Nguyễn dynasty. Many Vietnamese historians have a harsh and poor assessment of the Nguyễn dynasty.
|Country of Vietnam|
|Vietnamese alphabet||Nước Việt Nam|
The name Việt Nam (Vietnamese pronunciation: [viə̀t naːm], chữ Hán: 越南) is a variation of Nam Việt (南越; literally "Southern Việt"), a name that can be traced back to the Triệu dynasty of the 2nd century BC. The term "Việt" (Yue) (Chinese: 越; pinyin: Yuè; Cantonese Yale: Yuht; Wade–Giles: Yüeh4; Vietnamese: Việt) in Early Middle Chinese was first written using the logograph "戉" for an axe (a homophone), in oracle bone and bronze inscriptions of the late Shang dynasty (c. 1200 BC), and later as "越". At that time it referred to a people or chieftain to the northwest of the Shang. In the early 8th century BC, a tribe on the middle Yangtze were called the Yangyue, a term later used for peoples further south. Between the 7th and 4th centuries BC Yue/Việt referred to the State of Yue in the lower Yangtze basin and its people. From the 3rd century BC the term was used for the non-Chinese populations of south and southwest China and northern Vietnam, with particular ethnic groups called Minyue, Ouyue, Luoyue (Vietnamese: Lạc Việt), etc., collectively called the Baiyue (Bách Việt, Chinese: 百越; pinyin: Bǎiyuè; Cantonese Yale: Baak Yuet; Vietnamese: Bách Việt; "Hundred Yue/Viet"; ). The term Baiyue/Bách Việt first appeared in the book Lüshi Chunqiu compiled around 239 BC. By the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, educated Vietnamese called themselves and their people as nguoi viet and nguoi nam, which combined to become nguoi viet nam (Vietnamese people). However, this designation was for the Vietnamese themselves and not for the whole country.
The form Việt Nam (越南) is first recorded in the 16th-century oracular poem Sấm Trạng Trình. The name has also been found on 12 steles carved in the 16th and 17th centuries, including one at Bao Lam Pagoda in Hải Phòng that dates to 1558. In 1802, Nguyễn Phúc Ánh (who later became Emperor Gia Long) established the Nguyễn dynasty. In the second year of his rule, he asked the Jiaqing Emperor of the Qing dynasty to confer on him the title 'King of Nam Việt / Nanyue' (南越 in Chinese character) after seizing power in Annam. The Emperor refused because the name was related to Zhao Tuo's Nanyue, which included the regions of Guangxi and Guangdong in southern China. The Qing Emperor, therefore, decided to call the area "Việt Nam" instead. Between 1804 and 1813, the name Vietnam was used officially by Emperor Gia Long.[b]
|Empire of Đại Nam|
|Vietnamese alphabet||Đại Nam Quốc|
Westerners in the past often called the kingdom as Annam or the Annamite Empire. However, in Vietnamese historiography, modern historians often refer to this period in Vietnamese history as Nguyen Vietnam, alternatively spelled as Nguyễn Vietnam, or simply Vietnam to distinguish with the pre-19th century Đại Việt kingdom.
Background and establishmentEdit
Origin of Nguyễn clanEdit
The Nguyễn family clan, originated in the Thanh Hóa Province, exerted substantial political influence and military power, in particular throughout early modern Vietnamese history. Affiliations with the ruling elite date back to the tenth century when Nguyễn Bặc was appointed the first Grand Chancellor of the short-lived Đinh dynasty under Đinh Bộ Lĩnh in 965. Nguyễn Thị Anh, a queen consort of emperor Lê Thái Tông served as official regent of Đại Việt for her son emperor Lê Nhân Tông between 1442 and 1453.
Lê dynasty's servantsEdit
In 1527 Mạc Đăng Dung, after defeating and executing the Lê dynasty's vassal (Nguyễn Hoằng Dụ) in a rebellion and emerged as the intermediate victor and established the Mạc dynasty by deposing Emperor Lê Cung Hoàng of the once prosperous but rapidly declining later Lê dynasty. Nguyễn Hoằng Dụ's son Nguyễn Kim and his Trịnh clan allies remained loyal to the Lê dynasty and attempted to restore the Lê dynasty to power, thereby reigniting the rebellion. After that, both the Trịnh and Nguyễn clan again took up arms in Thanh Hóa province and revolted against the Mạc. However the rebellion was failed and they fled to kingdom of Lan Xang where the king Photisarath allows them to establish the exiled government in Xam Neua. The Lê royalists under Lê Ninh, a descendant of the Royal family, escaped to Muang Phuan (today Laos). During exile, Marquis of An Thanh Nguyễn Kim summoned the people who were still loyal to the Lê emperor and formed a new army to begin a revolt against Mạc Đăng Dung. In 1540, they return to Đại Việt and begin their first military campaign against Mạc dynasty in Thanh Hóa province and capture the province in 1543.
Nguyễn's dominion in the southEdit
Lê dynasty was restored in 1539 after the alliance recaptured Thanh Hoa Province and reinstall the Lê emperor Lê Trang Tông in throne. Nguyễn Kim, who had served as leader of the alliance during the 12 year of Lê–Mạc War (from 1533 to 1545) in the period of Northern and Southern dynasties, was assassinated in 1545 by a captured Mạc general (Dương Chấp Nhất). After that, Kim's son-in-law, Trịnh Kiểm who had killed the eldest son of Kim (Nguyễn Uông),then seize control of the alliance. The sixth son of Kim, Nguyễn Hoàng fears that his fate will be like his brother; therefore, he tried to run away from the capital to avoid the next assassination. Later, he asks his sister Nguyễn Thị Ngọc Bảo (wife of Trịnh Kiểm) to ask Kiểm to appoint him to be the governor of far-south frontier of Đại Việt, Thuận Hóa (modern Quảng Bình to Quảng Nam provinces). Trịnh Kiểm think this is the opportunity to remove the power and influence of Nguyễn Hoàng in the capital city so he agreed with the proposal. In 1558, Lê Anh Tông, emperor of the re-established Lê dynasty appointed Nguyễn Hoàng with the lordship of the Thuận Hóa, which had been conquered during the 15th century from the Champa kingdom. This event marked the beginning of division of two powerful families in 1558, Trịnh clan rules as dictatorship in the government of Lê dynasty in the north Đại Việt (Đàng Ngoài) and Nguyễn clan rules the South Đại Việt (Đàng Trong).
Nguyễn Phúc Lan chose the city of Phú Xuân in 1636 as his residence and established the dominion of the Nguyễn lord in the southern part of the country. Although the Nguyễn and Trịnh lords ruled as de facto rulers in their respective lands, they paid official tribute to the Lê emperors in a ceremonial gesture,and recognize Lê dynasty as the legitimacy of Đại Việt.
Nguyễn Hoàng and his successors started to engage in rivalry with the Trịnh lords, after refusing to pay tax and tribute to the central government in Hanoi as Nguyễn lords tried to create the autonomous regime. They expanded their territory by making parts of Cambodia as protectorate, invaded Laos, captured the last vestiges of Champa in 1693 and ruled in an unbroken line until 1776.
Tây Sơn–Nguyễn war (1771–1802)Edit
The end of the Nguyễn lords' reignEdit
The 17th-century war between the Trịnh and the Nguyễn ended in an uneasy peace, with the two sides creating de facto separate states although both professed loyalty to the same Lê dynasty. After 100 years of domestic peace, the Nguyễn lords were confronted with the Tây Sơn rebellion in 1774. Its military had had considerable losses in manpower after a series of campaigns in Cambodia and proved unable to contain the revolt. By the end of the year, the Trịnh lords had formed an alliance with the Tây Sơn rebels and captured Huế in 1775.
Nguyễn lord Nguyễn Phúc Thuần fled south to the Quảng Nam province, where he left a garrison under co-ruler Nguyễn Phúc Dương. He fled further south to the Gia Định Province (around modern-day Ho Chi Minh City) by sea before the arrival of Tây Sơn leader Nguyễn Nhạc, whose forces defeated the Nguyễn garrison and seized Quảng Nam.
In early 1777 a large Tây Sơn force under Nguyễn Huệ and Nguyễn Lữ attacked and captured Gia Định from the sea and defeated the Nguyễn Lord forces. The Tây Sơn received widespread popular support as they presented themselves as champions of the Vietnamese people, who rejected any foreign influence and fought for the full reinstitution of the Lê dynasty. Hence, the elimination of the Nguyễn and Trinh lordships was considered a priority and all but one member of the Nguyễn family captured at Saigon were executed.
Nguyễn Ánh escapesEdit
In 1775, the 13-year-old Nguyễn Ánh escaped and with the help of the Vietnamese Catholic priest Paul Hồ Văn Nghị soon arrived at the Paris Foreign Missions Society in Hà Tiên. With Tây Son search parties closing in, he kept on moving and eventually met the French missionary Pigneau de Behaine. By retreating to the Thổ Chu Islands in the Gulf of Thailand, both escaped Tây Sơn capture.
Pigneau de Behaine decided to support Ánh, who had declared himself heir to the Nguyễn lordship. A month later the Tây Sơn army under Nguyễn Huệ had returned to Quy Nhơn. Ánh seized the opportunity and quickly raised an army at his new base in Long Xuyên, marched to Gia Định and occupied the city in December 1777. The Tây Sơn returned to Gia Định in February 1778 and recaptured the province. When Ánh approached with his army, the Tây Sơn retreated.
By the summer of 1781, Ánh's forces had grown to 30,000 soldiers, 80 battleships, three large ships and two Portuguese ships procured with the help of de Behaine. Ánh organized an unsuccessful ambush of the Tây Sơn base camps in the Phú Yên province. In March 1782 the Tây Sơn emperor Thái Đức and his brother Nguyễn Huệ sent a naval force to attack Ánh. Ánh's army was defeated and he fled via Ba Giồng to Svay Rieng in Cambodia.
Ánh met with the Cambodian King Ang Eng, who granted him exile and offered support in his struggle with the Tây Sơn. In April 1782 a Tây Sơn army invaded Cambodia, detained and forced Ang Eng to pay tribute, and demanded, that all Vietnamese nationals living in Cambodia were to return to Vietnam.
Chinese Vietnamese support for Nguyễn ÁnhEdit
Support by the Chinese Vietnamese began when the Qing dynasty overthrew the Ming dynasty. The Han Chinese refused to live under the Manchu Qing and fled to Southeast Asia (including Vietnam). Most were welcomed by the Nguyễn lords to resettle in southern Vietnam and set up business and trade.
In 1782, Nguyễn Ánh escaped to Cambodia and the Tây Sơn seized southern Vietnam (now Cochinchina). They had discriminated against the ethnic Chinese, displeasing the Chinese-Vietnamese. That April, Nguyễn loyalists Tôn Thất Dụ, Trần Xuân Trạch, Trần Văn Tự and Trần Công Chương sent military support to Ánh. The Nguyễn army killed grand admiral Phạm Ngạn, who had a close relationship with the Emperor Thái Đức, at Tham Lương bridge. Thái Đức, angry, thought that the ethnic Chinese had collaborated in the killing. He sacked the town of Cù lao (present-day Biên Hòa), which had a large Chinese population, and ordered the oppression of the Chinese community to avenge their assistance to Ánh. Ethnic cleansing had previously occurred in Hoi An, leading to support by wealthy Chinese for Ánh. He returned to Giồng Lữ, defeated Admiral Nguyễn Học of the Tây Sơn and captured eighty battleships. Ánh then began a campaign to reclaim southern Vietnam, but Nguyễn Huệ deployed a naval force to the river and destroyed his navy. Ánh again escaped with his followers to Hậu Giang. Cambodia later cooperated with the Tây Sơn to destroy Ánh's force and made him retreat to Rạch Giá, then to Hà Tiên and Phú Quốc.
Nguyễn – Siam allianceEdit
Following consecutive losses to the Tây Sơn, Ánh sent his general Châu Văn Tiếp to Siam to request military assistance. Siam, under Chakri rule, wanted to conquer Cambodia and southern Vietnam. King Rama I agreed to ally with the Nguyễn lord and intervene militarily in Vietnam. Châu Văn Tiếp sent a secret letter to Ánh about the alliance. After meeting with Siamese generals at Cà Mau, Ánh, thirty officials and some troops visited Bangkok to meet Rama I in May 1784. The governor of Gia Định Province, Nguyễn Văn Thành, advised Ánh against foreign assistance.
Rama I, fearing the growing influence of the Tây Sơn dynasty in Cambodia and Laos, decided to dispatch his army against it. In Bangkok, Ánh began to recruit Vietnamese refugees in Siam to join his army (which totaled over 9,000). He returned to Vietnam and prepared his forces for the Tây Sơn campaign in June 1784, after which he captured Gia Định. Rama I nominated his nephew, Chiêu Tăng, as admiral the following month. The admiral led Siamese forces including 20,000 marine troops and 300 warships from the Gulf of Siam to Kiên Giang Province. In addition, more than 30,000 Siamese infantry troops crossed the Cambodian border to An Giang Province. On 25 November 1784, Admiral Châu Văn Tiếp died in battle against the Tây Sơn in Mang Thít District, Vĩnh Long Province. The alliance was largely victorious from July through November, and the Tây Sơn army retreated north. However, Emperor Nguyễn Huệ halted the retreat and counter-attacked the Siamese forces in December. In the decisive battle of Rạch Gầm–Xoài Mút, more than 20,000 Siamese soldiers died and the remainder retreated to Siam.
The war between the Nguyễn lord and the Tây Sơn dynasty forced Ánh to find more allies. His relationship with de Behaine improved, and support for an alliance with France increased. Before the request for Siamese military assistance, de Behaine was in Chanthaburi and Ánh asked him to come to Phú Quốc Island. Ánh asked him to contact King Louis XVI of France for assistance; de Behaine agreed to coordinate an alliance between France and Vietnam, and Ánh gave him a letter to present at the French court. Ánh's oldest son, Nguyễn Phúc Cảnh, was chosen to accompany de Behaine. Due to inclement weather, the voyage was postponed until December 1784. The group departed from Phú Quốc Island for Malacca and thence to Pondicherry, and Ánh moved his family to Bangkok. The group arrived in Lorient in February 1787, and Louis XVI agreed to meet them in May.
On 28 November 1787, de Behaine signed the Treaty of Versailles with French Minister of Foreign Affairs Armand Marc at the Palace of Versailles on behalf of Nguyễn Ánh. The treaty stipulated that France provide four frigates, 1,200 infantry troops, 200 artillery, 250 cafres (African soldiers), and other equipment. Nguyễn Ánh ceded the Đà Nẵng estuary and Côn Sơn Island to France. The French were allowed to trade freely and control foreign trade in Vietnam. Vietnam had to build one ship per year which was similar to the French ship which brought aid and give it to France. Vietnam was obligated to supply food and other aid to France when the French were at war with other East Asian nations.
On 27 December 1787, Pigneau de Behaine and Nguyễn Phúc Cảnh left France for Pondicherry to wait for the military support promised by the treaty. However, due to the French Revolution and the abolition of the French monarchy, the treaty was never executed. Thomas Conway, who was responsible for French assistance, refused to provide it. Although the treaty was not implemented, de Behaine recruited French businessman who intended to trade in Vietnam and raised funds to assist Nguyễn Ánh. He spent fifteen thousand francs of his own money to purchase guns and warships. Cảnh and de Behaine returned to Gia Định in 1788 (after Nguyễn Ánh had recaptured it), followed by a ship with the war materiel. Frenchmen who were recruited included Jean-Baptiste Chaigneau, Philippe Vannier, Olivier de Puymanel, and Jean-Marie Dayot. A total of twenty people joined Ánh's army. The French purchased and supplied equipment and weaponry, reinforcing the defense of Gia Định, Vĩnh Long, Châu Đốc, Hà Tiên, Biên Hòa, Bà Rịa and training Ánh's artillery and infantry according to the European model.
Qing China - Lê alliance against Tây SơnEdit
In 1786, Nguyễn Huệ led the army against the Trịnh lords; Trịnh Khải escaped to the north but got captured by the local people. He then committed suicide. After the Tây Sơn army returned to Quy Nhơn, subjects of the Trịnh lord restored Trịnh Bồng (son of Trịnh Giang) as the next lord. Lê Chiêu Thống, emperor of the Lê dynasty, wanted to regain power from the Trịnh. He summoned Nguyễn Hữu Chỉnh, governor of Nghệ An, to attack the Trịnh lord at the Imperial Citadel of Thăng Long. Trịnh Bồng surrendered to the Lê and became a monk. Nguyễn Hữu Chỉnh wanted to unify the country under Lê rule, and began to prepare the army to march south and attack the Tây Sơn. Huệ led the army, killed Nguyễn Hữu Chỉnh, and captured the later Lê capital. The Lê royal family were exiled to China, and the later Lê dynasty collapsed.
At that time, Nguyễn Huệ's influence became stronger in northern Vietnam; this made Emperor Nguyễn Nhạc of the Tây Sơn dynasty suspect Huệ's loyalty. The relationship between the brothers became tense, eventually leading to battle. Huệ had his army surround Nhạc's capital, at Quy Nhơn citadel, in 1787. Nhạc begged Huệ not to kill him, and they reconciled. In 1788, Lê emperor Lê Chiêu Thống fled to China and asked for military assistance. Qing emperor Qianlong ordered Sun Shiyi to lead the military campaign into Vietnam. The campaign failed, diplomatic relations with Vietnam were normalized, and the Tây Sơn dynasty began to weaken.
Franco-Nguyễn alliance against Tây SơnEdit
Nguyễn Ánh's counter-attackEdit
Ánh began to reorganize a strong armed force in Siam. He left Siam (after thanking King Rama I), and returned to Vietnam. During the 1787 war between Nguyễn Huệ and Nguyễn Nhạc in northern Vietnam, Ánh recaptured the southern Vietnamese capital of Gia Định. Southern Vietnam had been ruled by the Nguyễns and they remained popular, especially with the ethnic Chinese. Nguyễn Lữ, the youngest brother of Tây Sơn (who ruled southern Vietnam), could not defend the citadel and retreated to Quy Nhơn. The citadel of Gia Định was seized by the Nguyễn lords.
In 1788 de Behaine and Ánh's son, Prince Cảnh, arrived in Gia Định with modern war equipment and more than twenty Frenchmen who wanted to join the army. The force was trained and strengthened with French assistance.
Defeat of the Tây SơnEdit
After the fall of the citadel at Gia Định, Nguyễn Huệ prepared an expedition to reclaim it before his death on 16 September 1792. His young son, Nguyễn Quang Toản, succeeded him as emperor of the Tây Sơn and was a poor leader. In 1793, Nguyễn Ánh began a campaign against Quang Toản. Due to conflict between officials of the Tây Sơn court, Quang Toản lost battle after battle. In 1797, Ánh and Nguyễn Phúc Cảnh attacked Qui Nhơn (then in Phú Yên Province) in the battle of Thị Nại. They were victorious, capturing a large amount of Tây Sơn equipment. Quang Toản became unpopular due to his murders of generals and officials, leading to a decline in the army. In 1799, Ánh captured the citadel of Quy Nhơn. He seized the capital (Phú Xuân) on 3 May 1801, and Quang Toản retreated north. On 20 July 1802, Ánh captured Hanoi and end the Tây Sơn dynasty, all of the members of the Tây Sơn was captured Ánh then executed all the members of the Tây Sơn dynasty that year.
Imperial rule (1802–1883)Edit
In Vietnamese historiography, the independent period is referred to as the Nhà Nguyễn thời độc lập period. During this period the Nguyễn dynasty's territories comprised the present-day territories of Vietnam and portions included Cambodia and Laos, bordered with Siam to the west and Manchu Qing dynasty to the north. Throughout its existence, the ruling Nguyễn emperors established and ran the first well-defined imperial administrative and bureaucratic system across the country, annexed Cambodia and Champa into its territories in the 1830s. Together with Chakri Siam and Konbaung Burma, it was one among three major Southeast Asian powers at the time. Gia Long, was relatively friendly toward Western powers and Christianity. The second emperor after Gia Long, Minh Mạng, ruled for 21 years from 1820 to 1841, a conservative and Confucian Orthodoxy ruler that had been adopted the policy of isolationist, kept the country from the rest of the world for nearly 40 years until the French invasion in 1858. Minh Mạng tightened control over Catholicism, Muslim, and ethnic minorities, resulting in more than two hundred rebellions across the country during his twenty-one-year reign. He also expanded his ambition to modern-day Laos and Cambodia.
Nguyễn Phúc Ánh united Vietnam after a three-hundred-year division of the country. He celebrated his coronation at Huế on 1 June 1802 and proclaimed himself emperor (Vietnamese: Hoàng Đế), with the era name Gia Long (嘉隆). Gia Long prioritized the nation's defense, and feared that it could again be divided by civil war. He replaced the feudal system with a reformist Doctrine of the Mean, based on Confucianism. The Nguyen dynasty was founded as a tributary state of the Qing Empire, with Gia Long receiving an imperial pardon and recognition as the ruler of Vietnam from the Jiaqing Emperor for recognizing Chinese suzerainty.
Nguyễn Phúc Ánh immediately sent an embassy to Qing China in 1802 to establish relations with his new kingdom. However, the envoys cited the ancient kingdom of Nanyue (Vietnamese: Nam Việt) to the Qing Emperor Jiaqing to represent their country, that made the emperor dissatisfied, and that Nguyễn Phúc Ánh had to officially rename his kingdom as Vietnam in the next year in favour of the Chinese audience. The country was officially known as The (Great) Vietnamese state (Vietnamese: Đại Việt Nam quốc),
The Qing dynasty Jiaqing Emperor refused Gia Long's request to change his country's name to Nam Việt, viewing it as an overambitious claim to the ancient state, and instead changed its name to Việt Nam. "Trung Quốc" (中國) was used as a name for Vietnam by Gia Long in 1805.
After Gia Long, other dynastic rulers encountered problems with Catholic missionaries and other Europeans in Indochina. Gia Long's son, Minh Mạng, was then faced with the Lê Văn Khôi revolt in which native Christians and their European clergy tried to replace him and install a grandson of Gia Long who had converted to Roman Catholicism. The missionaries then incited frequent revolts in an attempt to Catholicize the throne and the country, although Minh Mạng set aside public lands as part of his reforms.
During the 19th century, the Nguyễn maintained tributary relationships with Cambodia and Laos after a series of military campaigns involving the Siamese Rattanakosin Kingdom, including the Cambodian rebellion, Lao rebellion, Siamese–Vietnamese War of 1831–1834, and Siamese–Vietnamese War of 1841–1845. The Nguyễn also expanded further into Champa lands in modern-day southern Vietnam in a continuation of the centuries-long Nam tiến.
Minh Mạng's successors, Thiệu Trị (r. 1841–1847) and Tự Đức (r. 1847–1883) however consecutive faced more serious problems that ultimately decimated the Vietnamese state. In the late 1840s, Vietnam was struck by a global deadly cholera pandemic that killed roughly 8% of the country's population, while continuously isolationist policies and prohibition of trade and contact damaged the country's economy and internal politics. The French Empire of Napoleon III and Spain of Isabell II declared war on Vietnam in September 1858. Facing mighty industrialized France and Spain, the hermit Nguyễn dynasty Empire and its military crumbled as the Franco-Spanish alliance took Saigon in early 1859. A series of unequal treaties followed; the occupied territory became the French colony of Cochinchina in the 1862 Treaty of Saigon, and the 1863 Treaty of Huế gave France access to Vietnamese ports and increased control of its foreign affairs. The Treaty of Saigon (1874) concluded the French annexation of Cochinchina.
The last independent Nguyễn emperor was Tự Đức. A succession crisis followed his death, as the regent Tôn Thất Thuyết orchestrated the murders of three emperors in a year. This allowed the French to take control of the country and its monarchy. Later, the Hue court was forced to sign the Harmand Convention in September 1883, which handover Tonkin (northern Vietnam) and several provinces to the French administration. After the Treaty of Patenôtre was signed in 1884, France annexed and partitioned Vietnam into three constituent protectorates of French Indochina, and effectively turned the ruling Nguyen dynasty court into a vassal monarchy of France. Finally, the Treaty of Tientsin (1885) between the Chinese Empire and the French Republic was signed on 9 June 1885. All emperors after Đồng Khánh were chosen by the French, and only ruled symbolically.
Gia Long periodEdit
Nguyễn Ánh (well-known as Nguyen Anh), the only surviving heir of the last Nguyen lord Nguyễn Phúc Thuần, had escaped the Taysons purge in 1777. He was sheltered by a Catholic priest in Rạch Giá, near Gulf of Thailand. Therefore he met a French priest, Pigneau de Behaine in Hà Tiên, and they became comrades. In 1786, the Taysons under Nguyen Hue stormed northern Vietnam, overthrew the ruling Trịnh family who were former enemies of the Nguyen and the old Lê dynasty, then annihilated a large Chinese intervention in Spring 1789. In November 1787, Nguyễn Ánh signed a treaty of alliance with Louis XVI in Versailles, sought military help. With the assistance of the French, Portuguese, Chinese-Vietnamese, Siamese, Chams, and Cambodians, and the command of the loyal talented generals Le Van Duyet and Nguyen Van Thanh, his forces slowly conquered Vietnam from the Taysons, captured Saigon in 1789, Hue in 1801, and Hanoi in June 1802, successfully unified the whole country under his hands by July 1802.
On 1 June, Nguyễn Ánh enthroned as Emperor Gia Long in Huế, whose imperial title emphasized his rule from Gia[-dinh] region (Saigon) in the far south to [Thang]-long (Hanoi) in the north. Gia Long claimed to revive the old government system of the bureaucratic state that was built by King Le Thanh Tong during the fifteenth-century golden age (1470–1497), adopted Confucian-bureaucratic government model, and sought unification with northern literati. His first concern was to bring stability over the unified kingdom, and placed two of his most loyal and Confucian-educated figures, Nguyễn Văn Thành and Le Van Duyet as viceroys of Hanoi and Saigon. From 1780 to 1820, roughly 300 French served Gia Long’s court as officials. Under his reign, a system of road connecting Hanoi, Hue, and Saigon with postal stations and inns that laid the foundation for the latter national highway, several canals connecting the Mekong River to the Gulf of Siam were constructed and finished. In 1812, Gia Long issued the Gia Long Code, which was instituted based on the Ch'ing Code of China, replaced the previous Thanh Tong's 1480 Code. In 1811, a coup d'état arose in the Kingdom of Cambodia, a Vietnamese tributary state, forced the pro-Vietnamese King Ang Chan II to offer Gia Long for help. Gia Long sent 13,000 men to Cambodia. He restored the Cambodian monarch to the throne, and began the occupation of the country for the next 30 years, while Siam seized northern Cambodia in 1814.
Seeming a Vietnam with French influences as a potential danger, the British Empire sent two envoys to Gia Long in 1803 and 1804 to convince him to abandon his friendship with the French. In 1808, a British fleet led by William O'Bryen Drury mounted an attack on Vietnamese Red River Delta, but was soon driven back by the Vietnamese navy and suffered several losses. After the Napoleonic war and Gia Long’s death, the British Empire renewed relation with Vietnam in 1822.
Throughout his reign, Gia Long continued to adopt the liberal and tolerant policy of his former rival Tayson. He died in 1819 and was succeeded by his fourth son, Nguyễn Phúc Đảm, who soon became known as Emperor Minh Mạng (r. 1820–1841) of Vietnam.
Rise and expansion under Minh MạngEdit
Minh Mạng was the younger brother of prince Nguyễn Phúc Cảnh and fourth son of Emperor Gia Long. Educated in Confucian classic since youth age, Minh Mạng became the Emperor of Vietnam in 1820, during a deadly cholera (or plague) outbreak that ravaged and killed 200,000 people across the country. His reign mainly focused on centralizing and stabilizing the state, by abolishing the Viceroy system and implementing a new full bureaucracy-provincial-based administration. He also halted diplomacy with Europe, and imposed religious intolerance.
Minh Mạng immediately shunned relations with the outside world. By 1824, after the death of Jean Marie Despiau, none Western advisors who had served Gia Long remained in Minh Mạng's court. The last French consul of Vietnam, Eugene Chaigneau, was never able to obtain one audience with Minh Mạng. After he left, France made no further attempts. In the next year he launched an anti-Catholicism propaganda campaign, denounced it as a "vicious religion" and "false teaching." In 1832 Minh Mạng turned the Cham Principality of Thuan Thanh into a Vietnamese province. He coercively fed lizard and pig meat to Cham Muslims and cow meat to Cham Hindus against their will to punish them and assimilate them to Vietnamese culture. The first Cham revolt for independence took place in 1833–1834 when Katip Sumat, a Cham mullah who had just returned to Vietnam from Mecca declared a holy war (jihad) against the Vietnamese emperor. The rebellion later quickly lost support from the Cham elites and was overrun by Royal Vietnamese troops with ease. The second Cham revolt started in 1834, led by a Muslim clergy named Ja Thak with supports from the old Cham royalty, highland people, and Vietnamese dissents. Minh Mạng mercilessly crushed the Ja Thak rebellion and executed the last Cham ruler Po Phaok The in early 1835.
In 1833, as Minh Mạng had been trying to take firm control over six southern provinces, a large rebellion led by Lê Văn Khôi (an adopted son of the Saigon viceroy Le Van Duyet) against Minh Mạng in Saigon, attempted to establish the brother of Minh Mạng, Prince Cảnh's line to the throne. The rebellion lasted for two years, gathered support from Vietnamese Catholics, Khmers, Chinese merchants in Saigon, and even the Siamese ruler Rama III until it was crushed by the government forces in 1835. In January, he issued the first country-wide prohibition of Catholicism, and began persecuting Christians. 130 Christian missionaries, priests and church leaders were executed, dozens of churches were burned and destroyed during his persecution.
War with Siam and invasion of CambodiaEdit
Minh Mạng also expanded his empire westward, putting central and southern Laos under Cam Lộ Province, and collided with his father’s former ally-Siam in Vientiane and Cambodia. He backed the revolt of Laotian king Anouvong of Vientiane against the Siamese, and seized Xam Neua and Savannakhet in 1827.
In 1834, the Vietnamese Crown fully annexed Cambodia and renamed it to Tây Thành Province. Minh Mạng placed the general Truong Minh Giang as the governor of the Cambodian province, imposing the policy of assimilating the Cambodians. King Ang Chan II of Cambodia died in the next year and Ming Mang installed Chan's daughter Ang Mey as Commandery Princess of Cambodia. Cambodian officials were required to wear Vietnamese-style clothing, and govern in Vietnamese style. However the Vietnamese rule over Cambodia did not last long as it wasted the Vietnamese economy. Minh Mạng died in 1841, while a major Khmer uprising in the same year with Siamese aid eventually end the Tay Thanh province and his ambition over Cambodia.
Decline of the Nguyễn dynastyEdit
In the next forty years, Vietnam was ruled by two weak emperors Thieu Tri (r. 1841–1847) and Tu Duc (r. 1848–1883). Thieu Tri or Prince Miên Tông, was the eldest son of Emperor Minh Mạng. His six-year reign showed a remarkable decrease in Catholic persecution. The self-sustaining agriculture-based isolationist economy proved insufficient. The population grew from 6 million in the 1820s to 10 million in 1850, severe disasters, epidemics, and famines flawed internal instability. Between 1802 and 1862, the court had faced 405 minor and large revolts of peasants, political dissents, ethnic minorities, Lê loyalists (people that were loyal to the old Lê Duy dynasty) across the country, in many ways contributed to the downfall of the Vietnamese state in the latter half of the 1800s.
In 1845, American warship USS Constitution landed in Da Nang, took all local officials as hostages to demand Thieu Tri to free imprisoned French bishop Dominique Lefèbvre. In 1847 Thieu Tri had made peace with Siam, but got into trouble with France and Britain. In April French navy attacked the Vietnamese navy and sank many Vietnamese ships in Da Nang, also demanding the relæse of Lefèbvre. Angered by the incident, Thieu Tri ordered all European documents in his palace to be smashed, and all European caught on Vietnamese land were to immediate execution. In autumn, two British warships of Sir John Davis arrived in Da Nang and asserted a commercial treaty with Vietnam, but the emperor refused. He died a few days later of apoplexy.
Tu Duc, or Prince Hồng Nhậm was Thieu Tri's youngest son, well-educated in Confucian learning, he was crowned by minister and co-regent Trương Đăng Quế. Prince Hồng Bảo-the elder brother of Tu Duc who was the primogeniture chosen by Thieu Tri-rebelled against Tu Duc in the day of his accession. The coup failed. Under the intervention of the empress mother Từ Dụ, his sentence was reduced to life imprisonment. Aware of the rise of Western influences in Asia, Tự Đức re-announced the isolationist closed door policy, neither to welcome French or British, American or Spanish embassies, forbid trade and contacts with foreigners and renewed the persecution of Catholics. During Tu Duc's first twelve years, Vietnamese Catholicism faced the worst and bloodiest persecution in history: 27 European missionaries, 300 Vietnamese priests and bishops, and 30,000 Vietnamese Christians were executed and crucified from 1848 to 1860.
In the late 1840s, a cholera outbreak set on Vietnamese soils, via trade with British India. The epidemic quickly spread out of control and killed 800,000 people (8%–10% of Vietnam’s 1847 population) across the Empire. Locusts plagued northern Vietnam in 1854, and a major rebellion in the following year damaged much of the Tonkin countryside. The central government became so weak and unable to maintain its control on Tonkin as strong as the early period.
In the 1850-1870s, a new class of liberal intellectuals emerged in the court, many of them Catholics and had studied abroad in Europe, most notably Nguyễn Trường Tộ, urged the emperor to reform and transform the Empire following the Western model, open Vietnam to the world. Their reform efforts however were usually ignored and rejected by the top Confucian conservative bureaucrats and Tu Duc himself. No significant industrial economy was available at the time except mining to fund the reformists' modernisation progress. Social cohesion was low. 95 percent of the Empire’s population lived in rural areas and depended on agriculture and lasting effects of prolonged isolationist policies which undermining the economy.
In September 1858, Franco-Spanish army bombarded and invaded Da Nang to protest against the executions of two Spanish Dominican missionaries. Seven months later, they sailed to the south to attack Saigon and the rich Mekong Delta. The Alliance troops were holding Saigon for two years, while a rebellion of Lê loyalists led by Catholic bishop Pedro Tạ Văn Phụng, who self-proclaimed to be a Lê prince, broke out in the north and escalated. In February 1861, French reinforcement and 70 warships led by General Vassoigne arrived and overwhelmed Vietnamese strongholds. Facing the Alliance invasion and internal rebellion, Tu Duc chose to cede three Southern provinces to France in order to deal with the coinciding rebellion.
In June 1862, the Treaty of Saigon was signed, resulting in Vietnam losing three rich Gia Dinh, My Tho, Bien Hoa provinces, and the Poulo Condoræ Island, open for religious freedom and, along with paying war reparations to France. However, to Queen mother Từ Dụ, the court, and the people, the 1862 treaty was a national humiliation. Tu Duc once again sent a mission to French Emperor Napoleon III, called to revise the 1862 treaty. In July 1864, another draft treaty was signed. France returned the three provinces to Vietnam, but still hold control over three important cities Saigon, My Tho, and Thu Dau Mot. In 1866, France convinced Tu Duc to hand over three remaining southern provinces of Vinh Long, Ha Tien, and Chau Doc. Phan Thanh Gian, the Governor of the three provinces immediately resigned. Without resistance, in 1867 the French annexed the provinces with ease and were turning their attention to the northern provinces.
By the late 1860s, pirates, bandits, remnants of the Taiping rebellion in China, fled to Tonkin and turned Northern Vietnam into a hotbed for their raid activities. The Vietnamese state was on its deep decline and was unable to fight against the pirates. These Chinese rebels eventually formed their own mercenary armies like the Black Flags, and cooperated with local Vietnamese officials, together harassing French business. As France was looking for Yunnan and Tonkin, in 1873, a French merchant-adventurer named Jean Dupuis was intercepted by local Hanoi authority, prompting the French Cochinchina government to set out a new attack without talking with the Hue court. A French army led by Francis Garnier arrived at Tonkin in November. Because local administrators had allied with the Black Flags and mistrusting of Hanoi governor Nguyen Tri Phuong, in late November the French and Le loyalists opened fire at the Vietnamese citadel of Hanoi. Tu Duc immediately sent delegations to negotiate with Garnier, but Prince Hoàng Kế Viêm, governor of Sơn Tây, had enlisted the Chinese Black Flags militia of Liu Yongfu to attack the French. Garnier was killed on 21 December by the Black Flag soldiers at the Battle of Cầu Giấy. A peace negotiation between Vietnam and France was reached on 5 January 1874. France formally recognized Vietnam's full independence from China; France would pay off Vietnam's Spanish debts; French force returned Hanoi to the Vietnamese; Vietnamese military in Hanoi had to disband and be reduced to a simple police force; total religious and trade freedom was ensured; Vietnam must recognise all six southern provinces as French territories.
End of independence (1874–1885)Edit
Just two years after French recognisation, Tu Duc sent an embassy to Qing China in 1876 and re-provoked the tributary relationship with the Chinese (the last mission was in 1849). In 1878, Vietnam renewed relation with Thailand. In 1880, Britain, Germany, and Spain were still debating the fate of Vietnam, and the Chinese Embassy in Paris openly rejected the 1874 Franco-Vietnamese agreement. In Paris, Prime minister Jules Ferry proposed a direct military campaign against Vietnam to revise the 1874 treaty. Because Tự Đức was too preoccupied to keep the French out of his Empire without directly engaging against them, he requested the Chinese court. In 1882, 30,000 Qing troops flooded into the northern provinces and occupied cities. The Black Flags had also been returning, together, collaborating with local Vietnamese officials and harassing French businesses. In March, the French responded by sending a second expedition led by Henri Rivière to the north to quell off the obstacles as their obligation, but had to avoid all international attention, particularly with China. On 25 April 1882, Rivière took Hanoi without facing any resistance. Tự Đức hopelessly informed the Chinese court that their tributary state was being attacked. In September 1882, 17 Chinese divisions (200,000 men) crossed the Sino-Vietnamese borders and occupied Lạng Sơn, Cao Bằng, Bac Ninh, and Thái Nguyên, commissioning for Tự Đức and also themselves to defend against the French aggression.
Backed by the Chinese army and the prince Hoàng Kế Viêm, Liu Yongfu, and the Black Flags decided to attack Rivière. On 19 May 1883, the Black Flags ambushed and beheaded Rivière at the Second battle of Cầu Giấy. News of the death of Rivière spread waves of anger among the French public triggered the national response. The French Parliament quickly voted for the conquest of Vietnam. Tens of thousands of French and Chinese reinforcements poured into the Red River Delta.
Tự Đức died on 17 July. Succession trouble temporarily paralyzed the court. One of his nephews Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Ái was crowned as Emperor Dục Đức but was, however, imprisoned and executed after three days by the three powerful regents Nguyễn Văn Tường, Tôn Thất Thuyết and Tran Tien Thanh for an unclear reason. Tự Đức's brother Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Dật succeeded on 30 July as Emperor Hiệp Hòa. The senior Censorate official of the court Phan Đình Phùng denounced the three regents for their irregular handling of Tự Đức's succession. Tôn Thất Thuyết blasted Phan Đình Phùng and sent him back to home, where later he led a nationalist resistance movement against the French for ten years.
To knock Vietnam out of the war, France decided to take a direct assault on the city of Hue. The French army split up itself into two parts: the smaller under General Bouët stayed in Hanoi and waited for reinforcement from France while the French fleet led by Amédée Courbet and Jules Harmand sailed to Thuận An, the sea gate of Hue on August 17. Harmand demanded the two regents Nguyễn Văn Tường and Tôn Thất Thuyết to surrender Northern Vietnam, North-Central Vietnam (Thanh Hoá, Nghệ An, Hà Tĩnh) and Bình Thuận Province to French possession, and to accept a French résident in Huế who could demand royal audiences. He sent an ultimatum to the regents that "The name Vietnam will no longer exist in history" if they would resist.
On 18 August, French battleships began shelling Vietnamese positions in the Thuận An citadel. Two days later, at dawn, Courbet and the French marines landed on the shore. By the next morning, all Vietnamese defenses in Hue were overwhelmed by the French. Emperor Hiệp Hòa dispatched mandarin Nguyen Thuong Bac to negotiate.
On 25 September, two court officials Tran Dinh Tuc and Nguyen Trong Hop signed a twenty-seven-article treaty known as Harmand Convention. French seized Bình Thuận; Da Nang, Qui Nhon were opened for trade; the ruling sphere of the Vietnamese monarchy was reduced to Central Vietnam while Northern Vietnam became a French Protectorate. In November Emperor Hiệp Hòa and Tran Tien Thanh were executed by Nguyễn Văn Tường and Tôn Thất Thuyết for their pro-French stand. 14-year-old Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Đăng was crowned as Emperor Kiến Phúc. After achieving peace with China through the Tientsin Accord in May 1884, on 6 June the French Ambassador in China Jules Patenôtre des Noyers signed with Nguyen Van Tuong the Protectorate Treaty of Patenôtre, acknowledge confirmed the French dominant over Vietnam. On 31 May 1885, France appointed the first governor of all Vietnam. On 9 June 1885, Vietnam ceased to exist after 83 years as an independent state. Leader of the pro-war faction, Tôn Thất Thuyết and his supporters revolted against the French in July 1885, were forced to retreat to the Laotian highlands with the young emperor Hàm Nghi (Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Lịch), while the French had already installed his pro-French brother Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Kỷ as emperor Đồng Khánh. Thuyết called up the nobility, royalists and nationalists to arm for the resistance against the French occupation (Cần Vương movement). The movement lasted for 11 years (1885–1896) and Thuyết was forced to exile in China in 1888. As the Can Vuong movement got suppressed and the French took over the monarchy.
French protectorates of Annam and Tonkin (1883–1945)Edit
French conquest of Nam KỳEdit
Napoleon III took the first steps to establish a French colonial influence in Indochina. He approved the launching of a Punitive expedition in 1858 to punish the Vietnamese for their mistreatment of European Catholic missionaries and force the court to accept a French presence in the country. However, the expedition quickly evolved into a full invasion. Factors in Napoleon's decision were the belief that France risked becoming a second-rate power by not expanding its influence in East Asia, and the expanding idea that France had a civilizing mission. By 18 February 1859 France conquered Saigon and three southern Vietnamese provinces: Biên Hòa, Gia Định and Định Tường.
Bombardment of Biên Hòa (16 December 1861).
The capture of Ninh Bình by Aspirant Hautefeuille and his sailors
French attack on the citadel of Hải Dương.
The capture of Sơn Tây, 16 December 1883
Capture of Nam Định, 19 July 1883.
French troops attack Nam Định fortress.
By 1862, the war was over and in the Treaty of Saigon Vietnam was forced to concede the three provinces in the south, which became the colony of French Cochinchina. The subsequent 1863 Treaty of Huế also saw the Vietnamese Empire open three ports to French trade, allowed free passage of French warships to Kampuchea (which led to the French protectorate of Kampuchea), allowed freedom for French missionaries, and gave France a large indemnity for the cost of the war. France did not intervene in the Christian-supported Vietnamese rebellion in Bắc Bộ (despite missionary urging) or the subsequent massacre of thousands of Christians after the rebellion, suggesting that persecution of Christians prompted the original intervention but military and political reasons drove continued colonization of Vietnam.
Admiral Amédée Courbet and Harmand at Huế, August 1883
In the following decades Vietnam was gradually absorbed under French control. Further unequal treaties followed. The Second Treaty of Saigon in 1874 reiterated the stipulations of the previous treaty. When both China and France claimed sovereignty over Vietnamese territory, France deemed the treaty unfulfilled and occupied Hanoi in 1882. The 1883 Treaty of Huế led to the rest of Vietnam becoming French protectorates, divided into the Protectorates of Annam and Tonkin. The terms were, however, considered overly harsh in French diplomatic circles and never ratified in France. The following 1884 Treaty of Huế provided a softened version of the previous treaty. The 1885 Treaty of Tientsin, which reaffirmed the 1884 Tientsin Accord and ended the Sino-French War, confirmed Vietnam's status as French protectorates and severed Vietnam's tributary relationship with the Qing dynasty by requiring that all of Vietnam's foreign affairs be conducted through France.
After this the Nguyễn dynasty only nominally ruled the two French protectorates. Annam and Tonkin were combined with Cochinchina and the neighboring Cambodian protectorate in 1887 to form the Union of French Indochina, of which they became administrative components.
French rule also added new ingredients to Vietnam's cultural stew: Catholicism and a Latin-based alphabet. The spelling used in the Vietnamese transliteration was Portuguese, because the French relied on a dictionary compiled earlier by a Portuguese cleric.
World War IEdit
While seeking to maximize the use of Indochina's natural resources and manpower to fight World War I, France cracked down on Vietnam's patriotic mass movements. Indochina (mainly Vietnam) had to provide France with 70,000 soldiers and 70,000 workers, who were forcibly drafted from villages to serve on the French battlefront. Vietnam also contributed 184 million piastres in loans and 336,000 tons of food.
These burdens proved heavy, since agriculture experienced natural disasters from 1914 to 1917. Lacking a unified nationwide organization, the vigorous Vietnamese national movement failed to use the difficulties France had as a result of war to stage significant uprisings.
In May 1916, sixteen-year-old emperor Duy Tân escaped from his palace to participate in an uprising of Vietnamese troops. The French were informed of the plan, and its leaders were arrested and executed. Duy Tân was deposed and exiled to the island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean.
World War IIEdit
Nationalist sentiment intensified in Vietnam (especially during and after the First World War), but uprisings and tentative efforts failed to obtain concessions from the French. The Russian Revolution greatly impacted 20th-century Vietnamese history.
Emperor Bảo Đại gives the royal sword to the representative of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in abdication ceremony in 30/8/1945.
For Vietnam, the outbreak of World War II on 1 September 1939 was as decisive as the 1858 French seizure of Đà Nẵng. The Axis power of Japan invaded Vietnam on 22 September 1940, attempting to construct military bases to strike against Allied forces in Southeast Asia. This led to a period of Indochina under Japanese occupation with cooperation of the collaborationist Vichy French, who still retained administration of the colony. During this time the Viet Minh, a communist resistance movement, developed under Ho Chi Minh from 1941, with allied support. During a 1944–1945 famine in northern Vietnam, over one million people starved to death.
In March 1945, after the liberation of France in Europe and heavy setbacks in the war. In a last ditch effort to gather support, the Japanese overthrew the French administration, imprisoned their civil servants and proclaimed independence for Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, which became the Empire of Vietnam with Bảo Đại as its Emperor. The Empire of Vietnam was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan. After the Surrender of Japan, Bảo Đại abdicated on 25 August 1945 while the Viet Minh launched the August Revolution.
This ended the 143-year reign of the Nguyễn dynasty.
The Nguyễn dynasty retained the bureaucratic and hierarchic system of previous dynasties. The emperor was the head of state who wielded absolute authority. Under the emperor was the Ministry of Interior (which worked on papers, royal messages and recording) and four Grand Secretariats (Vietnamese: Tứ trụ Đại thần), later renamed the Ministry of Secret Council.
The Emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty was an absolutist ruler, which means he was both the head of state and the head of government. The Gia Long Code in 1812 declared the Vietnamese monarch as the universal ruler of all Vietnam; using the Confucian concept Mandate of Heaven to provide monarchs absolute power. Their reign and popular images were judged based on how prosperous the livelihood (民生, dân sinh) of the people and the Confucian concept of chính danh (rectification of names), according to the Confucian biblical Analects, everything has to stay in its right order. Gia Long also perceived the ancient Chinese conception of Hua-yi (Hoa-Di in Vietnamese) and in 1805 he confessed his Empire as Trung Quốc (中國, "the Middle Kingdom"), the Vietnamese term which often refers to China but now was taken by Gia Long to emphasis his Son of Heaven status and the devaluation of China. Following next decades, Confucianism and the Mandate of Heaven theory gradually lost their positions within the Vietnamese officials and intellectuals. When the fourth emperor, Tự Đức, ceded Southern Vietnam to France and called all Southern officials to give up arms, many ignored, disobeyed the Son of Heaven, and continued to fight against invaders. Many dissents viewed him as surrendering and frightened of France. Rebellions against Tự Đức erupted every year from 1860 until he died in 1883.
A dual theory of sovereignty existed in Vietnam. All the Nguyễn monarchs were addresses as hoàng đế (黃帝, Sino-Vietnamese title for "Emperor") in the court while referring himself the first person honorific trẫm (he who give the order). They also used the concept of thiên tử (天子, "Son of Heaven", which is borrowed from China) to demonstrate that the ruler was descended and commissioned by heaven to rule the kingdom. However, in most cases, Nguyen rulers were formally called vua (君, the Vietnamese title for "monarch" or " sovereign ruler") by the ordinary Vietnamese folks. The concept of a divine Son of Heaven has not been dogmatically practiced, and the monarch's divinity was not absolute due to the dual theory. For example, Xu Jiyu, a Chinese geographer, reported that the bureaucrats in the Vietnamese court sat down and even felt free to search themselves for body lice during the court audiences. Gia Long once told the son of J. B. Chaigneau, one of his advisors, that the use of Son of Heaven in Vietnam was an "absurdity" and "at least in mixed Vietnamese-European Company." Once the young crown prince being chosen to succeed, his obligation was to be filial with parents, being well-educated in politics and classics, internalise the morals and ethics of a ruler.
After the 1884 treaty of Huế was signed, the Nguyễn dynasty became two protectorates of France and the French installed their own administrators. Although the Emperors of the Nguyễn dynasty were still nominally in control of the protectorates of Annam and Tonkin, the Resident-Superior of Annam gradually gained more influence over the imperial court in Huế. In 1897 the Resident-Superior was granted the power to appoint the Nguyễn dynasty Emperors and presided over the meetings of the Viện cơ mật. These moves incorporated French officials directly into the administrative structure of the Imperial Huế Court and further legitimised French rule in the legislative branch of the Nguyễn government. From this period onwards any imperial edicts issued by the Emperors of Đại Nam had to be confirmed by the Resident-Superior of Annam giving him both legislative and executive power over the Nguyễn government.
In the year 1898 the federal government of French Indochina took over the financial and property management duties of the Nguyễn dynasty's imperial court meaning that the Nguyễn dynasty Emperor (at the time Thành Thái) became a salaried employee of the Indochinese colonial structure, reducing their power to being only a civil servant of the Protectorate government. The Resident-Superior of Annam also took over the management of provincial mandarins and was a member of the Supreme Council (Conseil supérieur) of the Government-General of French Indochina.
Civil service and bureaucracyEdit
|Rank||Civil position||Military position|
|Upper first rank (Bậc trên nhất phẩm)||Imperial Clan Court (Tông Nhân Phủ, Tôn nhân lệnh)
Three Ducal Ministers (Tam công):
* Grand Preceptor (Thái sư)
* Grand Tutor (Thái phó)
* Grand Protector (Thái bảo)
|First senior rank (Chánh nhất phẩm)||Left Right Imperial Clan Court (Tôn nhân phủ, Tả Hữu tôn chính")
Three Vice-Ducal Ministers (Tam Thiếu)
* Vice Preceptor (Thiếu sư)
* Vice Tutor (Thiếu phó)
* Vice Protector (Thiếu bảo)
|First junior rank (Tòng nhất phẩm)||Council of State (Tham chính viện)
House of Councillors (Tham Nghị viện)
Grand Secretariat (Thị trung Đại học sĩ)
|Banner Unit Lieutenant General, General-in-Chief, Provincial Commander-in-Chief|
|Second senior rank (Chánh nhị phẩm)||6 ministries (Lục bộ):
* Ministry of Personnel (Bộ Lại)
* Ministry of Rites (Bộ Lễ)
* Ministry of Justice (imperial China) (Bộ Hình)
* Ministry of Finance (Bộ Hộ)
* Ministry of Public Works (Bộ Công)
* Ministry of Defense (Bộ Binh)
Supreme Censorate (Đô sát viện, Tả Hữu Đô ngự sử)
|Banner Captain General, Commandants of Divisions, Brigade General|
|Second junior rank (Tòng nhị phẩm)||6 Ministerial Advisors (Lục bộ Tả Hữu Tham tri)
Grand coordinator and provincial governor (Tuần phủ)
Supreme Vice-Censorate (Đô sát viện, Tả Hữu Phó đô ngự sử)
|Major General, Colonel|
|Third senior rank (Chánh tam phẩm)||Senior Head of 6 Ministries (Chánh thiêm sự)
Administration Commissioner (Cai bạ)
Surveillance Commissioner (Ký lục)
State Auxiliary Academician of Secretariat (Thị trung Trực học sĩ)
Court Auxiliary Academician (Trực học sĩ các điện)
Court academician (Học sĩ các điện)
Provincial governor (Hiệp trấn các trấn)
|Brigadiers of Artillery & Musketry, Brigadier of Scouts, Banner Division Colonel|
|Third junior rank (Tòng tam phẩm)||Junior Head of Six Ministries (Thiếu thiêm sự)
Senior Palace Administration Commissioner (Cai bạ Chính dinh)
Chargé d'affaires (Tham tán)
Court of Imperial Seals (Thượng bảo tự)
General Staff (Tham quân)
|Banner Brigade Commander|
|Fourth senior rank (Chánh tứ phẩm)||Provincial Education Commissioner of Guozijian (Quốc tử giám Đốc học)
Head of six ministries (Thiếu thiêm sự)
Junior Court of Imperial Seals (Thượng bảo thiếu Khanh)
Grand Secretaries (Đông các học sĩ)
Administration Commissioner of Trường Thọ palace (Cai bạ cung Trường Thọ)
Provincial Advisor to Defense Command Lieutenant Governor (Tham hiệp các trấn)
|Lieutenant Colonel of Artillery, Musketry & Scouts Captain, Police Major|
|Fourth junior rank (Tòng tứ phẩm)||Provincial Vice Education Commissioner of Guozijian (Quốc tử giám phó Đốc học), Prefect (Tuyên phủ sứ),||Captain, Assistant Major in Princely Palaces|
|Fifth senior rank (Chánh ngũ phẩm)||Inner Deputy Supervisors of Instruction at Hanlin Institutes, Sub-Prefects||Police Captain, Lieutenant or First Lieutenant|
|Fifth junior rank (Tòng ngũ phẩm)||Assistant Instructors and Librarians at Imperial and Hanlin Institutes, Assistant Directors of Boards and Courts, Circuit Censors||Gate Guard Lieutenants, Second Captain|
|Sixth senior rank (Chánh lục phẩm)||Secretaries & Tutors at Imperial & Hanlin Institutes, Secretaries and Registrars at Imperial Offices, Police Magistrate||Bodyguards, Lieutenants of Artillery, Musketry & Scouts, Second Lieutenants|
|Sixth junior rank (Tòng lục phẩm)||Assistant Secretaries in Imperial Offices and Law Secretaries, Provincial Deputy Sub-Prefects, Buddhist & Taoist priests||Deputy Police Lieutenant|
|Seventh senior rank (Chánh thất phẩm)||None||City Gate Clerk, Sub-Lieutenants|
|Seventh junior rank (Tòng thất phẩm)||Secretaries in Offices of Assistant Governors, Salt Controllers & Transport Stations||Assistant Major in Nobles' Palaces|
|Eighth senior rank (Chánh bát phẩm)||None||Ensigns|
|Eighth junior rank (Tòng bát phẩm)||Sub-director of Studies, Archivists in Office of Salt Controller||First Class Sergeant|
|Ninth senior rank (Chánh cửu phẩm)||None||Second Class Sergeant|
|Ninth junior rank (Tòng cửu phẩm)||Prefectural Tax Collector, Deputy Jail Warden, Deputy Police Commissioner, Tax Examiner||Third Class Sergeant, Corporal, First & Second Class Privates|
- First senior rank (Chánh nhất phẩm): 400 quan; rice: 300 kg; per-capita tax: 70 quan
- First junior rank (Tòng nhất phẩm): 300 quan; rice: 250 kg; tax: 60 quan
- Second senior rank (Chánh nhị phẩm): 250 quan; rice: 200 kg; tax: 50 quan
- Second junior rank (Tòng nhị phẩm): 180 quan; rice: 150 kg; tax: 30 quan
- Third senior rank (Chánh tam phẩm): 150 quan; rice: 120 kg; tax: 20 quan
- Third junior rank (Tòng tam phẩm): 120 quan; rice: 90 kg; tax: 16 quan
- Fourth senior rank (Chánh tứ phẩm): 80 quan; rice: 60 kg; tax: 14 quan
- Fourth junior rank (Tòng tứ phẩm): 60 quan; rice: 50 kg; tax: 10 quan
- Fifth senior rank (Chánh ngũ phẩm): 40 quan; rice: 43 kg; tax: 9 quan
- Fifth junior rank (Tòng ngũ phẩm): 35 quan; rice: 30 kg; tax: 8 quan
- Sixth senior rank (Chánh lục phẩm): 30 quan; rice: 25 kg; tax: 7 quan
- Sixth junior rank (Tòng lục phẩm): 30 quan; rice: 22 kg; tax: 6 quan
- Seventh senior rank (Chánh thất phẩm): 25 quan; rice: 20 kg; tax: 5 quan
- Seventh junior rank (Tòng thất phẩm): 22 quan; rice: 20 kg; tax: 5 quan
- Eighth senior rank (Chánh bát phẩm): 20 quan; rice: 18 kg; tax: 5 quan
- Eighth junior rank (Tòng bát phẩm): 20 quan; rice: 18 kg; tax: 4 quan
- Ninth senior rank (Chánh cửu phẩm): 18 quan; rice: 16 kg; tax: 4 quan
- Ninth junior rank (Tòng cửu phẩm): 18 quan; rice: 16 kg; tax: 4 quan
Privy council of Nguyen Dynasty (Cơ Mật Viện: 機密院).
Imperial Academy, Huế under Ministry of Education (Học Bộ: 学部).
Examinator from ministry of education in Nam Định (1897).
Graduates receive Emperor's feast for passing the exams in Nam Định (1897).
New graduates receive the graduation uniforms from Emperor in Nam Định (1897).
French Indochina governor Paul Doumer joins the honour ceremony of graduates.
When mandarins retired, they could receive one hundred to four hundred quan from the emperor. When they died, the royal court provided twenty to two hundred quan for a funeral.
Under Gia LongEdit
During the reign of Gia Long, the kingdom was divided into twenty-three quasi-militant protectorates trấn and four military departments doanh. Each protectorate, besides having their own separated regional governments, was under patrol of one greater, powerful unit called Overlord of Citadel, or the Viceroy. For examples, the northern protectorates had Bắc thành Tổng trấn (Viceroy of Northern Protectorates) in Hanoi, and southern protectorates had Gia Định thành Tổng trấn (Viceroy of Gia Định Protectorates) resides in Saigon. Two famously viceroys during Gia Long's reign were Nguyễn Văn Thành (Hanoi) and Lê Văn Duyệt (Saigon). By 1802, these were:
- 16 protectorates under joint-governance from the Viceroys.
- 7 Central protectorates
- 4 departments surrounding Huế, directly ruled by Gia Long.
Minh Mạng and laterEdit
In 1831, Minh Mạng reorganised his kingdom by converting all these protectorates into 31 provinces (tỉnh). Each province had a series of smaller jurisdictions: the prefecture (phủ), the subprefecture (châu, in areas whereas having a significant population of ethnic minorities). Under prefecture and subprefecture, there was the district (huyện), the canton (tổng). Under district and canton, the bundle of hamlets around one common religious temple or social factor point, the village làng or the commune (xã) was the lowest administrative unit, which one respected person nominally took care of village administrative, which called lý trưởng.
Two nearby provinces were combined into a pair. Every pair had a governor-general (Tổng đốc) and a governor (Tuần phủ). Frequently, there were twelve governor-generals and eleven governors, although, in some periods, the Emperor would appoint a "commissioner in charge of patrolled borderlands" (kinh lược sứ) that supervising entire northern of the southern part of the kingdom. In 1803, Vietnam had 57 prefectures, 41 subprefectures, 201 districts, 4,136 cantons and 16,452 villages, and then by 1840s its had been increased to 72 prefectures, 39 subprefectures and 283 districts, which an average 30,000 people per district. Cambodia had been absorbed into the Vietnamese administrative system, bore the name Tây Thành Province from 1834 to 1845. With areas having minority groups like Tày, Nùng, Mèo (Hmong people), Mường, Mang and Jarai, the Huế court imposed the co-existing tributary and quasi-bureaucratic governance system, while allowing these people to have their own local rulers and autonomy.
In 1832, there were:
- Three regions and 31 provinces (encompassed modern-day Vietnam):
- Bắc Kỳ (Tonkin)
- Trung Kỳ (Annam)
- Nam Kỳ (Cochinchina)
- Client/dependent territories:
- Chief cities:
Culture and Cultural DiscriminationEdit
Ngọ Môn (午門), the main gate of the imperial Nguyễn city in Huế.
The Vietnamese at one point viewed cultures that were "non-Chinese" as barbaric and called themselves the Central Kingdom. This occurred after Vietnam had sent a delegate to Beijing, whereupon a diplomatic disaster caused Vietnam to view other "non-Chinese" as barbaric following Qing viewpoints. By the Nguyen dynasty the Vietnamese themselves were ordering Cambodian Khmer to adopt Vietnamese culture by ceasing "barbarous" habits like cropping hair and ordering them to grow it long besides making them replace skirts with trousers. Han Chinese Ming dynasty refugees numbering 3,000 came to Vietnam at the end of the Ming dynasty. They opposed the Qing dynasty and were fiercely loyal to the Ming dynasty. Vietnamese women married these Han Chinese refugees since most of them were soldiers and single men. They did not wear Manchu hairstyle unlike later Chinese migrants to Vietnam during the Qing dynasty.
Subjugation of ChampaEdit
Minh Mang engineered the final conquest of the Champa Kingdom after the centuries-long Cham–Vietnamese wars. Cham Muslim leader Katip Suma was educated in Kelantan, returning to Champa to declare a jihad against the Vietnamese after Minh Mang's annexation of the region. The Vietnamese forced Champa's Muslims to eat lizard and pork and its Hindus to eat beef to assimilate them into Vietnamese culture.
Vietnamisation of ethnic minoritiesEdit
Minh Mạng sinicised ethnic minorities (such as Cambodians), claimed the legacy of Confucianism and China's Han dynasty for Vietnam, and used the term "Han people" (漢人, Hán nhân) to refer to the Vietnamese. According to the emperor, "We must hope that their barbarian habits will be subconsciously dissipated, and that they will daily become more infected by Han [Sino-Vietnamese] customs." These policies were directed at the Khmer and hill tribes. Nguyen Phuc Chu had referred to the Vietnamese as "Han people" in 1712, distinguishing them from the Chams. The Nguyen lords established colonies after 1790. Gia Long said, "Hán di hữu hạn" (漢 夷 有 限, "The Vietnamese and the barbarians must have clear borders"), distinguishing the Khmer from the Vietnamese. Minh Mang implemented an acculturation policy for minority non-Vietnamese peoples. "Thanh nhân" (清 人 referring to the Qing dynasty) or "Đường nhân" (唐人 referring to the Tang dynasty) were used to refer to ethnic Chinese by the Vietnamese, who called themselves "Hán dân" (漢 民) and "Hán nhân" (漢人 referring to the Han dynasty) during 19th-century Nguyễn rule. Since 1827, descendants of Ming dynasty refugees were called Minh nhân (明人) or Minh Hương (明 鄉) by Nguyễn rulers, to distinguish with ethnic Chinese. Minh nhân were treated as Vietnamese since 1829.: 272 They were not allowed to go to China, and also not allowed to wear the Manchu queue.
The Nguyễn dynasty popularized Chinese Qing clothing. Trousers were adopted by female White H'mong speakers, replacing their traditional skirts. The Qing Chinese Qibao tunics and trousers were worn by the Vietnamese. The áo dài was developed in the 1920s, when compact, close-fitting tucks were added to similar Qibao "Ao Tu Than". Chinese Qipao trousers and tunics were ordered by lord Nguyễn Phúc Khoát during the 18th century, replacing traditional Vietnamese Hanfu-style clothes. Although the Chinese trousers and tunic were mandated by the Nguyen government, skirts were worn in isolated north Vietnamese hamlets until the 1920s. Chinese style clothing was ordered for the Vietnamese military and bureaucrats by Nguyễn Phúc Khoát.
An 1841 polemic, "On Distinguishing Barbarians", was based on the Qing sign "Vietnamese Barbarians' Hostel" (越夷會館) on the Fujian residence of Nguyen diplomat and Hoa Chinese Lý Văn Phức (李文馥). It argued that the Qing did not subscribe to the neo-Confucianist texts from the Song and Ming dynasties which were learned by the Vietnamese, who saw themselves as sharing a civilization with the Qing. This event triggered a diplomatic disaster. The consequence was that non-"Han Chinese highland tribes" and other non-Vietnamese peoples living near (or in) Vietnam were called "barbarian" by the Vietnamese imperial court. The essay distinguishes the Yi and Hua, and mentions Zhao Tuo, Wen, Shun and Taibo. Kelley and Woodside described Vietnam's Confucianism.
Emperors Minh Mạng, Thiệu Trị and Tự Đức, were opposed to French involvement in Vietnam, and tried to reduce the country's growing Catholic community. The imprisonment of missionaries who had illegally entered the country was the primary pretext for the French to invade (and occupy) Indochina. Like Qing China, a number of incidents involved other European nations during the 19th century.
Although the previous Nguyễn lords were faithful Buddhists, Gia Long was not a Buddhist. He adopted Confucianism and actively prohibited Buddhism. Scholars, elites, and officials attacked Buddhist doctrine and criticized them as superstitious and useless. The third emperor, Thieu Tri, elevated Confucianism as the true religion and while regarding Buddhism as superstition. Building new Buddhist pagoda and temple were forbidden. Buddhist clergies and nuns were forced to join public works in order to suppress the Buddhism religion, its deities and promote Confucianism as the sole dominant belief of the society. However, such embracing a Sinic Confucian culture among the Vietnamese populace whom lived amidst a Southeast Asian infrastructure, pushed the distance between the population and the court far away. Buddhism still made it prevailed in society and penetrating the royal palace. Empress mother, queens, princess, and concubines were devout Buddhists, despite the patriarchy prohibition.
Confucianism itself was the ideology of the Nguyen court, also provided the basic core of classical education and civil examination every year. Gia Long pursued Confucianism to create and maintain a conservative society and social structures. Confucian rituals and ideas were circulations based within ancient Confucian teaching such as The Analects and Spring and Autumn Annals in Vietnamese-script collections. The court rigidly imported these Chinese books from Chinese merchants. Confucian rituals such as cầu đảo (offering heaven for wind and rain during a drought) that the emperor and court officials perform for wishing heaven to rain down his kingdom. If the offer went successful, they had to conduct lễ tạ (thanksgiving ritual) to heaven. In addition, the emperor believed that holy spirits and natural goddesses of his country can also make rain. In 1804, Gia Long built the Nam Hải Long Vương Temple (Temple of Dragon king of Southern ocean) in Thuận An, northeast of Hue in his faithfulness to the spirit of Thuận An (Thần Thuận An), the place where most of cầu đảo ritual was performed. His successor, Minh Mang, continued to build several temples dedicated to the Vũ Sư (rainmaking goddess) and altars for Thần Mây (Cloud Goddess) and Thần Sấm (Thunder Goddess).
Nguyen Truong To, a prominent Catholic and reformist intellectual, launched an attack on Confucian structures in 1867 as decadent. He wrote to Tu Duc: "the evil that has been brought on China and on our country by the Confucian way of life." He criticized the court's Confucian education as dogmatic and unrealistic, promoted for his education reform.
During Gia Long's years, Catholicism was peacefully worshipped without any restriction. Began with Minh Mạng, who considered Christianity as a heterodox religion for its rejection of ancestor worship, the important belief of the Vietnamese monarchy. After reading the Bible (Old and New Testament), he considered the Christianity religion irrational and ridiculous, and praised Tokugawa Japan for its notorious policies on Christians. Minh Mạng also was influenced by anti-Christian propaganda written by Vietnamese Confucian officials and literati, which described the mixing of men and women and liberal society among the Church. The most thing he worried about Christianity and Catholicism was writing texts that proved that Christianity was a means for Europeans to take over foreign countries. He also praised the anti-Christian policy in Japan. Churches were destroyed and many Christians were imprisoned. The persecution got intense during the reign of his grandson Tu Duc, when most of the state efforts were to annihilate Vietnamese Christianity. Unironically, even during the height of the anti-Catholic campaign, many Catholic scholars were still permitted to hold high positions in the royal court.
After a royal edict in late 1862, Catholicism was officially recognised and worshippers obtained state protection. It is estimated that late-19th century Vietnam had about 600,000 to 700,000 Catholic Christians.
Before the French conquest, the Vietnamese population was very sparse due to the agricultural backbones economy of the country. The population in 1802 was 6.5 million people and had only grown to 8 million by 1840. Rapid industrialization after the 1860s ushered in massive population growth and rapid urbanization in the late 19th century. Many peasants left tenant farms and poured into cities, they were hired by French-owned factories. By 1880 the Vietnamese were estimated back then as high as 18 million people, while modern estimates by Angus Maddison have suggested a lower figure of 12.2 million people. Vietnam under the Nguyễn dynasty was always a multiethnic complex. Nearly 80% percent of the Empire's population were ethnic Vietnamese (called Annamites then), whom language belonged to the Mon-Khmer (Mon—Annamite then) stock, and the rest were Cham, Chinese, Khmer, Muong, Tày (called Tho then), and other 50 ethnic minorities such as the Mang, Jarai, Yao.
The Annamites are distributed across the lowland of the country from Tonkin to Cochichina. The Chams live in central Vietnam and the Mekong Delta. The Chinese particularly concentrated in urbanised areas such as Saigon, Cho Lon, and Hanoi. The Chinese tended to be divided into two groups called Minh Hương (明鄉) and Thanh nhân. (清人) The Minh hương were Chinese refugees that had migrated and settled down in Vietnam earlier during the 17th century, who married with Vietnamese women, had been substantially assimilated to local Vietnamese and Khmer populaces, and loyal to the Nguyen, compared to the Thanh nhân that recently arrived in Southern Vietnam, dominated the rice trade. During the reign of Minh Mạng, a restriction against the Thanh nhân was issued in 1827, Thanh nhân could not access to the state bureaucracy and had to be integrated into Vietnamese population like the Minh Hương.
The Muongs inhabited on the hills west of the Red River Delta, although subordinate to the central authority, they were also permitted to bear arms, a privilege not accorded to any other subjects of the court of Hue. The Tay and the Mang live in the northern highlands of Tonkin, both submitted to Hue court along with taxes and tribute, but are allowed to have their hereditary chiefs.
The first photographs of Vietnam were taken by Jules Itier in Danang, in 1845. The first photos of the Vietnamese were taken by Fedor Jagor in November 1857 in Singapore. Due to the forbidden contact to foreigners, photography returned to Vietnam again during the French conquest and had shots taken by Paul Berranger during the French invasion of Da Nang (September 1858). Since the French seizure of Saigon in 1859, the city and southern Vietnam had been opening to foreigners, and photography entered Vietnam exclusively from France and Europe.
Early photographers active in Vietnam were:
- Octave de Bermond de Vaulx (1831–95)
- Jules-Félix Apollinaire Le Bas (1834–75)
- August Sachtler (?–1874)
- John Thomson
- Wilhelm Burger (1844–1920)
- Émile Gsell (1837–1869)
|Imperial family of the Nguyễn dynasty|
|Country|| Nam Hà / Đàng Trong|
French protectorates of Annam and Tonkin
Empire of Vietnam
Domain of the Crown
|Final ruler||Bảo Đại|
|Traditions||Buddhism, Confucianism and Catholicism|
|Deposition||1945 (Abdication of Bảo Đại)|
|Cadet branches||Tôn Thất|
The House of Nguyễn Phúc (Nguyen Gia Mieu) had historically been founded in the 14th century in Gia Mieu village, Thanh Hoa Province, before they came to rule southern Vietnam from 1558 to 1777, then became the ruling dynasty of the entire Vietnam. Traditionally, the family traces themselves to Nguyễn Bặc (?–979), the first duke of Dai Viet. Princes and male descendants of Gia Long are called Hoàng Thân, while male lineal descendants of previous Nguyen lords are named Tôn Thất. Grandsons of the emperor were Hoàng tôn. Daughters of the emperor were called Hoàng nữ, and always earned the title công chúa (princess).
Their succession practically is according to the law of primogeniture, but sometimes conflicted. The first succession conflict arose in 1816 when Gia Long was designing for an heir. His first prince Nguyễn Phúc Cảnh died in 1802. As a result, two rival factions emerged, one support Nguyễn Phúc Mỹ Đường, the eldest son of Prince Cảnh, as the crown prince, while other support Prince Đảm (later Minh Mang). The second conflict was the 1847 succession when two young princes Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Bảo and Hồng Nhậm were dragged by the ill-failing Emperor Thieu Tri as a potential heir. At first, Thieu Tri apparently chose Prince Hồng Bảo because he was older, but after hearing advice from two regents Trương Đăng Quế and Nguyễn Tri Phương, he revised the heir at last minute and choose Hồng Nhậm as the crown prince.
The following list is the emperors' era names, which have meaning in Chinese and Vietnamese. For example, the first ruler's era name, Gia Long, is the combination of the old names for Saigon (Gia Định) and Hanoi (Thăng Long) to show the new unity of the country; the fourth, Tự Đức, means "Inheritance of Virtues"; the ninth, Đồng Khánh, means "Collective Celebration".
|Portrait/Photo||Temple name||Posthumous name||Personal name||Lineage||Reign||Regnal name||Tomb||Events|
|Thế Tổ||Khai Thiên Hoằng Đạo Lập Kỷ Thùy Thống Thần Văn Thánh Vũ Tuấn Đức Long Công Chí Nhân Đại Hiếu Cao Hoàng Đế||Nguyễn Phúc Ánh||Nguyễn lords||1802–20 (1)||Gia Long||Thiên Thọ lăng||Defeated the Tây Sơn and unified Vietnam.|
|Thánh Tổ||Thể Thiên Xương Vận Chí Hiếu Thuần Đức Văn Vũ Minh Đoán Sáng Thuật Đại Thành Hậu Trạch Phong Công Nhân Hoàng Đế||Nguyễn Phúc Đảm||Son||1820–41 (2)||Minh Mệnh||Hiếu Lăng||Annexed Cambodia after the Siamese–Vietnamese War (1831–1834). Annexed Muang Phuan after the Lao rebellion. Suppressed the Lê Văn Khôi revolt. Annexed the remaining Panduranga kingdom after the Ja Thak Wa uprising, renamed the country Đại Nam (Great South), suppressed Christianity.|
|Hiến Tổ||Thiệu Thiên Long Vận Chí Thiện Thuần Hiếu Khoan Minh Duệ Đoán Văn Trị Vũ Công Thánh Triết Chượng Chương Hoàng Đế||Nguyễn Phúc Miên Tông||Son||1841–47 (3)||Thiệu Trị||Xương Lăng||Carried out policies of isolationism. Pulling troops from Cambodia.|
|Dực Tông||Thể Thiên Hanh Vận Chí Thành Đạt Hiếu Thể Kiện Đôn Nhân Khiêm Cung Minh Lược Duệ Văn Anh Hoàng Đế||Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Nhậm||Son||1847–83 (4)||Tự Đức||Khiêm Lăng||Suppressed Đoàn Hữu Trưng's rebellion. Facing French invasions. Ceded Cochinchina to France after the Cochinchina campaign. Fought against French invasions of 1873 and 1882–1883.|
|Cung Tông||Huệ Hoàng Đế||Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Chân||Nephew (adopted son of Tự Đức)||1883 (5)||Dục Đức||An Lăng||Three-day emperor (20–23 July 1883), deposed and poisoned by Tôn Thất Thuyết|
|–||Văn Lãng Quận Vương||Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Dật||Uncle (son of Thiệu Trị)||1883 (6)||Hiệp Hòa||Four-month emperor (30 July – 29 November 1883), poisoned by the order of Tôn Thất Thuyết.|
|Giản Tông||Thiệu Đức Chí Hiếu Uyên Duệ Nghị Hoàng Đế||Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Đăng||Nephew (son of Hiệp Hòa's brother)||1883–84 (7)||Kiến Phúc||Bồi Lăng (within Khiêm Lăng)||Eight-month emperor (2 December 1883 – 31 July 1884). Signing of the Treaty of Huế (1884).|
|–||—||Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Lịch||Younger brother||1884–85 (8)||Hàm Nghi||Thonac Cemetery, France||Resisting against French rule under the Cần Vương movement. Dethroned after one year, continuing his rebellion until captured in 1888 and exiled to Algeria until his death in 1943.|
|Cảnh Tông||Hoằng Liệt Thống Thiết Mẫn Huệ Thuần Hoàng Đế||Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Kỷ||Older brother||1885–89 (9)||Đồng Khánh||Tư Lăng||Suppress Hàm Nghi's Cần Vương movement|
|–||Hoài Trạch Công||Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Lân||Cousin (son of Dục Đức)||1889–1907 (10)||Thành Thái||An Lăng||Exiled to Réunion Island due to anti-French activities|
|–||—||Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh San||son||1907–16 (11)||Duy Tân||An Lăng||Rebelled against the French and exiled to Réunion Island in 1916.|
|Hoằng Tông||Tự Đại Gia Vận Thánh Minh Thần Trí Nhân Hiếu Thành Kính Di Mô Thừa Liệt Tuyên Hoàng Đế||Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Đảo||Cousin (son of Đồng Khánh)||1916–25 (12)||Khải Định||Ứng Lăng||Collaborated with the French, and was a political figurehead for French colonial rulers. Unpopular to the Vietnamese people.|
|—||—||Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh Thụy||Son||1926–45 (13)||Bảo Đại||Cimetière de Passy, France||Head of the Empire of Vietnam under Japanese occupation during World War II; abdicated and transferred power to the Viet Minh in 1945, ending the Vietnamese monarchy. Installed as head of state of the State of Vietnam, ousted by Ngo Dinh Diem after the 1955 State of Vietnam referendum.|
After the death of Emperor Tự Đức (and according to his will), Dục Đức ascended to the throne on 19 July 1883. He was dethroned and imprisoned three days later, after being accused of deleting a paragraph from Tự Đức's will. With no time to announce his dynastic title, his era name was named for his residential palace.
|Thoại Thái Vương||Kiên Thái Vương||6|
- Years are reigning years.
Simplified family tree of the Nguyen Phuc dynasty:
- - Lords of Cochinchina (1550s–1777)
- - Emperors of the independent Vietnamese monarchy (1802–1883)
- French Annam and Tonkin/Emperor of Empire of Vietnam (1885–1945) - Emperors of
|Nguyễn Phúc family tree|
- Thiệu Trị (1801-1847)
Images of the imperial familyEdit
The Nguyễn dynasty's national flag or the Imperial flag first appeared during the reign of Gia Long. It was a yellow flag with a single or three horizontal red stripes, sometimes in 1822, it was entirely blank yellow or white. The emperor's personal flag was a golden dragon spitting fire, surrounded by clouds, a silver moon, and a black crescent on a yellow background.
The Nguyễn dynasty's seal are rich and diverse in types and had strict rules and laws that regulated their manipulation, management, and use. The common practice of using seals was clearly recorded in the book "Khâm định Đại Nam hội điển sự lệ" on how to use seals, how to place them, and on what kinds of documents, which was compiled by the Cabinet of the Nguyễn dynasty in the year Minh Mạng 3 (1822). The various types of seals of the Nguyễn dynasty had different names based on their function, namely Bảo (寶), Tỷ (璽), Ấn (印), Chương (章), Ấn chương (印章), Kim bảo tỷ (金寶璽), Quan phòng (關防), Đồ ký (圖記), Kiềm ký (鈐記), Tín ký (信記), Ấn Ký (印記), Trưởng ký (長記), and Ký (記).
Seals in the Nguyễn dynasty were overseen by a pair of agencies referred to as the Office of Ministry Seals Management - Officers on Duty (印司 - 直處, Ấn ty - Trực xứ), this is a term that refers to two agencies which were established within each of the Six Ministries, these agencies were tasked with keeping track of the seals, files, and chapters of their ministry. On duty of the Office of Ministry Seals Management were the correspondents of each individual ministry that received and distributed documents and records of a government agency. These two agencies usually had a few dozen officers who would import documents from their ministry. Usually the name of the ministry is directly attached to the seal agency's name, for example "Office of Civil Affairs Ministry Seals Management - Civil Affairs Ministry Officers on Duty" (吏印司吏直處, Lại Ấn ty Lại Trực xứ).
Since the Nguyễn dynasty period seals have a fairly uniform shape (with or without a handle), the uniform description of these seals in Vietnamese are:
- Thân ấn - The geometric block, or body, of the seal.
- Núm ấn - The handle for pressing the seal down down on texts. In case the seal is shaped like a pyramid, there is no knob.
- Mặt ấn - Where the main content of the seal (symbol or word) is engraved, this area is usually in the face down position. The stamp surface is often used up to engrave letters or drawings.
- Lưng ấn - The face of the seal, where other information about the seal is engraved, usually in the supine position. In the case of the flat-head pyramid seal (ấn triện hình tháp đầu bằng), the flat head is the back.
- Hình ấn - A word used to indicate the impression of the seal on a text.
Seals were also given to people after they received a noble title. For example, after Léon Louis Sogny received the title of "Baron of An Bình" (安平男) in the year Bảo Đại 14 (保大拾肆年, 1939) he was also given a golden seal and a Kim Bài (金牌) with his noble title on it. The seal had the seal script inscription An Bình Nam chi ấn (安平男之印).
Sun, moon, auspicious clouds, and the Yin-Yang symbolEdit
Like Imperial China and Royal Korea, the Vietnamese used the sun as the "Symbol of the Empire" and auspicious clouds and the Taijitu as "Symbols of the State". The heraldic systems of both the Later Lê and Nguyễn dynasties were similar to those found in China during the Ming and Qing dynasties. The sun symbol as a flaming disc in Vietnam dates back to the 11th century and during the Nguyễn dynasty period this symbol was often depicted with pointed rays. The moon symbolised the state, the sun the empire, stars the sovereigns, and clouds the heaven.
The "Achievement of the Empire" and the "Achievement of the State" were identical to their Imperial Chinese counterparts, the "Achievement of the Empire" first appeared in Vietnam during the 11th century and were identical during the Later Lê and Nguyễn periods consisting of two Dragons surrounding a flaming sun, while the "Achievement of the State" is known to have been as used as early as the Trần dynasty period and this early Trần version consists of two Dragons surrounding a lotus flower (a symbol of Buddhism). During the Nguyễn dynasty period the "Achievement of the State" typically consisted of two dragons surrounding a moon or two dragons surrounding a Taijitu, this symbol was commonly found on the caps of high-ranking mandarins. The two dragons surrounding the moon implies that the emperor, or "sovereign", (represented by the dragons) was also the head of state (represented by either the moon or a Yin-Yang symbol). During the period of French domination (法屬, Pháp thuộc) these symbols could be interpreted as the French National Assembly (that is: the French people) was the sovereign over the Empire (the dragons), the Nguyễn Emperor now merely being the head of state (moon or Yin-Yang symbol). Moons also appeared on the shields of common Nguyễn dynasty soldiers representing the state, while soldiers of the imperial guards sometimes had shields depicting a red sun showcasing that they were a function of the empire.
Dragon motifs appeared on many state symbols during the Nguyễn dynasty period including on imperial edicts, coins, buildings, and the badges of the Imperial Guard. During the Minh Mạng period (1820–1841) dragons on silver Tiền coins were often depicted facing dexter (to the right), while during the Thiệu Trị period (1841–1847) and later these coins depicted dragons guardant (facing forwards). Dragons were considered to be one of the four sacred animals together with the Phượng hoàng (Phoenix), Kỳ lân (Unicorn), and the Linh quy (Sacred turtle). During the Nguyễn dynasty period the depiction of dragons in Vietnamese art reached their zenith and the quality and variety of Nguyễn dynasty dragons was much higher than those of earlier dynasties.
In the third month of the year Bính Tý, or Gia Long 15 (1816), Emperor Gia Long instructed the court to create special clothes, hats, and seals for himself and the crown prince to denote independence from China. These regalia all depicted five-clawed dragons (蠪𠄼𤔻, rồng 5 móng), in Chinese symbolism (including Vietnamese symbolism) five-clawed dragons are symbols of an Emperor, while four-clawed dragons are seen as symbols or kings. To denote the high status of Emperor all monarchial robes, hats, and seals were adorned with five-clawed dragons and ordered the creation of new seals with five-clawed dragons as their seal knobs to showcase imperial legitimacy. Meanwhile, the wardrobes and other symbols of vassals and princes were adorned with four-clawed dragons symbolising their status as "kings".
The two national coats of arms of the French protectorate of Annam would also consist of golden dragons with one being a sword per fess charged with a scroll inscribed with two Traditional Chinese characters Đại Nam (大南) and supported by a single Vietnamese dragon and the other being a golden five-clawed dragon positioned affronté.
Gallery of symbolsEdit
- Kang, David C. (2012). East Asia Before the West: Five Centuries of Trade and Tribute. Columbia University Press. pp. 101–102.
In 1802 the Nguyen dynasty was recognized with an imperial pardon and tributary status. [...] there was no doubt in anyone's mind that China was the superior and the tributary state the inferior. The Vietnamese kings clearly realized that they had to acknowledge China's suzerainty and become tributaries [...]
- Eastman, Lloyd E. (1967). Throne and Mandarins: China's Search for a Policy during the Sino-French Controversy. Harvard University Press. pp. 34–40, 201.
- Eastman, Lloyd E. (1967). Throne and Mandarins: China's Search for a Policy during the Sino-French Controversy. Harvard University Press. pp. 123–124.
- Brocheux, Pierre; Hémery, Daniel (2011). Indochina: An Ambiguous Colonization, 1858–1954. University of California Press. pp. 78–81.
- Lebra, Joyce C. (1975). Japan's Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere in World War II: Selected Readings and Documents. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 157, 158, 160.
- Li, Tana; Reid, Anthony (1993). Southern Vietnam under the Nguyễn. Economic History of Southeast Asia Project. Australian National University. ISBN 981-3016-69-8.
- Holcombe 2017, p. 207.
- Kiernan, Ben (2017). Việt Nam: A History from Earliest Times to the Present. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195160765.
[Gia Long] also restored Chinese to its status as Việt Nam's official language of state [...] Until 1815 just as many Nguyễn court memorials were written in nôm as in classical Chinese.
- Lockhart, Bruce (2001). "Re-assessing the Nguyễn Dynasty". Crossroads: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 15 (1): 9–53. JSTOR 40860771.
- Woods 2002, p. 38.
- Norman & Mei 1976.
- Meacham 1996.
- Yue Hashimoto 1972, p. 1.
- Knoblock & Riegel 2001, p. 510.
- Lieberman (2003), p. 405.
- Phan 1985, p. 510.
- Ooi 2004, p. 932.
- Shaofei & Guoqing 2016.
- "韩周敬：越南阮朝嘉、明时期国号问题析论". 越南历史研究. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
- Toda (1882), p. 46.
- Verlag (1827), p. 298.
- Toda (1882), p. 41.
- Hiley (1848), p. 350.
- Lieberman (2003), p. 187.
- Holcombe (2017), pp. 10, 11.
- "Ai là tể tướng đầu tiên trong lịch sử Việt Nam? (Who is the first prime minister in Vietnamese history?)". Vietnam Union of Science and Technology Associations. 5 February 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- "The development of Le government in fifteenth century Vietnam". Research Gate. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- Bui Ngoc Son. "Confucian Constitutionalism in Imperial Vietnam" (PDF). National Taiwan University. Retrieved 2 February 2019.[permanent dead link]
- K. W. Taylor (9 May 2013). A History of the Vietnamese. Cambridge University Press. pp. 232–. ISBN 978-0-521-87586-8.
- "A GLIMPSE OF VIETNAM'S HISTORY". geocities. Archived from the original on 25 October 2009. Retrieved 2 February 2019.[unreliable source?]
- Danny Wong Tze Ken. "Vietnam-Champa Relations and the Malay-Islam Regional Network in the 17th–19th Centuries – The Vietnamese Victory over Champa in 1693". web archive. Retrieved 2 February 2019.[dead link]
- George Coedes (15 May 2015). The Making of South East Asia (RLE Modern East and South East Asia). Taylor & Francis. pp. 175–. ISBN 978-1-317-45094-8.
- Michael Arthur Aung-Thwin; Kenneth R. Hall (13 May 2011). New Perspectives on the History and Historiography of Southeast Asia: Continuing Explorations. Routledge. pp. 158–. ISBN 978-1-136-81964-3.
- "A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE TAY SON MOVEMENT (1771–1802)". EnglishRainbow. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- Tạ Chí Đại Trường 1973, p. 89 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFTạ_Chí_Đại_Trường1973 (help)
- Thụy Khuê 2017, pp. 140–142 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFThụy_Khuê2017 (help)
- Tạ Chí Đại Trường 1973, p. 91 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFTạ_Chí_Đại_Trường1973 (help)
- Phan Khoang 2001, p. 508 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPhan_Khoang2001 (help)
- Quốc sử quán triều Nguyễn 2007, p. 188 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFQuốc_sử_quán_triều_Nguyễn2007 (help)
- Tạ Chí Đại Trường 1973, pp. 110–111 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFTạ_Chí_Đại_Trường1973 (help)
- Phan Khoang 2001, pp. 522–523 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPhan_Khoang2001 (help)
- Phan Khoang 2001, p. 517 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPhan_Khoang2001 (help)
- Huỳnh Minh 2006, p. 143 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHuỳnh_Minh2006 (help)
- Quốc sử quán triều Nguyễn 2007, p. 195 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFQuốc_sử_quán_triều_Nguyễn2007 (help)
- Tạ Chí Đại Trường 1973, p. 124 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFTạ_Chí_Đại_Trường1973 (help)
- Nguyễn Khắc Thuần (2005), Danh tướng Việt Nam, tập 3, Việt Nam: Nhà xuất bản Giáo dục, tr. 195
- Tạ Chí Đại Trường 1973, p. 178 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFTạ_Chí_Đại_Trường1973 (help)
- Trần Trọng Kim 1971, p. 111 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFTrần_Trọng_Kim1971 (help)
- Tạ Chí Đại Trường 1973, pp. 182–183 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFTạ_Chí_Đại_Trường1973 (help)
- Tạ Chí Đại Trường 1973, p. 183 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFTạ_Chí_Đại_Trường1973 (help)
- Nguyễn Quang Trung Tiến 1999 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFNguyễn_Quang_Trung_Tiến1999 (help)
- Đặng Việt Thủy & Đặng Thành Trung 2008, p. 279 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFĐặng_Việt_ThủyĐặng_Thành_Trung2008 (help)
- Phan Khoang 2001, p. 519 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPhan_Khoang2001 (help)
- Sơn Nam 2009, pp. 54–55 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSơn_Nam2009 (help)
- Quốc sử quán triều Nguyễn 2007, p. 203 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFQuốc_sử_quán_triều_Nguyễn2007 (help)
- Trần Trọng Kim 1971, p. 155 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFTrần_Trọng_Kim1971 (help)
- Quốc sử quán triều Nguyễn 2007, pp. 207–211 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFQuốc_sử_quán_triều_Nguyễn2007 (help)
- Lieberman (2003), pp. 30–31.
- Kamm 1996, p. 83 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFKamm1996 (help)
- Tarling 1999, pp. 245–246 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFTarling1999 (help)
- "Brief history of the Nguyen dynasty". Hue Monuments Conservation Centre. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- Taylor (2013), p. 398.
- Lieberman (2003), p. 427.
- Momoki (2015), p. 157, "...When my father Thế tổ Cao hoàng đế [Gia Long] possessed An Nam, our kingdom was named the country of Great Việt Nam [Đại Việt Nam quốc]...".
- Alexander Woodside (1971). Vietnam and the Chinese Model: A Comparative Study of Vietnamese and Chinese Government in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century. Harvard Univ Asia Center. pp. 18–. ISBN 978-0-674-93721-5.
- Jacob Ramsay -Mandarins and Martyrs: The Church and the Nguyễn Dynasty in Early ... 2008 "This book is about the rise of anti-Catholic violence in early nineteenth-century Vietnam under the Nguyễn Dynasty, and the profound social and political changes it created in the decades preceding French colonialism."
- Choi Byung Wook Southern Vietnam Under the Reign of Minh Mạng (1820–1841): 2004 Page 161 "These authors identify the creation of public land as the most important result of land measurement, and they judge that project to have been a significant achievement of the Nguyen dynasty, writing: 'Minh Mang clearly did not want southern ...'"
- "Laos and Cambodia". Country Studies. U.S. Library of Congress.
- Elijah Coleman Bridgman; Samuel Wells Willaims (1847). The Chinese Repository. proprietors. pp. 584.
- Jean-François Hubert (8 May 2012). The Art of Champa. Parkstone International. pp. 25–. ISBN 978-1-78042-964-9.
- Goscha (2016), p. 70.
- Goscha (2016), p. 71.
- Kiernan (2019), p. 2.
- Kiernan (2019), pp. 257–267.
- Woodside (1988), pp. 2–4.
- Whitmore & Zottoli (2016), pp. 200, 226.
- Taylor (2013), p. 400.
- Kiernan (2019), p. 273.
- Goscha (2016), p. 49.
- Kiernan (2019), p. 274.
- Woodside (1988), pp. 46, 48.
- Taylor (2013), p. 401.
- Woodside (1988), p. 248.
- Kiernan (2019), p. 276.
- Mikaberidze (2020), p. 487.
- Mikaberidze (2020), p. 488.
- Kiernan (2019), p. 277.
- McLeod (1991), p. 24.
- Woodside (1988), p. 37.
- Taylor (2013), p. 418.
- Goscha (2016), p. 45.
- Chapuis (2000), p. 4.
- Kiernan (2019), p. 279.
- Choi (2004a), p. 141.
- Goscha (2016), p. 419.
- Goscha (2016), p. 420.
- McLeod (1991), p. 30.
- Li (2004a), p. 12.
- Goscha (2016), p. 57.
- McLeod (1991), p. 31.
- Goscha (2016), p. 56.
- Kiernan (2019), p. 283.
- Woodside (1988), p. 249.
- Kiernan (2019), p. 285.
- Chandler (2018), pp. 152–153.
- Kiernan (2019), p. 286.
- Kiernan (2019), pp. 283–288.
- Chandler (2018), pp. 159–163.
- Heath (2003), p. 175.
- Kiernan (2019), p. 295.
- Heath (2003), p. 163.
- Miller (1990), pp. 42–44.
- Chapuis (2000), p. 47.
- Taylor (2013), p. 433.
- McLeod (1991), p. 35.
- Taylor (2013), p. 434.
- Goscha (2016), p. 59.
- Kiernan (2019), p. 290.
- Taylor (2013), p. 435.
- McLeod (1991), p. 39.
- Taylor (2013), pp. 436–437.
- McLeod (1991), pp. 38–39.
- Goscha (2016), p. 60.
- Keith (2012), p. 47.
- Kiernan (2019), p. 305.
- Chapuis (2000), p. 87.
- Chapuis (2000), p. 88.
- Amirell (2019), p. 169.
- Keith (2012), p. 49.
- Bradley (2016), p. 50.
- Chapuis (2000), pp. 48–49.
- Goscha (2016), p. 65.
- Chapuis (2000), pp. 50–51.
- Chapuis (2000), p. 53.
- Amirell (2019), p. 174.
- Bradley (2016), pp. 63–64.
- Goscha (2016), p. 66.
- Amirell (2019), p. 179.
- Amirell (2019), p. 180.
- Chapuis (2000), pp. 55–61.
- Goscha (2016), p. 67.
- Chapuis (2000), p. 61.
- Chapuis (2000), p. 63.
- Chapuis (2000), p. 65.
- Bradley (2016), p. 90.
- Chapuis (2000), p. 66.
- Bradley (2016), p. 102.
- Amirell (2019), p. 191.
- Amirell (2019), p. 194.
- Bradley (2016), p. 106.
- Taylor (2013), p. 474.
- Goscha (2016), pp. 69–70.
- Kiernan (2019), p. 319.
- Chapuis (2000), p. 67.
- Bradley (2016), p. 107.
- Taylor (2013), p. 475.
- Chapuis (2000), p. 71.
- Goscha (2016), p. 91.
- Goscha (2016), p. 90.
- Goscha (2016), p. 93.
- "The conquest of Vietnam by France". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- Eastman, Lloyd E. (1967). Throne and Mandarins: China's Search for a Policy during the Sino-French Controversy. Harvard University Press. pp. 200–201.
- Karnow, Stanley (1997). Vietnam: A History. Penguin Books. p. 162.
- Vietnam law & legal forum - Volume 3, Issues 25-36 - Page 233 1996 "In 1834 the "Vien Co Mat"" (secret affairs institute) was set up for the first time in the feudal history of Vietnam, comprising four high-ranking mandarins. This was the key agency in the royal court, just besides the king, which was entitled to ..."
- The Vietnamese Response to French Intervention, 1862-1874 - Page 55 Mark W. McLeod - 1991 "... Minister of Public Office (Thuong thu Bo Lai) as well as his membership in the emperor's Privy Council (Co mat vien)"
- The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and ... - Page 757 Spencer C. Tucker - 2011 "At the capital of Hue, Minh Mang established the Noi Cac Vien (Grand Secretariat) and the Co Mat Vien (Privy Council). The rest of the bureaucracy was also re- organized with the creation of a nine-rank mandarin corps. It was also under Minh
- Keane (1896), p. 295.
- Woodside (1988), p. 9.
- Woodside (1988), p. 14.
- Woodside (1988), p. 18.
- Woodside (1988), p. 19.
- Kiernan (2019), p. 303.
- Alexander Barton Woodside: Vietnam and the Chinese Model: A Comparative Study of Vietnamese and Chinese Government in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century, Harvard University Asia Center, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1988, S. 10
- Woodside (1988), p. 10.
- Woodside (1988), p. 11.
- Trần Gia Phụng. Trung Kỳ Dân biến 1908. Toronto, Canada, 2008. Pages: 35-40.
- Woodside (1988), p. 141.
- Woodside (1988), p. 142.
- Woodside (1988), p. 143.
- Woodside (1988), p. 145.
- Woodside (1988), p. 147.
- Woodside (1988), p. 146.
- Woodside (1988), p. 244.
- Woodside (1988), p. 148.
- Woodside (1988), pp. 238–239.
- Chanda, Nayan (1986). Brother Enemy: The War After the War (illustrated ed.). Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 53, 111. ISBN 9780151144204.
- "有个国家居然视自己是中国，清政府做了一件事，刺激到崩溃_历史_万花镜". 29 August 2016. Archived from the original on 29 August 2016. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
- Chandler (2018), p. 153.
- Choi, Byung Wook (2018). Southern Vietnam under the Reign of Minh Mang (1820–1841): Central Policies and Local Response. Book collections on Project MUSE (illustrated ed.). Cornell University Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-1501719523.
- "The Raja Praong Ritual: A Memory of the Sea in Cham- Malay Relations". Cham Unesco. Retrieved 25 June 2015.[dead link]
- (Extracted from Truong Van Mon, "The Raja Praong Ritual: a Memory of the sea in Cham- Malay Relations", in Memory And Knowledge Of The Sea In South Asia, Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences, University of Malaya, Monograph Series 3, pp, 97–111. International Seminar on Maritime Culture and Geopolitics & Workshop on Bajau Laut Music and Dance", Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences and the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Malaya, 23-24/2008)
- Dharma, Po. "The Uprisings of Katip Sumat and Ja Thak Wa (1833–1835)". Cham Today. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
- Choi Byung Wook (2004). Southern Vietnam Under the Reign of Minh Mạng (1820–1841): Central Policies and Local Response. SEAP Publications. pp. 141–. ISBN 978-0-87727-138-3.
- Norman G. Owen (2005). The Emergence of Modern Southeast Asia: A New History. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 115–. ISBN 978-0-8248-2890-5.
- Zottoli, Brian A. (2011). Reconceptualizing Southern Vietnamese Hi story from the 15th to 18th Centuries: Competition along the Coasts from Guangdong to Cambod (A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (History) in The University of Michigan). p. 14. Archived from the original on 29 January 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
- A. Dirk Moses (1 January 2008). Empire, Colony, Genocide: Conquest, Occupation, and Subaltern Resistance in World History. Berghahn Books. pp. 209–. ISBN 978-1-84545-452-4. Archived from the original on 2008.
- Randall Peerenboom; Carole J. Petersen; Albert H.Y. Chen (27 September 2006). Human Rights in Asia: A Comparative Legal Study of Twelve Asian Jurisdictions, France and the USA. Routledge. pp. 474–. ISBN 978-1-134-23881-1.
- "Vietnam-Champa Relations and the Malay-Islam Regional Network in the 17th–19th Centuries". 17 June 2004. Retrieved 19 November 2017.[dead link]
- Choi Byung Wook (2004). Southern Vietnam Under the Reign of Minh Mạng (1820–1841): Central Policies and Local Response. SEAP Publications. pp. 34–. ISBN 978-0-87727-138-3.
- Choi Byung Wook (2004). Southern Vietnam Under the Reign of Minh Mạng (1820–1841): Central Policies and Local Response. SEAP Publications. pp. 136–. ISBN 978-0-87727-138-3.
- Choi Byung Wook (2004). Southern Vietnam Under the Reign of Minh Mạng (1820–1841): Central Policies and Local Response. SEAP Publications. pp. 137–. ISBN 978-0-87727-138-3.
- Nguyễn Đức Hiệp. Về lịch sử người Minh Hương và người Hoa ở Nam bộ. Văn hóa học, 21 February 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- 蔣為文 (2013). "越南的明鄉人與華人移民的族群認同與本土化差異" (PDF). 台灣國際研究季刊 (in Chinese). 國立成功大學越南研究中心. 9 (4): 8. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- Leo Suryadinata (1997). Ethnic Chinese as Southeast Asians. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 9813055502. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
- "明鄉人". Chinese Encyclopedia (in Chinese). Chinese Culture University. 1983. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- Alexander Woodside (1971). Vietnam and the Chinese Model: A Comparative Study of Vietnamese and Chinese Government in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century. Harvard Univ Asia Center. pp. 134–. ISBN 978-0-674-93721-5.
- Nguyen, Thuc-Doan T. (2008). Globalization: A View by Vietnamese Consumers Through Wedding Windows. pp. 34–. ISBN 978-0-549-68091-8.
- "Angelasancartier.net". angelasancartier.net. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
- "#18 Transcultural Tradition of the Vietnamese Ao Dai". Beyondvictoriana.com. 14 March 2010. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
- "Ao Dai – LoveToKnow". Fashion-hjistory.lovetoknow.com. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
- "The Ao Dai and I: A Personal Essay on Cultural Identity and Steampunk". Tor.com. 20 October 2010. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
- Vietnam. Michelin Travel Publications. 2002. p. 200.
- Gary Yia Lee; Nicholas Tapp (16 September 2010). Culture and Customs of the Hmong. ABC-CLIO. pp. 138–. ISBN 978-0-313-34527-2.
- Anthony Reid (2 June 2015). A History of Southeast Asia: Critical Crossroads. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 285–. ISBN 978-0-631-17961-0.
- Anthony Reid (9 May 1990). Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce, 1450–1680: The Lands Below the Winds. Yale University Press. pp. 90–. ISBN 978-0-300-04750-9.
- A. Terry Rambo (2005). Searching for Vietnam: Selected Writings on Vietnamese Culture and Society. Kyoto University Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-920901-05-9.
- Jayne Werner; John K. Whitmore; George Dutton (21 August 2012). Sources of Vietnamese Tradition. Columbia University Press. pp. 295–. ISBN 978-0-231-51110-0.
- Alexander Woodside (1971). Vietnam and the Chinese Model: A Comparative Study of Vietnamese and Chinese Government in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century. Harvard Univ Asia Center. pp. 117–. ISBN 978-0-674-93721-5.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 August 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 September 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "越南名儒李文馥-龙文,乡贤,名儒-龙文新闻网". Lwxww.cn. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
- John Gillespie; Albert H.Y. Chen (30 July 2010). Legal Reforms in China and Vietnam: A Comparison of Asian Communist Regimes. Taylor & Francis. pp. 6–. ISBN 978-0-203-85269-9.John Gillespie; Albert H.Y. Chen (13 September 2010). Legal Reforms in China and Vietnam: A Comparison of Asian Communist Regimes. Routledge. pp. 6–. ISBN 978-1-136-97843-2.John Gillespie; Albert H.Y. Chen (13 September 2010). Legal Reforms in China and Vietnam: A Comparison of Asian Communist Regimes. Routledge. pp. 6–. ISBN 978-1-136-97842-5.
- Charles Holcombe (January 2001). The Genesis of East Asia: 221 B.C. – A.D. 907. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 41–. ISBN 978-0-8248-2465-5.
- Pamela D. McElwee (2003). 'Lost worlds' or 'lost causes'?: biodiversity conservation, forest management, and rural life in Vietnam. Yale University. p. 67.Pamela D. McElwee (2003). 'Lost worlds' or 'lost causes'?: biodiversity conservation, forest management, and rural life in Vietnam. Yale University. p. 67.
- Journal of Vietnamese Studies. University of California Press. 2006. p. 317.
- Kelley 2006, p. 325.
- Woodside; Kelley; Cooke (9 March 2016). "Q. How Confucian is/was Vietnam?". Cindyanguyen.wordpress.com. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
- Dyt (2015), p. 15.
- Kelley (2006), p. 349.
- Kelley (2006), p. 343.
- Dyt (2015), p. 4.
- Dyt (2015), pp. 12, 13.
- Dyt (2015), p. 14.
- Kiernan (2019), pp. 305, 306.
- Taylor (2013), pp. 421–422.
- Popkin (1979), p. 136.
- Johnston (1881), p. 322.
- Avakov (2015), p. 28.
- Lieberman (2003), p. 433.
- Richardson (1880), p. 159.
- Keane (1896), p. 272.
- Staunton (1884), p. 37.
- Lieberman (2003), p. 430.
- Choi (2004b), p. 85.
- Woodside (1988), p. 272.
- Staunton (1884), p. 38.
- Bennett (2020), p. 15.
- Bennett (2020), p. 18.
- Bennett (2020), p. 20.
- Bennett (2020), p. 24.
- Bennett (2020), pp. 24–25.
- Bennett (2020), p. 28.
- Bennett (2020), p. 32.
- Bennett (2020), p. 38.
- Bennett (2020), p. 41.
- Bennett (2020), p. 60.
- Bennett (2020), pp. 46–49.
- Bennett (2020), pp. 49–50.
- Bennett (2020), pp. 50–52.
- Bennett (2020), p. 54.
- Bennett (2020), pp. 54–55.
- Bennett (2020), p. 56.
- Bennett (2020), pp. 56–57.
- Smith (1974), p. 154.
- Smith (1974), p. 155.
- Kiernan (2019), p. 214.
- Heath (2003), p. 197.
- Ths. Đoàn Thu Thủy – Nguyễn Thu Hường (10 January 2012). "Vai trò và vị trí đóng dấu của các loại ấn trên tài liệu Châu bản triều Nguyễn. - 02:00 PM 10/01/2012 - Lượt xem: 931 - Trải qua các triều đại, ấn chương Việt Nam ngày càng phong phú về loại hình và hình thể" (in Vietnamese). Cục Văn thư và Lưu trữ nhà nước (State Records And Archives Management Department Of VietNam). Retrieved 4 April 2021.
- english.cinet.vn (13 October 2011). "Seals of Nguyen Dynasty showcased. Around 140 seals of the Nguyen Dynasty are displayed at an exhibition which opened in Hanoi on October 12". VietNam Breaking News (UPDATE LATEST NEWS FROM VIETNAM). Retrieved 25 March 2021.
- Từ điển chức quan Việt Nam, Đỗ Văn Ninh, 2002, trang 327 mục 571. Hộ ấn ty, hộ trực xứ (in Vietnamese).
- Lan Phương (Tổng hợp) (14 October 2015). "Ấn triện đồng triều Nguyễn. - Ấn triện bằng đồng là loại liên quan đến uy quyền. Vua Nguyễn cấp ấn triện cho những bề tôi là để ban ủy quyền cho các bề tôi thay mặt vua cai trị dân. Nghiên cứu về ấn triện bằng đồng thời Nguyễn sẽ hiểu thêm về hệ thống quan chức triều Nguyễn cũng như nhiều vấn đề khác liên quan" (in Vietnamese). BẢO TÀNG LỊCH SỬ QUỐC GIA (VIETNAM NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY). Retrieved 5 April 2021.
- Christophe (17 September 2013). "AP0670-Sogny-Marien. Titre : Hué, 1939 – Léon Sogny est élevé à la dignité nobiliaire de baron d'An Binh (13)" (in French). L’Association des Amis du Vieux Huế. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
- Christophe (17 September 2013). "AP0678-Sogny-Marien. Titre : Hué, 1939 – Léon Sogny est élevé à la dignité nobiliaire de baron d'An Binh (12)" (in French). L’Association des Amis du Vieux Huế. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
- VietNamNet Bridge (10 February 2016). "No royal seal left in Hue today. VietNamNet Bridge – It is a great regret that none of more than 100 seals of the Nguyen emperors are in Hue City today". VietNam Breaking News. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
- De Rode Leeuw - Armorial of Vietnam by Hubert de Vries. Retrieved: 19 August 2021.
- Story and photos: Dong Van (8 September 2018). "Admiring Dragons and Phoenixes on the Treasures of the Nguyen Dynasty. - This is also the name of the exhibition which is co-organized by the National Museum of History and Hue Monuments Conservation Center. The exhibition opening ceremony was on the morning of September 7 (7/9), at Hue Museum of Royal Antiquities". Thua Thien Hue Online Newspaper. Retrieved 19 August 2021.
- Bee (baodatviet.vn) (3 June 2012). "Giải mã 'rồng 5 móng' của nhà Nguyễn. Để thể hiện tính độc lập giữa Hoàng đế Việt Nam và các nước láng giềng, Vua Gia Long đã có chỉ dụ về quy định các hình thêu, đúc rồng trên trang phục, đồ dùng của vua và hoàng thái tử chỉ được thêu rồng 5 móng, khác với rồng 4 móng của Trung Hoa" (in Vietnamese). BẢO TÀNG LỊCH SỬ QUỐC GIA (VIETNAM NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY). Retrieved 25 March 2021.
- Đại Nam thực lục chính biên, trang 921 tập 1 NXB Giáo dục 2002. (in Vietnamese).
- Hymnes et pavillons d'Indochine. Gallica (Bibliothèque nationale de France). (in French). 1941. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
- Amirell, Stefan E. (2019), Pirates of Empire Colonisation and Maritime Violence in Southeast Asia, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-108-63682-7
- Avakov, Alexander V. (2015), Two Thousand Years of Economic Statistics, Years 1–2012 Population, GDP at PPP, and GDP Per Capita. Volume 1, By Rank · Volume 1, Algora Publishing, ISBN 978-1-62894-101-2
- Balfour, Francis (1884). The Works of Francis Maitland Balfour: Volume 3.
- Bennett, Terry (2020). Early Photography in Vietnam. ISBN 978-19129-6-104-7.
- Bradley, Camp Davis (2016). Imperial Bandits: Outlaws and Rebels in the China-Vietnam Borderlands. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-74205-2.
- Chandler, David (2018). A History of Cambodia (4 ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0429964060.
- Chapuis, Oscar (2000). The Last Emperors of Vietnam: from Tu Duc to Bao Dai. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-31170-6.
- Choi, Byung Wook (2004a), Southern Vietnam Under the Reign of Minh Mạng (1820-1841): Central Policies and Local Response, SEAP Publications, ISBN 978-1-501-71952-3
- ——— (2004b), "The Nguyen dynasty's policy toward Chinese on the Water Frontier in the first half of the Nineteenth Century", in Nola, Cooke (ed.), The Water Frontier, Singapore University Press, pp. 85–99
- Dror, Olga (2007), Cult, Culture, and Authority : Princess Lieu Hanh in Vietnamese History, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-2972-8
- Dutton, George Edson (2006). The Tây Sơn uprising: society and rebellion in eighteenth-century Vietnam. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-2984-0.
- Everett, Edward (1841). The North American Review:Volume 52.
- Goscha, Christopher (2016). Vietnam: A New History. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-46509-436-3.
- Heath, Ian (2003) . Armies of the Nineteenth Century: Burma and Indo-China. Foundry Books. ISBN 978-1-90154-306-3.
- Hiley, Richard (1848) . Progressive geography, adapted to junior classes. Oxford University.
- Holcombe, Charles (2017). A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-11071-1-873-7.
- Keane, A. H. (1896). Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel: Asia - Vol II: Southern and Western Asia. E. Stanford.
- Kiernan, Ben (2019) . Việt Nam: a history from earliest time to the present. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19005-379-6.
- Keith, Charlers (2012). Catholic Vietnam: A Church from Empire to Nation. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-52027-247-7.
- Kollman (pub.) (1846). Sion. Eine Stimme in der Kirche für unsere Zeit. Eine rel. Zeitschrift ... eine Hausbibliothek für Geistliche und fromme katholische Familien. Hrsg. durch einen Verein von Katholiken u. red. von Thomas Wiser u. W. Reithmeier: Volume 28.
- Johnston, A. K. (1880). A School Physical and Descriptive Geography. Oxford University.
- ——— (1881). A Physical, Historical, Political, & Descriptive Geography. E. Stanford.
- Lieberman, Victor B. (2003). Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global Context, c. 800–1830, volume 1, Integration on the Mainland. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80496-7.
- Li, Tana (1994), "Rice Trade in the 18th and 19th Century Mekong Delta and Its Implication", in Aphornsuvan, Thanet (ed.), An International Seminar on Thailand and her neighbours: Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia, Thammasat University Press, pp. 198–213
- ——— (2002), Việt Nam học kỷ yếu Hội thảo quốc tế lần thứ nhất, Thế giới Publishing, pp. 141–150
- ——— (2004a), "The Water Frontier: In Introduction", in Nola, Cooke (ed.), The Water Frontier, Singapore University Press, pp. 1–20, ISBN 978-0-74253-082-9
- ——— (2004b), "The late 18th and early 19th-century Mekong Delta in the Regional Trade System", in Nola, Cooke (ed.), The Water Frontier, Singapore University Press, pp. 71–84
- ——— (2004c), "Ships and ship building in the Mekong delta, 1750–1840", in Nola, Cooke (ed.), The Water Frontier, Singapore University Press, pp. 119–135
- ——— (2018) . Nguyen Cochinchina: Southern Vietnam in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Cornell University Press.
- Marr, David G. (1981). Vietnamese Tradition on Trial, 1920-1945: Volume 10. University of California Press.
- McGregor, John (1834). The Resources and Statistics of Nations Exhibiting the Geographical Position and Natural Resources, the Area and Population, the Political Statistics ... of All Countries · Volume 2.
- McHale, Frederick (2008). Print and Power: Confucianism, Communism, and Buddhism in the Making of Modern Vietnam. Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-82484-304-5.
- McLeod, Mark W. (1991). The Vietnamese response to French intervention, 1862–1874. New York: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-93562-0.
- Mikaberidze, Alexander (2020). The Napoleonic Wars: A Global History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-199-39406-7.
- Miller, Robert (1990). United States and Vietnam 1787-1941. Washington DC: National Defense University Press. ISBN 978-0-788-10810-5.
- Momoki, Shiro (2015), "The Vietnamese empire and its expansion, c.980–1840", in Wade, Geoff (ed.), Asian Expansions: The Historical Experiences of Polity Expansion in Asia, Routledge, pp. 144–166, ISBN 978-0-41558-995-6
- Popkin, Samuel (1979), The Rational Peasant: The Political Economy of Rural Society in Vietnam, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-03954-4
- O'Brien, Patrick Karl (2007), Philip's Atlas of World History, Philip's, ISBN 978-0-54008-867-6
- Peters, Erica J. (2012), Appetites and Aspirations in Vietnam: Food and Drink in the Long Nineteenth Century, AltaMira Press, ISBN 978-0-759-12075-4
- Richardson, John (1880). A smaller manual of modern geography. Physical and political. John Murray.
- Staunton, Sidney A. (1884). The War in Tong-king:Why the French are in Tong-king, and what They are Doing There. Cupples, Upham.
- Taylor, K.W. (2013), A History of the Vietnamese, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-520-07417-0
- Toda, Ed (1882). Annam and its minor currency. Noronha & Sons.
- Verlag d. Industrie-Comptoirs (Austria) (1827). Neue allgemeine geographische und statistische Ephemeriden.
- White, John (1824). A Voyage to Cochinchina. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green.
- Whitmore, John K.; Zottoli, Brian (2016), "The Emergence of the state of Vietnam", in Peterson, Willard J. (ed.), The Cambridge History of China: Volume 9, The Ch'ing Dynasty to 1800, Part 2, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 197–233
- Woodside, Alexander (1988) . Vietnam and the Chinese model: a comparative study of Vietnamese and Chinese government in the first half of the nineteenth century. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-93721-X.
- Wilcox, Wynn (2010). Vietnam and the West: New Approaches. Cornell University, Southeast Asia Program. ISBN 978-0-877-27782-8.
- Woods, L. Shelton (2002). Vietnam: a global studies handbook. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-416-9.
- Ooi, Keat Gin (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2.
- Phan, Khoang (1985). Việt sử: xứ đàng trong, 1558–1777. Cuộc nam-tié̂n của dân-tộc Việt-Nam (in Vietnamese). Xuân thu.
- Knoblock, John; Riegel, Jeffrey (2001). The Annals of Lü Buwei. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0804733540.
- Yue Hashimoto, Oi-kan (1972). Phonology of Cantonese. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-08442-0.
- Cooke, Nola (2004). "Early Nineteenth-Century Vietnamese Catholics and Others in the Pages of the Annales de la Propagation de la Foi". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 35 (2): 261–285. doi:10.1017/S0022463404000141. S2CID 153524504 – via Cambridge University Press.
- Dyt, Karynth (2015). "Calling for Wind and Rain" Rituals: Environment, Emotion, and Governance in Nguyễn Vietnam, 1802–1883". Journal of Vietnamese Studies. 10 (2): 1–42. doi:10.1525/vs.2015.10.2.1 – via JSTOR.
- Friedland, William H. (1977). "Community and Revolution in Modern Vietnam. Alexander B. Woodside". American Journal of Sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago. 83 (2): 520–521. doi:10.1086/226584.
- Koizomi, Junko (2015). "The 'Last' Friendship Exchanges between Siam and Vietnam, 1879–1882: Siam between Vietnam and France—and Beyond". TRaNS: Trans-Regional and -National Studies of Southeast Asia. 4 (1): 131–164. doi:10.1017/trn.2015.18. S2CID 163196181 – via Cambridge University Press.
- Kelley, Liam C. (2006). ""Confucianism" in Vietnam: A State of the Field Essay". Journal of Vietnamese Studies. 1 (1–2): 314–370. doi:10.1525/vs.2006.1.1-2.314 – via University of California Press.
- Rungswasdisab, Puangthong (1995). War and trade: Siamese interventions in Cambodia, 1767-1851 (PhD thesis). University of Wollongong Australia.
- Smith, R. B. (1974). "Politics and Society in Viet-Nam during the Early Nguyen Period (1802-62)". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 106 (2): 153–169. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00131995 – via JSTOR.
- Weber, Nicholas (2011). "Securing and Developing the Southwestern Region: The Role of the Cham and Malay Colonies in Vietnam (18th-19th centuries)". Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. 54 (5): 739–772. doi:10.1163/156852011X614037 – via Brill Publishers.
- Shaofei, YE; Guoqing, Zhang (2016). "The relationship between Nanyue and Annam in the ancient historical records of China and Vietnam". Honghe Prefecture Center for Vietnamese Studies, Honghe University – via CNKI Journal Translation Project.
- Meacham, William (1996). "Defining the Hundred Yue". Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association. 15: 93–100. doi:10.7152/bippa.v15i0.11537.
- Norman, Jerry; Mei, Tsu-lin (1976). "The Austroasiatics in Ancient South China: Some Lexical Evidence". Monumenta Serica. 32: 274–301. doi:10.1080/02549948.1976.11731121.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nguyễn dynasty.|