Kākā

  (Redirected from New Zealand kaka)

The kākā (Nestor meridionalis) is a large species of parrot of the family Nestoridae found in native forests of New Zealand. Two subspecies are recognised. It is endangered and has disappeared from much of its former range, though conservation efforts mean it is now increasingly common across Wellington.

Kākā
Scrapping kaka.jpg
A pair of North Island kākā in Zealandia, Wellington, New Zealand
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Nestoridae
Genus: Nestor
Species:
N. meridionalis
Binomial name
Nestor meridionalis
(Gmelin, 1788)
Nestor meridionalis -range -New Zealand.png
Range in green

Taxonomy and namingEdit

The kākā was described by German naturalist Johann Friedrich Gmelin in 1788. There are two subspecies, the North Island kākā, Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis, and the South Island kākā, N. m. meridionalis, although more recent research has ruled out allopatric subspeciation.[2] The Māori language name kākā means "parrot", possibly related to , 'to screech'.[3]

The genus Nestor contains four species: the New Zealand kākā (Nestor meridionalis), the kea (N. notabilis), the extinct Norfolk kākā (N. productus), and the extinct Chatham kākā (N. chathamensis). All four are thought to stem from a "proto-kākā", dwelling in the forests of New Zealand five million years ago.[4][5] Their closest relative is the kākāpō (Strigops habroptilus).[4][5][6][7] Together, they form the parrot superfamily Strigopoidea, an ancient group that split off from all other Psittacidae before their radiation.[4][5][7][8]

DescriptionEdit

 
The kākā, like many parrots, uses its feet to hold its food

The kākā is a medium-sized parrot, measuring 45 cm (18 in) in length and weighing from 390 to 560 g (14 to 20 oz), with an average of 452 g (0.996 lb).[9] It is closely related to the kea, but has darker plumage and is more arboreal. The forehead and crown are greyish-white and the nape is greyish brown. The neck and abdomen are more reddish, while the wings are more brownish. Both sub-species have a strongly patterned brown/green/grey plumage with orange and scarlet flashes under the wings; colour variants that show red to yellow colouration especially on the breast are sometimes found.

This group of parrots is unusual, retaining more primitive features lost in most other parrots because it split off from the rest around 100 million years ago.[10]

The calls include a harsh ka-aa and a whistling u-wiia.[11]

Distribution and habitatEdit

The kākā lives in lowland and mid-altitude native forest. Its strongholds are currently the offshore reserves of Kapiti Island, Codfish Island and Little Barrier Island. It is breeding rapidly in the mainland island sanctuary at Zealandia with over 800 birds banded since their reintroduction in 2002.[12] From their reintroduction in 2002, North Island kākā continue to re-colonise Wellington and a 2015 report showed a significant increase in their numbers over the preceding 12 years.[13]

BehaviourEdit

 
2 eggs laid by a North Island kākā in a wooden nestbox at Zealandia wildlife sanctuary, Wellington
Kākā pair feeding each other via regurgitation
 
Kākā enjoy dismantling pine cones to eat the seeds inside.
 
Kākā feeding on tree buds in early spring, Wellington Botanic Gardens

Kākā are mainly arboreal and occupy mid-to-high canopy. They are often seen flying across valleys or calling from the top of emergent trees. They are very gregarious and move in large flocks that often include kea, where they are present. They are highly active at dawn and dusk and can sometimes be heard calling loudly even at 3:00 am.[citation needed]

BreedingEdit

The kākā nests in cavities in hollow trees. The entrance hole is often three to six metres above the ground,[14] but can be as low as ground level on predator-free offshore islands.[15] The nest floor is lined with small wood chips[15] and powder.[14] They lay eggs any time between September (late winter) and March (summer).[14] Occasionally, in a good fruiting year, a pair can double clutch, often utilising the same nest hole for the second clutch[citation needed] and extending breeding into winter.[15] They typically lay four eggs,[14][15] though it can be up to eight,[16] with two chicks fledging.[14] Only the female incubates the eggs, for about 24 days,[14] and cares for the nestlings, but she is regularly fed by the male throughout breeding.[15] Both parents feed the chicks after they have fledged.[15]

FeedingEdit

 
North Island kākā in flight, showing red plumage on the underside of its wing (at Pukaha / Mount Bruce National Wildlife Centre)
 
A North Island Kākā at Zealandia wildlife sanctuary, Wellington

Kākā typically eat fruits, berries, seeds, flowers, buds, nectar, sap, plants and invertebrates. They use their strong beak to shred the cones of the kauri tree to obtain the seeds.[17] It has a brush tongue with which it feeds on nectar, and it uses its strong beak to dig out the grubs of the huhu beetle and to remove bark to feed on sap.[18]

 
Kākā drilling in to get tree sap
 
Fledgling in a nest in the Wellington Botanic Gardens
 
Fledgling climbing a tree in the Wellington Botanic Gardens
 
Mating

Conservation statusEdit

Kākā are considered endangered (CITES II), having greatly declined across their traditional range as a result of habitat loss, predation by introduced predators such as cats, rats, possums and stoats, and competition from wasps and bees for the honeydew excreted by scale insects. A closely related species, Nestor productus, the Norfolk kākā, became extinct in 1851 for similar reasons.

PredationEdit

Predatory mammals are responsible for the loss of an estimated 26 million native birds and their eggs each year in New Zealand.[19]

As cavity nesters with a long incubation period that requires the mother to stay on the nest for at least 90 days, kākā are particularly vulnerable to predation. Stoats were the main cause of death of nesting adult females, nestlings and fledglings, but possums were also important predators of adult females, eggs and nestlings.[20] There is strong evidence that predation of chicks and females has led to a serious age and sex imbalance, even amongst ostensibly healthy populations.[21]

In parts of the country, the Department of Conservation and local conservation groups have attempted to control predators of kākā through the use of traps, ground baiting and the aerial deployment of sodium fluoroacetate (1080). Where pest control has been carried out, there has been a significant recovery of kākā populations. For example, in Pureora Forest Park 20 kākā were radio-tracked in an area to be treated with aerial 1080 in 2001. In nearby Waimanoa Forest, which was not to be treated with 1080, nine kākā were radio-tracked. In the area where 1080 was used, all 20 birds survived that season. Of the nine birds tagged in the untreated area, five were killed by predators that same season.[22]

CompetitionEdit

Research has shown that honeydew is very important for breeding kākā, especially for those breeding in southern beech forests. The difficult nature of controlling the wasps makes the future of the kākā very uncertain.

Human interactionEdit

The increase in the population of North Island kākā in Wellington has led to birds visiting residential gardens and reserves, which in turn has led to more interactions with people.[23][24] People have been feeding the birds unsuitable food such as nuts, various grains and cheese.[23] Feeding kākā has resulted in metabolic bone disease in kākā chicks.[23] In 2016 80% of the kākā chicks being monitored by the Wellington City Council died from this disease.[25] There have also been instances of kākā nesting in the roofs of houses.[26]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Nestor meridionalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22684840A93049267. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22684840A93049267.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  2. ^ Dussex, Nic; Sainsbury, James; Moorhouse, Ron; Jamieson, Ian G.; Robertson, Bruce C. (1 January 2015). "Evidence for Bergmann's Rule and Not Allopatric Subspeciation in the Threatened Kaka (Nestor meridionalis)". Journal of Heredity. 106 (6): 679–691. doi:10.1093/jhered/esv079. ISSN 0022-1503. PMID 26447214.
  3. ^ "Entry for kā on yourdictionary.com".
  4. ^ a b c Wright, T.F.; Schirtzinger E. E.; Matsumoto T.; Eberhard J. R.; Graves G. R.; Sanchez J. J.; Capelli S.; Muller H.; Scharpegge J.; Chambers G. K.; Fleischer R. C. (2008). "A Multilocus Molecular Phylogeny of the Parrots (Psittaciformes): Support for a Gondwanan Origin during the Cretaceous". Mol Biol Evol. 25 (10): 2141–2156. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn160. PMC 2727385. PMID 18653733.
  5. ^ a b c Grant-Mackie, E.J.; J.A. Grant-Mackie; W.M. Boon; G.K. Chambers (2003). "Evolution of New Zealand Parrots". NZ Science Teacher. 103.
  6. ^ Juniper, T., Parr, M. (1998) Parrots: A guide to parrots of the world. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press (ISBN 0-300-07453-0)
  7. ^ a b De Kloet, Rolf S.; De Kloet, Siwo R. (September 2005). "The evolution of the spindlin gene in birds: sequence analysis of an intron of the spindlin W and Z gene reveals four major divisions of the Psittaciformes". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 36 (3): 706–21. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.03.013. PMID 16099384.
  8. ^ Schweizer, M.; Seehausen O; Güntert M; Hertwig ST (2009). "The evolutionary diversification of parrots supports a taxon pulse model with multiple trans-oceanic dispersal events and local radiations". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 54 (3): 984–94. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.08.021. PMID 19699808.
  9. ^ CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses by John B. Dunning Jr. (Editor). CRC Press (1992), ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5.
  10. ^ "Click4Biology". Click4biology.info. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  11. ^ Falla RA, Sibson RB & Turbot EG (1966) A Field guide to the birds of New Zealand. Collins, London (ISBN 0-00-212022-4)
  12. ^ "800th kaka Banded at ZEALANDIA". Retrieved 9 November 2015.
  13. ^ McArthur, Nikki; Harvey, Annette; Flux, Ian (October 2015). State and trends in the diversity, abundance and distribution of birds in Wellington City (PDF). Wellington: Greater Wellington Regional Council. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Moynihan, K. T. (1985). "Kaka". Reader's Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. p. 244. ISBN 0474000486.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Moorhouse, R. J. (2017). "Kaka". In Miskelly, C. M. (ed.). New Zealand Birds Online. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  16. ^ Powlesland, R. G.; et al. (2009). "Breeding biology of the New Zealand kaka (Nestor merdionalis) (Psittacidae, Nestorinae)". Notornis. 56 (1): 11–33. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  17. ^ "Agathis australis, Kauri". Bushmans Friend. Retrieved 27 August 2007.
  18. ^ Charles, K. E. (2012). "Tree damage in Wellington as a result of foraging for sap and bark-dwelling invertebrates by the North Island Kaka (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis)" (PDF). Notornis. 59: 180–184.
  19. ^ "Landcare Research scientist John Innes talks about the extent of predation by introduced mammalian predators" (video interview). Retrieved 11 August 2011.
  20. ^ Taylor, G.; et al. (2009). "Effect of controlling introduced predators on Kaka (Nestor meridionalis) in the Rotoiti Nature Recovery Project" (PDF). Department of Conservation. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  21. ^ Greene, Terry C.; Fraser, James R. (1998). "Sex ratio of North Island Kaka (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis), Waihaha Ecological Area, Pureora Forest Park" (PDF). New Zealand Journal of Ecology. 2 (1): 11–16. JSTOR 24054543.
  22. ^ "The use of 1080 for pest control – Outcomes for bird populations". Department of Conservation. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
  23. ^ a b c Hunter, S.A.; Alley, M.R.; Lenting, B.M. (2017). "Metabolic Bone Disease in North Island Kaka, Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis, in Wellington". Kokako. 24 (1): 23–25 – via Researchgate.
  24. ^ Cote, Sarah; Durand, Olivia Durand; LaRoche, Erin; Warden, Rachel (27 February 2013). "Evaluating the Interactions between Wellington Residents and the Threatened Kaka Parrot" (PDF). web.wpi.edu. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  25. ^ Roy, Eleanor Ainge (20 January 2017). "Killing kakas with kindness: New Zealand bird lovers threaten future of parrot". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  26. ^ "Kākā intruders on the increase". Scoop.co.nz. 8 October 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2019.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit