Needles (Mojave: ʼAha Kuloh) is a city in eastern San Bernardino County, California, United States. It lies on the western banks of the Colorado River in the Mohave Valley subregion of the Mojave Desert, near the borders of Arizona and Nevada and roughly 110 miles (180 km) from the Las Vegas Strip. It is the easternmost city of the San Bernardino-Riverside metropolitan area. Needles is geographically isolated from other cities in the county. Barstow, the nearest city within the county, is separated from Needles by over 140 miles of desert and 2 mountain ranges. The city is accessible via Interstate 40 and U.S. Route 95. The population was 4,844 at the 2010 census, up from 4,830 at the 2000 census.
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|County||San Bernardino County|
|Incorporated||October 30, 1913|
|• Total||31.28 sq mi (81.00 km2)|
|• Land||30.82 sq mi (79.82 km2)|
|• Water||0.46 sq mi (1.19 km2) 1.49%|
|Elevation||495 ft (151 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||162.46/sq mi (62.73/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−8 (Pacific)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−7 (PDT)|
|GNIS feature IDs||1652757, 2411220|
Needles was named after "The Needles", a group of pinnacles in the Mohave Mountains on the Arizona side of the river to the south of the city. The large Mohave Native American community shares the nearby Fort Mojave Indian Reservation and the town. Needles is a gateway to the Mojave National Preserve.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Government
- 5 Infrastructure
- 6 Education
- 7 Popular culture
- 8 Notable people
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The Mohave, one of the traditional Colorado River Indian Tribes, are Native Americans who had lived in the Mojave Valley for thousands of years before the early Spanish explorers arrived. They call themselves the ʼAha Makhav, which in the Mojave language comes from two words: ʼaha, meaning "river", and makhav, meaning "along" or "beside". Thus they are the "people who live along the river". The Mojave traded with the tribes of coastal Southern California by way of the Mohave Trail. The first European to visit the Mojave was Franciscan missionary Francisco Garcés, who traveled on the trail and reported on it in 1776. From 1829 to 1848, a portion of the trail became a part of the Old Spanish Trail that ran between New Mexico and Southern California.
The Mojave Road goes through the Mojave National Preserve, more or less following the old Mohave Trail. In 1859, Fort Mohave was built to guard the road and protect pioneer immigrants from New Mexico and other travelers during the Mohave War.
Needles was founded in May 1883 during the construction of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, which originally crossed the Colorado River at Eastbridge, Arizona three miles southeast of modern Needles. Its name was taken from the Needles, a group of pointed mountain peaks at the south end of the valley, visible only by boat from the Colorado River. However, the crossing was a poor site for a bridge, lacking firm banks and a solid bottom. A bridge was actually built, but it was of poor quality. Not only was it a "flimsy looking structure", but it was also an obstacle to navigation on the river. The flooding of the Colorado River destroyed the bridge three times – in 1884, 1886 and 1888. The railway finally built Red Rock Bridge, a high cantilever bridge, at a narrower point with solid rock footings ten miles downstream near today's Topock. The bridge was completed in May 1890, and the old bridge was dismantled.:82
At first simply a tent town for railroad construction crews, the railway would eventually build a hotel, car sheds, shops and a roundhouse. Within only a month, Needles would have a Chinese laundry, a newsstand, a restaurant, several general stores, and about nine or ten saloons. Needles quickly became the largest port on the river above Yuma, Arizona.:82 The railway and the Fred Harvey Company built the elegant Neoclassical and Beaux-Arts style El Garces Hotel and Santa Fe Station in 1908, which was considered the "crown jewel" of the entire Fred Harvey chain. The landmark building is on the National Register of Historic Places and is being restored.
Needles was a major stop on the historic U.S. Route 66 highway from the 1920s through the 1960s. For immigrants from the Midwest Dust Bowl in the 1930s, it was the first town that marked their arrival in California. The city is lined with motels and other shops from that era. The "Carty's Camp", which appears briefly in The Grapes of Wrath as the Joad family enters California from Arizona, is now a ghost tourist court, its remains located behind the 1940s-era 66 Motel.
In 1949, the United States Bureau of Reclamation began an extensive project to dredge a new channel for the Colorado River that would straighten out a river bend that was causing serious silt problems since the Hoover Dam was completed.
Needles is a tourism and recreation center, a tradition going back many decades. The city is the eastern gateway to the Mojave National Preserve, a scenic desert area.
Needles, like Death Valley to the northwest, is known for extreme heat during the summer. The Needles weather station is frequently reported by the United States government's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) as the site of the highest daily temperature recorded in the U.S. during the desert summers. Needles occasionally sets national or world daily temperature records, along with other related records associated with extreme desert heat. For instance, on July 22, 2006, Needles experienced a record high low temperature of 100 °F (38 °C) at 6:00 am with a high temperature exceeding 120 °F (49 °C), making it one of the few locations on Earth that have recorded a triple-digit overnight low temperature. Also, on August 13, 2012, Needles experienced a thunderstorm that deposited rain at a temperature of 115 °F (46 °C) starting at 3:56 pm, setting a new record for the hottest rain in world history. The air temperature was 118 °F (48 °C), tying Needles' record high for the date. Since the humidity was only 11%, the rain evaporated so that "only a trace of precipitation was recorded in the rain gauge". Weather records researcher Maximiliano Herrera reported that this was the lowest humidity at which rain has occurred on Earth in recorded history. Later, on May 4, 2014, Needles reached a temperature of 102 °F (39 °C) with a dewpoint of −38 °F (−39 °C), for a relative humidity of 0.33%, the lowest value ever recorded on Earth.
In the winter, the normal high temperatures range from 62 °F (17 °C) to 80 °F (27 °C) with lows of 40 °F (4 °C) to 60 °F (16 °C). During summer the normal high temperatures range from 106 °F (41 °C) to 122 °F (50 °C) with lows of 82 °F (28 °C) to 94 °F (34 °C). The record low temperature was 20 °F (−7 °C) on December 23, 1990. The average year has 168.4 days with highs of 90 °F (32 °C) or higher and 4.9 days with lows of 32 °F (0 °C) or lower. On June 20, 2017, the high temperature record was tied with a reading of 125 °F (52 °C).
Annual rainfall is about 5.11 inches (130 mm). There are normally 23 days with measurable precipitation. The wettest year was 1965 with 9.50 inches and the driest year was 2006 with 0.70 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 4.72 inches in September 1976. The most rainfall in 24 hours was 2.55 inches on August 28, 1951. Although snowfall is very rare in Needles, 15.2 inches of snow fell in January 1949, including 12.2 inches on January 12, 1949. The city is also known for moderate to locally severe thunderstorms during the monsoon season as well as humid conditions.
Needles is served by the National Weather Service's NOAA Weather Radio operating on 162.50 MHz from the Las Vegas National Weather Service.
|Climate data for Needles, California|
|Record high °F (°C)||85
|Average high °F (°C)||65.0
|Average low °F (°C)||43.5
|Record low °F (°C)||21
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||0.72
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||0.3
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2000, there were 4,830 people, 1,940 households, and 1,268 families residing in the city. The estimated population in July 2006: 5,330 (+10.4% change). The population density was 162.3 per square mile (62.6/km²). There were 2,551 housing units at an average density of 85.7 per square mile (33.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 77.9% White, 1.6% African American, 7.0% Native American, 1.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 6.4% from other races, and 5.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 18.4% of the population.
There were 1,940 households out of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.5% were married couples living together, 16.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.6% were non-families. 29.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.5 and the average family size was 3.0.
In the city, the population was spread out with 27.6% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 23.6% from 25 to 44, 25.6% from 45 to 64, and 15.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $26,108, and the median income for a family was $33,264. Males had a median income of $39,688 versus $19,483 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,156. About 21.2% of families and 26.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.2% of those under age 18 and 11.3% of those age 65 or over.
Major employment in the city is supported by the BNSF Railway (formerly the Santa Fe Railroad). The depot has been a terminal (crew change point) for the railway since the late 19th century. The railroad company has been the city's main employment source for over a century.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 30.2 square miles (78 km2). 29.8 square miles (77 km2) of it is land and 0.4 square miles (1.0 km2) of it (1.36%) is water.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Needles had a population of 4,844. The population density was 154.9 people per square mile (59.8/km²). The racial makeup of Needles was 3,669 (75.7%) White (65.4% Non-Hispanic White), 95 (2.0%) African American, 399 (8.2%) Native American, 35 (0.7%) Asian, 9 (0.2%) Pacific Islander, 323 (6.7%) from other races, and 314 (6.5%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,083 persons (22.4%).
The Census reported that 4,839 people (99.9% of the population) lived in households, 5 (0.1%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 0 (0%) were institutionalized.
There were 1,918 households, out of which 650 (33.9%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 712 (37.1%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 331 (17.3%) had a female householder with no husband present, 159 (8.3%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 186 (9.7%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 6 (0.3%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 588 households (30.7%) were made up of individuals and 238 (12.4%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52. There were 1,202 families (62.7% of all households); the average family size was 3.12.
The population was spread out with 1,283 people (26.5%) under the age of 18, 401 people (8.3%) aged 18 to 24, 1,038 people (21.4%) aged 25 to 44, 1,357 people (28.0%) aged 45 to 64, and 765 people (15.8%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.0 males.
There were 2,895 housing units at an average density of 92.6 per square mile (35.7/km²), of which 1,015 (52.9%) were owner-occupied, and 903 (47.1%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 4.9%; the rental vacancy rate was 17.2%. 2,578 people (53.2% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 2,261 people (46.7%) lived in rental housing units.
According to the 2010 United States Census, Needles had a median household income of $29,613, with 28.8% of the population living below the poverty line.
The City of Needles was incorporated on October 30, 1913. It is a charter city, led by an elected mayor and a city council with six elected members. Mayors serve two-year terms of office, and councilmembers serve four-year terms. The council designates a vice mayor from among its members.
State and federal representationEdit
The March 9, 2009 voter registration tally for the city is as follows:
- American Independent: 104
- Democratic: 907
- Libertarian: 8
- Non-partisan: 430
- Peace and Freedom: 9
- Republican: 624
- City Total: 2,082
Proposals for secessionEdit
In 2008, claiming the county had been unwilling to help keep the city's troubled hospital open as a full-service medical facility, the city considered seceding from California and becoming part of neighboring Nevada, only a few miles away. The options of attaching itself to the state of Arizona or even forming a new county were also considered. Proposals to change states would require approval from the United States Congress and both state legislatures.
Interstate 40, known locally as the Needles Freeway, is the major highway through Needles, connecting Barstow to the west and Arizona to the east. U.S. Route 95 also enters the city from the east on former Route 66 as a concurrency with the I-40 freeway, then splits with the Interstate west of the city, and heads north to Nevada. The Colorado River Bridge connects Needles directly with Mohave County, Arizona, and Arizona State Route 95.
Local Transit service to the Needles area is provided by Needles Area Transit.
As of August 2, 2016, Victor Valley Transit Authority has service from Needles to Barstow and Victorville on Fridays. To Barstow and Victorville, the bus leaves at 6:15 and arrives at Victorville at 10:30 am. On the reverse trip, buses leave Victorville at 2:30 pm and arrives at Barstow at 7:15 pm.
Needles is served under contract with the San Bernardino County Fire Department. Fire Station 32 serves as the administrative offices for fire protection to the City of Needles and houses three Type I Engine companies and one Water Tender. The station is staffed with one paid officer augmented by limited-term firefighters and paid-call firefighters living in the community.
Colorado Medical Center was once a full service hospital but at present it's more functioning as an urgent care.
Needles' elementary schools and Needles High School are part of the Needles Unified School District. The school district is one of the largest in the United States in terms of area with almost 6,000 square miles (16,000 km2) in its boundaries. The district runs from Amboy to Needles, and south to Parker Dam. It has 1,158 students enrolled. The local Needles schools include Katie Hohstadt Elementary School, formerly called 'D' Street School (new home of Needles Head Start, and no longer a regular public school), Vista Colorado Elementary School (grades K–5), Needles Middle School (grades 6–8), Needles High School (grades 9–12), and the Educational Training Center (grades 9–12). Needles High School, due to its distance from other California schools, is a member of the Nevada Interscholastic Activities Association, along with four other similarly placed California schools: Truckee, North Tahoe, South Tahoe, and Coleville.
Needles also has two private schools: the Needles Assembly of God Christian School and the Needles Seventh-day Adventist School.
Movies using locations in Needles:
- The Grapes of Wrath (1940)
- Two-Lane Blacktop (1971)
- Convoy (1978)
- Repo Man (1984)
- Evicted (2000)
- Domino (2005)
- Criminal Xing (2007)
- Into the Wild (2007)
In the 1993 film Suture, the town of Needles is a key element of the plot.
- In John Steinbeck's novel The Grapes of Wrath, the Joad family stops in Needles when they enter California on Route 66.
- Leslie Marmon Silko's novel Gardens in the Dunes is largely set in and around Needles in the late 19th century.
- In the comic strip Peanuts, whose creator Charles Schulz lived in Needles as a boy, Snoopy's brother Spike lived in the desert outside Needles. He frequently heads to Needles to partake of the town's nightlife, often running afoul of the local coyotes.
- In 2004, John Lowery (John 5), former guitarist for Marilyn Manson, released his CD Vertigo, in which the first track is entitled "Needles CA."
- The town is mentioned in the lyrics of Hoyt Axton's "Never Been To Spain"; the song was a hit for Three Dog Night in 1972 and was also performed by Elvis –
Well I never been to England, but I kinda like the Beatles. Well, I headed for Las Vegas, only made it out to Needles. Can you feel it? Must be real. It feels so good!
- Izzy Stradlin's 1999 album Ride On includes a track entitled "Needles" about his love of visiting the town.
- In 2009 the song "Don't Look Down" by Barnaby Bright included the following :
We pulled into a truck stop Somewhere just outside of Needles California, You asked me for ten bucks and I said “What about the last ten bucks I loaned you?”
- Needles is shown as being one of the towns passed through by two would be assassins making their way to Los Angeles in Season two, Episode 21 of Mission: Impossible (1966 TV series) (1968), which episode starred Will Geer, later of The Waltons, as the leader of a deep sleeper agent Soviet cell, which had also captured Jim Phelps.
- In October 2006, two students and two teachers from Needles High School were invited to Washington DC to meet with the Under Secretary of Defense, in which they spoke of the new program at Needles High School called MOCK National Security Workshop. The students were also interviewed for the nationwide, fifteen-minute television news show, Channel One News, where the episode was aired on October 25.
- Needles was the main site of a 2009 UFO Hunters episode investigating a supposed UFO Crash.
- Needles High School was on a School Pride television episode November 12, 2010.
- In the Sex and the City season 6 episode "Out of the Frying Pan", Smith Jerrod and Samantha Jones attend the movie premiere of a Gus Van Sant film called Needles, CA.
- Route 66 (1960) "The Strengthening Angels" TV Episode
- The Amazing Race (2001) TV Series
- Needles (and the surrounding area) was the scene for the hit 1988 post-apocalyptic computer RPG Wasteland.
- Murals paying homage to U.S. 66, the celebrated "Mother Road" which passed through Needles on its way between Chicago and Los Angeles, and painted by local artist Dan Louden, have become a popular tourist attraction.
- Pat Morris, Mayor of San Bernardino, California.
- Max Rafferty, Needles Superintendent of Schools, 1955–1961, became California Superintendent of Public Instruction 1962–1970.
- Charles Schulz, cartoonist of Peanuts, lived in Needles 1928–30 and made it the residence of Snoopy's brother Spike.
- Bess Houdini, wife and stage assistant of famed escape artist Harry Houdini, died in Needles in 1943.
- Yara tav, leader of the Mohave people (1861–1874), born close to the Needles rock formation before the establishment of the town.
- Alice Notley, American poet, grew up in Needles.
- "Needles". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
- "California Cities by Incorporation Date". California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Archived from the original (Word) on November 3, 2014. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
- "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Jun 28, 2017.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved September 28, 2019.
- "City of Needles Economic Development Strategic Plan" (PDF). 2014-04-22.
- "History of Needles". Needles Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
- Richard E. Lingenfelter, Steamboats on the Colorado River, 1852–1916, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1978 Archived 2016-01-18 at the Wayback Machine
- Fry, Hannah (2019-08-01). "This California town wants to be a 2nd Amendment 'sanctuary city' for guns and ammo". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
- "Putting A River In Its Place" Popular Mechanics, July 1949
- "Needles FAA Airport, California – Climate Summary". wrcc.dri.edu. Retrieved 2012-01-05.
- "Needles FAA Airport, California – Daily Summary". wunderground.com. July 22, 2006. Retrieved 2012-01-05.
- Masters, Jeff (August 15, 2012). "Hottest rain on record? Rain falls at 115°F in Needles, California".
- Jeff Masters (22 June 2017). "A World Record Low Humidity? 116°F With a 0.36% Humidity in Iran". Weather Underground. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
- "Weather Conditions For Needles, Needles Airport CA KEED". Retrieved 2012-06-23.
- "Summary of Great Southwest US Heat Wave of 2017". Retrieved 2012-07-19.
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