Neurotypical or NT, an abbreviation of neurologically typical, is a neologism widely used in the autistic community as a label for people who are not on the autism spectrum. However, the term eventually became narrowed to refer to those with strictly typical neurology; that is, people without a defined neurological disorder.
In other words, this refers to anyone who does not have any developmental disabilities such as autism, developmental coordination disorder or ADHD. The term was later adopted by both the neurodiversity movement and the scientific community.
In recent times, people with any sort of mental disability, whether congenital or acquired, have also been excluded from many uses of the neurotypical label. In this sense, the term is now contrasted to neurodivergent, ND or neuroatypical, an umbrella term inclusive of people with diverse mental and behavioral disorders, such as mood, anxiety, dissociative, psychotic, personality and eating disorders. The conditions themselves, following the neurodiversity and social construction of disability models and in distance from the hegemonic medical model of disability (otherwise known in the neurodiversity community as the pathology paradigm), are often referred to as neurodivergences, that is, neurotypes that are divergent from a given social and medical norm.
Neurotypical, as a specific term for its original purpose within autistic communities, has been replaced by some with allistic, or "nypical", which has the same meaning that "neurotypical" had originally. These terms refer to those who are not autistic and who do not possess another pervasive developmental disorder, even if they are neurologically atypical in some other way, such as having dyslexia.
- Sinclair, Jim (1998). "A note about language and abbreviations". Archived from the original on June 6, 2008. Retrieved January 31, 2015.
- Hare, D. J.; Jones, S.; Evershed, K. (November 2006). "A comparative study of circadian rhythm functioning and sleep in people with Asperger syndrome". Autism. 10 (6): 565–575. PMID 17088273. doi:10.1177/1362361306068509.
- O'Connor, K.; Hamm, J. P.; Kirk, I. J. (October 2005). "The neurophysiological correlates of face processing in adults and children with Asperger's syndrome". Brain and Cognition. 59 (1): 82–95. PMID 16009478. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2005.05.004.
- Myles, Brenda Smith; Huggins, Abigail; Rome-Lake, Maleia; Hagiwara, Taku; Barnhill, Gena P.; Griswold, Deborah E. (December 2003). "Written language profile of children and youth with Asperger syndrome: From research to practice" (PDF). Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities. 38 (4): 362–369.
- Robison, John Elder (2011). Be Different: My Adventures with Asperger's and My Advice for Fellow Aspergians, Misfits, Families, and Teachers (1st ed.). New York: Broadway Paperbacks. ISBN 9780307884824. OCLC 783043987. Retrieved January 31, 2015.
- Cashin, A.; Sci, D. A. (2006). "Two terms—one meaning: the conundrum of contemporary nomenclature in autism". Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing. 19 (3): 137–144. PMID 16913963. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6171.2006.00061.x.
- "How to talk about autism". National Autistic Society. Archived from the original on July 13, 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2016.