Nesidioblastosis is a controversial medical term for hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia attributed to excessive function of pancreatic beta cells with an abnormal microscopic appearance. The term was coined in the first half of the 20th century. The abnormal histologic aspects of the tissue included the presence of islet cell enlargement, islet cell dysplasia, beta cells budding from ductal epithelium, and islets in apposition to ducts.
By the 1970s, nesidioblastosis was primarily used to describe the pancreatic dysfunction associated with persistent congenital hyperinsulinism and in most cases from the 1970s until the 1980s, it was used as a synonym for what is now referred to as congenital hyperinsulinism. Most congenital hyperinsulinism is caused by different mechanisms than excessive proliferation of beta cells in a fetal pattern and the term fell into disfavor after it was recognized in the late 1980s that the characteristic tissue features were sometimes seen in pancreatic tissue from normal infants and even adults, and is not consistently associated with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia.
However, the term has been resurrected in recent years to describe a form of acquired hyperinsulinism with beta cell hyperplasia found in adults, especially after gastrointestinal surgery. Evidence of physiologic mechanisms which suggest that weight loss surgery conveys the ability to induce a more contemporary presentation of nesidioblastosis remains elusive and is of intense interest to diabetes researchers.
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- Clancy T, Moore F, Zinner M (2006). "Post-gastric bypass hyperinsulinism with nesidioblastosis: subtotal or total pancreatectomy may be needed to prevent recurrent hypoglycemia". J Gastrointest Surg. 10 (8): 1116–9. doi:10.1016/j.gassur.2006.04.008. PMID 16966030.
- Raffel A, Anlauf M, Hosch S, Krausch M, Henopp T, Bauersfeld J, Klofat R, Bach D, Eisenberger C, Kloppel G, Knoefel W (2006). "Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia due to adult nesidioblastosis in insulin-dependent diabetes". World J Gastroenterol. 12 (44): 7221–4. doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i44.7221. PMID 17131493.