Nelumbonaceae is a family of aquatic flowering plants. Nelumbo is the sole extant genus, containing Nelumbo lutea, native to North America, and Nelumbo nucifera, widespread in Asia.[2] At least four other genera, Nelumbites, Exnelumbites, Paleonelumbo, and Nelumbago,[3] are known from fossils.

Temporal range: Cretaceous–Recent
Nelumno nucifera open flower - botanic garden adelaide2.jpg
N. nucifera (sacred lotus)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Order: Proteales
Family: Nelumbonaceae
  • Nelumbo
  • Nelumbites
  • Exnelumbites
  • Paleonelumbo
  • Nelumbago

Nelumbonaceae were once included in the waterlily family, Nymphaeaceae. Genetic analysis determined that the similarities between the families are an example of convergent evolution. Nelumbonaceae are highly modified eudicots belonging to the order Proteales, their closest living relatives being the plane trees (Platanaceae) and Proteaceae.[4]

The APG IV system of 2016 places the family in the order Proteales, in the clade eudicots.[5][1] The Cronquist system, of 1981, also recognized this family, but placed it in order Nymphaeales in subclass Magnoliidae in class Magnoliopsida (=dicotyledons), based on gross morphological similarities. The Dahlgren system and Thorne system (1992) also recognized this family and placed it in its own order, Nelumbonales, in superorder Magnolianae in subclass Magnoliidae (=dicotyledons).

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385. ISSN 0024-4074.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  2. ^ "Classification | USDA PLANTS".
  3. ^ Estrada-Ruiz, Emilio; Upchurch Jr., G.R.; Wolfe, J.A.; Cevallos-Ferriz, S.R.S. (2011), "Comparative Morphology of Fossil and Extant Leaves of Nelumbonaceae, Including a New Genus from the Late Cretaceous of Western North America", Systematic Botany, 36 (2): 337–351, doi:10.1600/036364411X569525, S2CID 86589995
  4. ^ Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards), "Proteales: Nelumbonaceae", Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, retrieved 2014-02-25
  5. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III (2009), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161 (2): 105–121, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x

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