National Space Organization

The National Space Organization (NSPO or NSO; Chinese: 國家太空中心; pinyin: Guójiā Tàikōng Zhōngxīn) is the national civilian space agency of the Republic of China (Taiwan), part of the National Applied Research Laboratories under the auspices of the Ministry of Science and Technology. NSPO is involved in the development of space technologies and related research.[1]

National Space Organization
國家太空中心
Guójiā Tàikōng Zhōngxīn
National Space Organization (Republic of China) (logo).png
Agency overview
AbbreviationNSPO
FormedOctober 1991; 30 years ago (1991-10)
(as National Space Program Office)
1 April 2005; 17 years ago (2005-04-01)
(as National Space Organization)
TypeSpace agency
HeadquartersHsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu City, Taiwan
AdministratorWu Tsung-hsin, Director General
Primary spaceportJiu Peng Air Base, Pingtung, Taiwan
OwnerTaiwan Taiwan
Websitewww.nspo.narl.org.tw
National Space Organization
Traditional Chinese國家太空中心
Simplified Chinese国家太空中心
Literal meaningNational Space Centre

Vision and MissionEdit

NSPO was founded in order to develop and conduct researches on aerospace and natural science in Taiwan. In order to accomplish the assigned task from the   Republic of China authorities, NSPO established the vision and mission to succeed on the journey.

Become a center of innovation and excellence for space technology is the main goal of NSPO. Also, conducting space programs with Taiwan's strength and global competitiveness is a very important task to do along the whole development.[2]

OrganizationEdit

NSPO headquarters and the main ground control station are in Hsinchu. The NSPO is organized as follows:[3] In April 2022, the Legislative Yuan passed a bill that upgraded the NSPO to a directly affiliated agency of the Ministry of Science and Technology.[4]

Director General's Office
Engineering division Systems
Electrical
Mechanical
Flight control
Satellite operations control
Satellite image
Integration and test
Product assurance
Division Planning and promotion
Administration
Finance and accounting
Program office Mission oriented projects
Formosat 7
Formosat 5

NSPO also has numerous laboratories,[5] such as:

  • System Simulation Laboratory
  • Thermal Control Laboratory
  • Microwave Communication Laboratory
  • Data Processing Laboratory
  • Attitude Determination and Control Laboratory
  • Electro-optics Laboratory
  • Structure Development Laboratory
  • Electrical Power Laboratory
  • Multi-layer Insulation (MLI) Laboratory

HistoryEdit

1991Edit

  • 10/03
    The Executive Yuan approved the "Space Technology Long Term (15 years) Developmental Program"; established National Space Program Office.[6]

1994Edit

  • 09/09
    Held a groundbreaking ceremony for the construction of Satellite Integration & Test Building[6]
  • 11/01
    Signed a frequency coordination contract with an US company Telecom Strategies[6]
  • 12/12
    Signed a ground system contract with the US company Allied Signal Technical Service Corponation (ATSC)[6]

1996Edit

  • 06/30
    The completion of the five domestic component engineering model development; start the manufacture of flight unit.[6]

1997Edit

  • 04/25
    Held a FORMOSAT-1 antenna installment ceremony at Tainan National Cheng Kung University.[6]
  • 05/16
    The Spacecraft Bus was delivered to the Satellite Integration & Test Building of National Space Program Office from Los Angelus, USA[6]
  • 07/11
    The Vice President Lien officiated the opening ceremony of the Satellite Integration & Test Building.[6]

1998Edit

  • 06/21
    National Science Council announced the result for the "Naming and Drawing Competitions", and finalized that the satellite will be named "FORMOSAT-1" [6]
  • 10/07
    The completion of FORMOSAT-1 satellite system integration and tests.[6]

1999Edit

  • 01/27
    FORMOSAT-1 was being launched into the orbit and started executing its scientific missions.[6]
  • 02/13
    The Ocean Color Imager of FORMOSAT-1 took its first ocean color image.[6]
  • 03/16
    Dr Wong Hung-Chih took on the Director General position of the National Space Program Office.[6]
  • 06/30
    Held a contract signing ceremony for the FORMOSAT-2 X-band antenna system.[6]
  • 12/15
    The commencement of the development of FORMOSAT-2.[6]

2018Edit

  • 02/01
    Dr. Chun-Liang Lin took on the Director General position of National Space Organization[6]
  • 02/23
    President Tsai Meets with FORMOSAT-5 Satellite Team[6]
  • 08/03
    President of the Executive Yuan Ching-te Lai inspected FORMOSAT-7 preparation[6]
  • 09/21
    FORMOSAT-5 Imagery Service Begins[6]

2019Edit

  • 02/21
    President Ing-wen Tsai Visited NSPO[6]
  • 06/25
    FORMOSAT-7 satellites launched into space by SpaceX on Falcon Heavy[6]
  • 07/17
    FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 successfully observed the first Radio Occultation profile[6]

2020Edit

  • 03/07
    FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 atmospheric data were released[6]
  • 04/30
    FORMOSAT-3 constellation Completes its Mission with Honor[6]

2021Edit

  • 01/24
    YUSAT and IDEASSAT CubeSats launched[6]
  • 02/03
    Formosat-7 constellation deployment was completed[6]
  • 05/31
    "Space Development Act" Passes Legislature's 3rd Reading[6]
  • 08/02
    professor of NCTU and head of Advanced Rocket Research Center Jong-Shin Wu established as new manager of NSPO[7]
  • 09/30
    Taiwanese seeds return from space[8][9]
  • 10/27
    signs contract on collaboration with NanoAvionics[10][11][12][13][14][15]

Taiwanese rocket launch programEdit

The NSPO developed several suborbital launch vehicles based on the Sky Bow II surface-to-air missile. There have been six to seven launches as of 2010.

Mission Date Payload Result
SR-I 15 December 1998 None Successful first test flight.
SR-II 24 October 2001 Tri-Methyl Aluminum (TMA) Second stage ignition failure, mission lost
SR-III 24 December 2003 Tri-Methyl Aluminum (TMA) Mission successful
SR-IV 14 December 2004 Airglow photometer, GPS receiver Mission successful
SR-V 15 January 2006 Ion probe Mission successful
SR-VII May 10, 2010 Ion probe Mission successful[16]

Taiwanese satellite launch vehicle programEdit

Little has been publicly revealed about the specification of the ROC (Taiwan)'s first launch vehicle for small satellites (SLV) (小型發射載具). It should be able to place a 100 kg payload to a 500–700 km orbit. This SLV will be a major technological improvement based on existing sounding rockets and will consist of four solid propellant stages with two strap-on solid rocket boosters. Therefore, it will be in the same class of the Indian SLV-3. The inaugural launch was scheduled to take place during the second phase of the 2004–2018 space project (第二期太空計畫), placing a Taiwanese-made satellite into orbit and after the preparatory launches of 10 to 15 sounding rockets (探空火箭).[17]

Taiwanese designed and built satellitesEdit

Formosat (formerly ROCSAT)Edit

The FORMOSAT (福爾摩沙衛星) name derived from Formosa and satellite (formerly ROCSAT (中華衛星) = Republic of China (ROC) + satellite (sat)).

OthersEdit

  • YamSat: Series of picosatellites (volume 1000 cubic cm, weight roughly 850 grams) designed to carry out simple short duration spectroscopy missions.[22] Originally planned for launch in 2003 by a Russian launch vehicle but cancelled due to political pressure from the Russian government.[23]
  • Arase: JAXA mission to study the inner magnetosphere, launched 2016. Taiwan provided an instrument.
  • RISESAT: microsatellite developed by Tohoku University, Japan, launched in 2019. Taiwan provided an instrument.[24]
  • Flying Squirrel, developed by National Central University and launched in 2021.[25]
  • Yushan, developed by MoGaMe Mobile Entertainment and launched in 2021.[25]

Planned missionsEdit

  • Triton, The FORMOSAT-7R (TRITON) is a micro-satellite designed and manufactured by NSPO. It is planned along with the FORMOSAT-7 program, thus it continues to use FORMOSAT serial number and subjoins a letter “R” for identification. Known as the “wind hunter” the satellite will measure sea winds and provide a supplement to the FORMOSAT-7 constellation. The name ”Triton” is given due to its mission.[26] Triton is to be launched in 2021 by Arianespace SA from the Kourou launch complex in French Guiana. The Triton satellite will be 87% Taiwanese made, an improvement from the Formosat-7’s 78%.[27]
  • Formosat-8, remote sensing satellite planned to follow Triton.[27]
  • Nut, developed by National Formosa University. To be launched in June 2021.[25]

Developments and long term plansEdit

The first phase of Taiwan's space program involves the development of the human and technological resources required to build and maintain three satellite programs, which is expected to be completed with the launch of Formosat-3/COSMIC by the end of 2005. Currently, the spacecraft and instrumentation are designed and assembled in Taiwan by local and foreign corporations and shipped to the U.S. for launch by commercial space launch firms. The NSPO, the military, and Chungshan Institute of Science and Technology have also been working on the development of a sounding rocket for upper atmospheric studies.[citation needed]

The second phase is scheduled to take place between 2006 and 2018. It will involve an emphasis on developing technological integration and miniaturization capabilities required for the development of constellations of microsatellites, as well as encouraging growth in the local aerospace industry.[citation needed]

Since 2009, NSPO has been working with university research teams in developing innovative technology to improve the overall efficiency of hybrid rockets. Nitrous oxide/HTPB propellant systems were employed with efficiency boosting designs, which resulted in great improvements in hybrid rocket performance using two patented designs. So far, several hybrid rockets have been successfully launched to 10~20 km altitudes, including a demonstration of in-flight stops/restarts. By the end of 2014, they will attempt conducting suborbital experiments to 100~200 km altitude.[citation needed]

There have been proposals to elevate NSPO's status to that of a national research institute, however such plans were under debate Legislative Yuan as of late 2007.[citation needed]

In 2019 the Ministry of Science and Technology announced an expected cost of NT$25.1 billion (US$814 million) for the third phase of the National Space Program.[28] The third phase will see at least one satellite launched per year between 2019 and 2028.[29]

In August 2019 Thailand’s Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency announced that they would consult with the National Space Organization on developing their own indigenous satellites.[30]

In 2021 the Taiwanese legislature passed the Space Development Promotion Act which is meant to incentivize increased private sector participation in space industries.[31]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "About NSPO | Vision and Mission". Nspo.narl.org.tw. Retrieved March 16, 2017.
  2. ^ "NSPO Vision and Mission". NSPO.
  3. ^ "About NSPO | Organization". Nspo.narl.org.tw. Retrieved March 16, 2017.
  4. ^ Wang, Yang-yu; Teng, Pei-ju (April 19, 2022). "Taiwan's legislature clears bill to upgrade national space agency". Central News Agency. Retrieved April 19, 2022.
  5. ^ "About NSPO | Infrastructures". Nspo.narl.org.tw. Retrieved March 16, 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa "NSPO History Timeline". NSPO.
  7. ^ "火箭阿伯扭轉太空夢國研院太空中心主任佈達". nspo news.
  8. ^ "Taiwan seeds return from space!". NSPO.
  9. ^ "上太空的台灣種子回來了!". nspo news.
  10. ^ "臺灣與立陶宛展開太空科技合作". nspo news.
  11. ^ "MOU Signed Between Taiwan and Lithuania to Initiate Space Technology and S&T cooperation". nspo news.
  12. ^ 江, 睿智. "我太空中心與立陶宛NanoAvionics 簽MOU". udn.com.
  13. ^ "臺灣與立陶宛展開太空科技合作". most global.
  14. ^ "開啟太空科技合作起點!台灣、立陶宛簽署合作備忘錄". tw.news.yahoo.com.
  15. ^ "台灣立陶宛簽合作備忘錄 先導計畫發展商用太空科技". NCU research.
  16. ^ "美寶落格 MEPO Log - 文章在 週一, 五月 10. 2010". Mepopedia.com. Archived from the original on February 20, 2019. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
  17. ^ "台"太空计划"决定发展微卫星火箭发射载具". 中国日报网站. October 21, 2003. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved March 4, 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  18. ^ "Plasma/particle instruments and Japan-Taiwan collaboration for the Geospace magnetosphere/ionosphere explorations" (PDF). Masafumi Hirahara. October 21, 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 26, 2009. Retrieved June 5, 2009.
  19. ^ "FORMOSAT 5". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
  20. ^ "FORMOSAT 6". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved April 14, 2019.
  21. ^ "FORMOSAT -7". www.nspo.narl.org.tw. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
  22. ^ YamSat Program, National Space Organization
  23. ^ "YamSat 1A, 1B, 1C". Space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
  24. ^ Clark, Stephen. "Japan's Epsilon rocket launches seven tech demo satellites". /spaceflightnow.com. Pole Star Publications Ltd. Retrieved April 14, 2019.
  25. ^ a b c Ssu-yun, Su; Mazzetta, Matthew. "SpaceX rocket carries two Taiwanese satellites into space". focustaiwan.tw. Focus Taiwan. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
  26. ^ Hui-ju, Chien. "Second satellite to launch in Guyana in last half of 2021". www.taipeitimes.com. Taipei Times. Retrieved November 16, 2019.
  27. ^ a b Strong, Matthew. "France's Arianespace wins bid to launch Taiwan satellite in 2021". www.taiwannews.com.tw. Taiwan News. Retrieved November 15, 2019.
  28. ^ Sherry Hsiao, Chien Hui-ju. "Ministry announces third phase of space program". taipeitimes.com. Taipei Times. Retrieved April 14, 2019.
  29. ^ Matthew, Strong. "Taiwan to launch one satellite a year over the next decade". taiwannews.com. Taiwan News. Retrieved April 14, 2019.
  30. ^ Pei-ju, Teng. "Thailand seeks consultation with Taiwan on domestically built satellite". www.taiwannews.com.tw. Taiwan News. Retrieved November 15, 2019.
  31. ^ Staff Writer. "Taiwan eyes aerospace, focus on LEO satellites". www.taipeitimes.com. Taipei Times. Retrieved July 17, 2021.

External linksEdit