Nguyễn An

Nguyễn An (Sino-Vietnamese 阮安; 1381 - 1453), known in Chinese as Ruan An (pinyin)[1] or Juan An[2] (Wade-Giles), was the principal architect of the Forbidden City during the Ming dynasty and hydraulics specialist between the first and fifth decades of the 15th century. Born in Vietnam, he was taken as tribute to China during the Ming Invasion (1406-1407) and later became a eunuch and architect in service to the Chinese emperors. He, along with other architects, such as master designers and planners Cai Xin (蔡信), Chen Gui (陳珪), and Wu Zhong (吳中), was the builder[3] of the Forbidden City in Beijing.[4]

Nguyễn An
Chinese name
Chinese阮安
Vietnamese name
VietnameseNguyễn An
Hán-Nôm

Under the reign of the Zhengtong Emperor, Nguyen An also had the role in the reconstruction of the wall of Beijing.[2][5] He was also a hydraulics specialist, and was involved in at least three hydraulic projects and had a flawless record.[6] He died in 1453.[2]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Womack, Brantly (2006). China and Vietnam: The Politics of Asymmetry. Cambridge University Press. p. 182. ISBN 0-521-85320-6.
  2. ^ a b c Frederick W. Mote; Denis Twitchett; John K. Fairbank (1998). The Cambridge History of China. volume 7: The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644 (part 1). Cambridge University Press. pp. 240–241. ISBN 0-521-24332-7. |volume= has extra text (help)
  3. ^ Zhu, Jianfei (2004). Chinese Spatial Strategies: Imperial Beijing, 1420-1911. Routledge. p. 28. ISBN 0-415-31883-1.
  4. ^ "Vatican City and the important Forbidden City; St. Peter's Square and Tiananmen Square: A Comparative Analysis. Page 5" (PDF). Asia-Pacific: Perspectives and the University of San Francisco. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-27. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  5. ^ Zhu, Jianfei (2004). Chinese Spatial Strategies: Imperial Beijing, 1420-1911. Routledge. p. 28. ISBN 0-415-31883-1.
  6. ^ Tsai, Shih-shan Henry (1996). The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty. SUNY Press. p. 202. ISBN 0-7914-2687-4.