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The Nembo class was a class of destroyer of the Italian Regia Marina (Royal Navy). Six destroyers were built by the Pattison shipyard of Naples between 1899 and 1905, to a design based on the contemporary destroyers of the British shipyard Thornycroft. They were active in the Italo-Turkish War and in the First World War, where three were lost.

The civil government at Grado Redenta (1917) (14596014799).jpg
Zeffiro
Class overview
Name: Nembo class
Builders: Pattison, Naples
Operators:  Regia Marina
Preceded by: Lampo class
Succeeded by: Soldato class
Built: 1899–1905
In commission: 1902–1924
Completed: 6
Lost: 3
Scrapped: 3
General characteristics
Type: Destroyer
Displacement:
  • 325 long tons (330 t) normal
  • 380 long tons (390 t) full load
Length:
  • 63.39 m (208 ft 0 in) pp
  • 64.00 m (210 ft 0 in) oa
Beam: 5.94 m (19 ft 6 in)
Draught: 2.29 m (7 ft 6 in)
Propulsion:
Speed: 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph)
Complement: 55
Armament:

Nembo and Turbine:

1 × 76 mm/40 gun
5 × 57 mm/43 guns
2 × 356 mm (14 in) torpedo tubes

Remaining ships:

5 × 57 mm/43 guns
3 × 356 mm (14 in) torpedo tubes
1 × 356 mm (14 in) bow tube

DesignEdit

In 1899, work began on at the Pattison shipyard of Naples on the first ships of a new class of destroyers, the Nembo class.[1] The Nembo class were based on a design by the British shipbuilders Thornycroft, and were similar to the Thirty-knotter destroyers that Thornycroft were building for the British Royal Navy (such as HMS Stag).[2]

The ships were 64.0 metres (210 ft 0 in) long overall and 63.39 metres (208 ft 0 in) between perpendiculars, with a beam of 5.94 metres (19 ft 6 in) and a draught of 2.29 metres (7 ft 6 in). Displacement was 325 long tons (330 t) normal and 380 long tons (390 t) full load.[3] Three Thornycroft boilers fed steam to two triple expansion steam engines rated at 5,000 indicated horsepower (3,700 kW) and driving two propeller shafts, giving a design speed of 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph).[3][4] The ships featured a raised turtleback[a] forecastle and two funnels.[6] Crew was between 51 and 58 officers and men.[4]

The first two ships of the class, Nembo and Turbine were armed with one 76 mm (3 in)/40 calibre gun (capable of firing a 5.9 kilograms (13 lb) shell to a range of 9,850 metres (32,320 ft) at a rate of fire of 15 rounds per minute per gun[7]) and five 57 mm/43 guns, with two 356 mm (14 in) torpedo tubes,[3] while the remaining four ships had a reduced gun armament of five 57 mm/43 guns, allowing an increased torpedo armament of four 356 mm torpedo tubes to be carried.[3]

The six ships of the class were completed between 1902 and 1905, reaching speeds of up to 30.2 knots (55.9 km/h; 34.8 mph) during sea trials (corresponding to a realistic sea speed of 27 knots (50 km/h; 31 mph)).[8]

Nembo and Turbine were rearmed in 1905 to match the other four ships.[3] From 1908, all ships of the class were fitted with new oil-fired boilers, with a resulting change in the ships' profile, with three funnels being fitted rather than two. Sufficient oil was carried to give a range of 330 nautical miles (610 km; 380 mi) at 25 knots (46 km/h; 29 mph) or 2,200 nautical miles (4,100 km; 2,500 mi) at 9 knots (17 km/h; 10 mph). The ships' armament was changed at the same time, to four 76 mm/40 guns and two 450 mm (18 in) torpedo tubes.[4]

ServiceEdit

The ships of the class were active during the Italo-Turkish War of 1911–1912.[9] They were fitted for minelaying, with a capacity of 10–16 mines during the First World War, during which three destroyers were lost.[3] Following the end of the war, the remaining three ships had a boiler removed, with the consequent loss of a funnel, together with a 76 mm gun, and were reclassified as torpedo boats.[4]

ShipsEdit

Ship Laid down[8] Launched[8] Completed[8] Operational History
Nembo 6 August 1899 18 May 1901 26 June 1902 Torpedoed by Austro-Hungarian submarine U-16 on 17 October 1916.[10][b]
Turbine 20 August 1899 21 November 1901 28 August 1902 Sunk by Austro-Hungarian cruiser Helgoland and destroyers Csepel, Tátra and Lika on 24 May 1915.[10]
Aquilone 10 September 1899 16 October 1902 12 October 1903 Re-rated as torpedo boat 1 July 1921, discarded 4 March 1923.[4]
Borea 2 October 1899 12 December 1902 6 October 1903 Sunk by Austro-Hungarian destroyers Csepel and Balaton 14/15 May 1917.[4]
Zeffiro 14 May 1904 1 April 1905 Re-rated as torpedo boat 1 July 1921, discarded 13 March 1923.[10]
Espero 9 July 1904 1 April 1905 Renamed Turbine 16 January 1921. Re-rated as torpedo boat 1 July 1921, discarded 5 April 1923.[4]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ A turtleback is an arched structure over the deck of a ship, normally at the ship's bow.[5]
  2. ^ U-16 was also sunk in this engagement, possibly by the explosion of Nembo's depth charges after the destroyer sank,[3][10][11][12] or possibly by ramming, either by Nembo[13] or by another ship.[14]

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ "Nembo: Cacciatorpedinere" (in Italian). Marina Militare. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  2. ^ Friedman 2009, p. 50.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Chesneau and Kolesnik 1979, p. 356.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Fraccaroli 1970, p. 65.
  5. ^ "turtleback: Definitions". wordnik.com. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
  6. ^ Purnell's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Modern Weapons and Warfare, p. 1877.
  7. ^ Fraccaroli 1970, pp. 281–282.
  8. ^ a b c d Fraccaroli 1970, pp. 65–66.
  9. ^ Beehler 1913, pp. 10, 89.
  10. ^ a b c d Fraccaroli 1970, p. 66.
  11. ^ Gardiner and Gray 1985, p. 258.
  12. ^ Grant 1964, p. 163.
  13. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Nembo". U-Boat War in World War I. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  14. ^ Gardiner and Gray 1985, p. 343.

ReferencesEdit

  • Beehler, William Henry (1913). The History of the Italian-Turkish War, Sept. 29, 1911 to Oct. 18, 1912. Annapolis, Maryland, USA: Advertiser-Republican.
  • Chesneau, Roger; Kolesnik, Eugene M (1979). Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-133-5.
  • Fraccaroli, Aldo (1970). Italian Warships of World War 1. London: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0105-7.
  • Friedman, Norman (2009). British Destroyers: From Earliest Days to the Second World War. Barnsley, UK: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84832-049-9.
  • Gardiner, Robert; Gray, Randal (1985). Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships 1906–1921. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-245-5.
  • Grant, Robert M. (1964). U-Boats Destroyed: The Effect of Anti-Submarine Warfare 1914–1918. London: Putnam.
  • "Nembo". Purnell's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Modern Weapons and Warfare. London: Phoebus Pub. Co.: 1877 1978–1979.