Nettuno is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Rome in the Lazio region of central Italy, 60 kilometres (37 miles) south of Rome. A resort city and agricultural center on the Tyrrhenian Sea, it has a population of approximately 50,000.
|Città di Nettuno|
Panorama of Nettuno
|Metropolitan city||Rome (RM)|
|Frazioni||Acciarella, Cadolino, Canala, Cioccati, Cretarossa, Eschieto, Falasche Nord, Grugnole, Ospedaletto, Padiglione, Piscina Cardillo, Pocacqua, Sandalo Di Levante, Sandalo di Ponente, San Giacomo, Scacciapensieri, Tre Cancelli, Zucchetti|
|• Mayor||Alessandro Coppola|
|• Total||71.46 km2 (27.59 sq mi)|
|Elevation||11 m (36 ft)|
(30 November 2017)
|• Density||700/km2 (1,800/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Patron saint||Madonna delle Grazie|
Its name is perhaps in honour of the Roman god Neptune.
It has a touristic harbour hosting about 860 boats and a shopping center, selling everything for fishing and sailing. There is also a yacht club.
According to a theory, the town would be a direct survival of the Roman Antium, the territory of which almost entirely corresponded to Nettuno and modern Anzio. Giuseppe Tomassetti considered Nettuno the real heir and continuation of the ancient Antiates. In contrast, Beatrice Cacciotti doubted an ancient origin of the town, and postulated a medieval origin.
Nettuno was also considered to be the location of the ancient Volscian port town of Caenon, which was the closest port of the town Antium (which did not have a natural harbour of its own). According to a more recent theory, the town Caenon would be located on a hill more east to Nettuno, and the port (similarly to the old theory above), would have been over the mouth of the river Loricina. In 469 BC, the town Caenon was destroyed by the Roman consul Titus Numicius Priscus.
On January 22, 1944, Nettuno and nearby Anzio were the theatre of an Allied forces landing and ensuing the Battle of Anzio, which began Operation Shingle during The Second World War. American forces (5th Army) were surrounded by Germans in the caves of Pozzoli in February 1944 for a week, suffering heavy casualties.
Nettuno is a popular tourist destination. Sights include a well-preserved old quarter, the Borgo Medievale, with mediaeval streets and small squares, and the Forte Sangallo, a castle built in 1503 by Renaissance architect Antonio da Sangallo the Elder.
Nettuno is also a center of pilgrimage to the shrine of Saint Maria Goretti, in which a crypt houses the mortal remains of the saint. The church keeps also a valuable polychromed wooden statue of Our Lady of Grace, which is honoured by the town with a procession every year the first Saturday of May. It was originally Our Lady of Ipswich, although it left England after the Reformation.
The privately owned Villa Costaguti-Borghese at Nettuno, built 1648, has gardens in a landscape park designed about 1840, now protected as a nature reserve. The Borghese Gladiator was discovered at Nettuno.
Nettuno Baseball Club is one of the most important Italian baseball teams, often winner of the national championship. Baseball was taught to the local people by American soldiers after their landing in World War II.
- "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
- "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
- Paola Brandizzi Vittucci, Antium: Anzio e Nettuno in epoca romana, Roma, Bardi Editore, 2000. ISBN 88-85699-83-9
- Giuseppe Tomassetti, La Campagna romana antica, medioevale e moderna, vol. II, Roma, 1910
- Beatrice Cacciotti Cacciotti, Testimonianze di culti orientali ad Antium, in B. P. Benetucci (curator), Culti orientali tra scavo e collezionismo, Roma, Artemide, 2008
- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) William Smith "Antium"; The Topography of Rome and Its Vicinity By Sir William Gell, 1846, "Antium"; Handbook for Travellers in Central Italy by John Murray, 1843, "Nettuno" p. 534
- Paola Brandizzi Vittucci, Antium: Anzio e Nettuno in epoca romana, Roma, Bardi Editore, 2000, pp. 140-143. ISBN 88-85699-83-9
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, ix. 56; Livy Ab urbe condita, ii. 63
- Enrico Canini, Operation Shingle: lo sbarco anfibio di Anzio e Nettuno, Youcanprint, 2017
- SICILY-ROME AMERICAN CEMETERY AND MEMORIAL Archived October 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 2009-05-25.