The Nepal Communist Party, abbreviated NCP (Nepali: नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी, pronounced [neˈpal ˈkʌmjunisʈ ˈpa(r)ʈi]) is a defunct communist party which existed in Nepal from 2018 to 2021. It was founded on 17 May 2018, from the unification of two leftist parties, Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) and Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre). The unification was completed by the Party Unification Coordination Committee, after eight months of negotiation. The two predecessor parties subsequently dissolved, making way for the new united party. The party retained the electoral symbol of the CPN (UML), the sun.[9][10]

Nepal Communist Party
नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी
AbbreviationNCP (English)
नेकपा (Nepali)
ChairpersonPushpa Kamal Dahal
KP Sharma Oli[1]
General SecretaryBishnu Prasad Paudel
PresidiumSecretariat of the Nepal Communist Party
SpokespersonNarayan Kaji Shrestha
ChairmanKP Sharma Oli[2]
Founded17 May 2018 (2018-05-17)
Dissolved8 March 2021 (2021-03-08)
Merger ofCPN (Maoist Centre)
CPN (Unified Marxist–Leninist)
Succeeded byCPN (Maoist Centre)
CPN (Unified Marxist–Leninist)
HeadquartersAakirti Marg, Dhumbarahi (Kathmandu)
Student wingAll Nepal National Free Students Union
Youth wingNational Youth Union, Nepal
Labour wingGEFONT
Political positionLeft-wing[7]
Centre-left to far-left
International affiliationIMCWP[8]
Colors  Red
Anthem"The Internationale"
Election symbol
Party flag

The party was the largest political party in the House of Representatives, National Assembly and in all provincial assemblies except No. 2. Former Prime Minister of Nepal Pushpa Kamal Dahal and K. P. Sharma Oli, both served as the chairmen of the party.[11] After internal conflicts in the party and the dissolution of parliament, the party splintered into two major factions.[12] On 8 March 2021, Nepal's Supreme Court stated that the allocation of the name "Nepal Communist Party" upon the merger of the CPN-UML and CPN (Maoist Centre), and by extension the merger itself, was void ab initio, as the name was already allotted to a party led by Rishiram Kattel, and that the NCP stood "dismissed".[13] Upon the ruling, the two predecessor parties were revived in their original state immediately prior to the merger, although should the two wish to merge again with proper procedure being followed, it would be fully allowed.

History edit

Left alliance and unification edit

On 3 October 2017, the two major communist parties, the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) and the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre) who were second and third largest party of Nepal respectively announced a coalition for the upcoming legislative and provincial election. This was joined by Naya Shakti Party led by former prime minister Baburam Bhattarai. This was a practice to side line the largest party of Nepal, Nepali Congress from government and decrease its strength in parliament. The three parties also announced plans for unification following the election with the formation of a Unification Coordination Committee.[14][15][16]

On 14 October 2017, Naya Shakti Party broke from the alliance citing differences with the two parties.[17] The alliance between the two parties won a majority in the House of Representatives and in six of the seven provincial assemblies.[18][19] Following the elections, it was decided that CPN (Unified Marxist–Leninist) would get chief ministers in Province No. 1, Bagmati Province, Gandaki Province and Lumbini Province, and CPN (Maoist Centre) would get chief ministers in Karnali Province and Sudurpashchim Province.[20] The party also won a two-thirds majority in the National Assembly.[21][22] Following the formation of the Federal Parliament of Nepal, parliamentary party leader of the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist), Khadga Prasad Oli was sworn in as Prime Minister on 15 February 2018.[23][24] The merger of the two parties was initially announced for 22 April 2018, to coincide with the formation of the original Communist Party of Nepal in 1949,[25] but the unification was put on hold citing insufficient time to sort out remaining issues.[26]

The CPN (Unified Marxist–Leninist) and CPN (Maoist Centre) dissolved their central committees on 17 May 2018 and the new party was formed on the same day. Khadga Prasad Oli and Pushpa Kamal Dahal would serve as joint chairmen of the party until a general convention was held.[27][28][29] The party also named its Standing Committee consisting of 26 members of the former UML and 19 members of the former Maoist Centre on 12 June 2018.[30] The provincial committees of the party were finalized on 4 December 2018.[31][32] The district committees were finalized on 22 April 2019,[33][34] and the district in-charges were appointed on 22 July 2019.[35][36]

Internal conflict edit

In a party secretariat meeting on 21 August 2019, senior leader of the party Madhav Kumar Nepal registered a note on dissent regarding the work division in the party and criticizing the two co-chairmen, K.P. Sharma Oli and Pushpa Kamal Dahal, for not completing the merger process sooner. He also criticized Oli for not following the "One Leader, One Position" policy that the party had decided on and called for Oli to either resign as party leader or as prime minister.[37][38][39] A meeting of the secretariat on 21 November 2019, the party decided on continuing with two leaders but made Dahal the executive head of the party. The meeting also decided on letting Oli complete his full term as prime minister instead of the agreement between the two leaders to lead the government in turns.[40][41] The cabinet was also reshuffled after criticisms of the government from within the party.[42][43][44] A rift within the party was also formed after some factions in the party did not favor a grant under the Millennium Challenge Corporation that the government had agreed with the United States government.[45][46] A task force formed by the party decided on not endorsing the agreement without amendments.[47][48]

Bam Dev Gautam was appointed as the party's vice-chairman after the central committee of the party amended the party statute.[49] Party co-chairman, Pushpa Kamal Dahal and Madhav Kumar Nepal criticized the Oli governments handling of the COVID-19 pandemic and leaders within the party urged the senior leadership in the party to call a meeting of the party secretariat to discuss the government work.[50][51] At the meeting of the party secretariat some leaders called on Oli's resignation but a later meeting decided to allow Oli to after he agreed to work under the party's instructions and let Dahal perform his duties as the party's executive leader.[52][53] A panel formed by the party to solve the internal dispute proposed that a national convention of the party be held in April 2021 to solve issues regarding the party unity and the proposal was endorsed by the standing committee of the party.[54][55] Another cabinet reshuffle was done on 16 October 2020 but Oli was criticized by the party for not consulting the party.[56]

On 14 November 2020, co-chairman Pushpa Kamal Dahal presented a political document at a party secretariat meeting that accused K.P. Sharma Oli of not following the party's directions, unilaterally leading the government and turning a blind eye towards corruption.[57] In response, Oli attacked Dahal for not letting him the government, promoting factionalism and nepotism as well as not letting victims of the Nepalese Civil War get justice.[58][59]

Vertical split edit

On 20 December 2020, K.P. Sharma Oli called on President Bidhya Devi Bhandari to dissolve the House of Representatives and call for fresh elections.[60] In an address to the nation, Oli said he dissolved the house after the party had not let him work as prime minister and that a no-confidence motion was being prepared against him from within the party.[61] The decision was met with criticism from within the party and seven ministers close to the Dahal–Nepal faction in his cabinet resigned in protest.[62]

K.P. Oli called a meeting of the central committee of the leaders in the party close to him and added 556 members to the existing 446-member committee of the party. The new central committee was to organize a party unity convention in November 2021. The meeting also removed Narayan Kaji Shrestha as party spokesperson and replaced him with Pradeep Gyawali.[63][64]

The Dahal–Nepal faction of the party also organized its own central committee meeting with 310 members of the original central committee and replaced K.P. Oli as party co-chairman with Madhav Kumar Nepal.[65] The meeting also decided to protest against the government to restore the House of Representatives.[66][67]

Election Commission registry edit

The party got registered with the Election Commission of Nepal on 7 June 2018 under the name Nepal Communist Party (NCP) after the Election Commission of Nepal refused to register the new party as another party called Nepal Communist Party was already registered, the latter being a small group led by Rishi Kattel.[68][69][70] Kattel challenged the Election Commission decision at the Supreme Court.[71]

As a reference to the NCP's registration, the party became colloquially known as the NCP double.[72] Following the split between the Oli and Dahal-Nepal factions, the Election Commission declined to recognize neither faction as the legitimate holders of the NCP's registration.[73] On 8 March 2021, Nepal's Supreme Court stated that the allocation of the name Nepal Communist Party upon the merger of the CPN (UML) and CPN (Maoist Centre), and by extension the merger itself, was void ab initio, as the name was already allotted to the party led by Kattel, and that the NCP stood "dismissed".[13] Upon the ruling, the two predecessor parties were revived in their original state immediately prior to the merger, although should the two wish to merge again with proper procedure being followed, that it would be fully allowed.

Ideology edit

As part of the original merger agreement, the party's ideology consisted of Marxism–Leninism and support for a multi-party system in Nepal, while the party itself remains officially secular and governed by democratic centralism. The party also favors socialism-oriented people's democracy in the short-term that would eventually lead into communism.[74]

Organization and structure edit

Central organization edit

Secretariat edit

A nine-member Secretariat (also known as High Command) of the party was created. It included:

Politburo edit

A 135-member politburo was formed after the formation of the standing committee and central committee.[76]

Standing Committee edit

The 45-member Standing Committee of the Central Political Bureau included 26 members from CPN (UML) and 19 from CPN (Maoist Centre).[77]

Central Committee edit

The central committee had a total of 441 members, including 241 from Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist), and 200 from Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre).[9]

Lower-level organizations edit

  • Provincial committees: 151-member committee for each of the seven provinces[77]
  • District committees: 77-member committee for each of the 77 districts[76]
  • Metropolitan committees[76]
  • Sub-metropolitan committees[76]
  • Municipal committees[76]
  • Rural municipal committees[76]
  • Ward committees[76]

Federal government edit

Elections Pratinidhi Sabha Rastriya Sabha Government Prime Minister/Parliamentary Party Leader
174 / 275
50 / 59
Majority government Khadga Prasad Oli

Presence in various provinces edit

Province Seats Percentage
Province No. 1
66 / 93
Madhesh Province
32 / 107
Bagmati Province
80 / 110
Gandaki Province
39 / 60
Lumbini Province
61 / 87
Karnali Province
32 / 40
Sudurpashchim Province
39 / 53

Leadership edit

Party leadership edit



General secretaries

List of prime ministers edit

No. Prime Minister Portrait Term in office Legislature Cabinet Constituency
Start End Tenure
1 Khadga Prasad Oli   15 February 2018[a] 13 July 2021[b] 3 years, 148 days 1st Federal Parliament Oli, 2018 Jhapa 5

Provincial governments edit

In 2020, NCP headed the provincial governments in Province No. 1, Bagmati, Gandaki, Lumbini, Karnali and Sudurpahschim provinces.

chief ministers from NCP (before its dissolution)
Province Chief Minister Portrait Cabinet Constituency
Province No. 1 Sher Dhan Rai[78]   Sher Dhan Rai, 2018 Bhojpur 1(B)
Bagmati Dormani Poudel[79] Dormani Poudel, 2018 Makwanpur 1(B)
Gandaki Prithvi Subba Gurung[80] Prithvi Subba Gurung, 2018 Lamjung 1(B)
Lumbini Shankar Pokharel[81] Shankar Pokharel, 2018 Dang 2(A)
Karnali Mahendra Bahadur Shahi[82] Mahendra Bahadur Shahi, 2018 Kalikot 1(B)
Sudurpaschim Trilochan Bhatta[83] Trilochan Bhatta, 2018 Doti 1(B)

Breakaway factions edit

Party Leaders
CPN (UML) KP Sharma Oli
CPN (Maoist Centre) Pushpa Kamal Dahal
CPN (Unified Socialist) Madhav Kumar Nepal
People's Progressive Party Hridayesh Tripathi
CPN (Unity National Campaign) Bam Dev Gautam

Notes edit

  1. ^ Term started before the party was formed on 17 May 2018
  2. ^ Term ended after the party was dissolved on 8 March 2021

See also edit

References edit

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  5. ^ Karki, Budhi; Edrisinha, Rohan (2014). Post peace agreement constitution making in Nepal. Kathmandu: United Nations Development Programme. p. 4. ISBN 978-9937-8942-1-0.
  6. ^ "Matrika Yadav demands to revive 'Prachanda Path'". Khabarhub. 18 December 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  7. ^ Yhome, K. (16 January 2020). "Xi's Myanmar visit and China's Regional Diplomacy". Orf. Observer Research Foundation. Retrieved 9 February 2020. President Xi's visit to Nepal in October 2019 came when the ruling communist party in Nepal has consolidated power following the merger of two major left-wing parties to form Nepal Communist Party (NCP) in May 2018.
  8. ^ "20 IMCWP, Participants List". SolidNet. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
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