National Security Commission of the Chinese Communist Party

The Central National Security Commission (abbreviated CNSC; Chinese: 中央国家安全委员会; pinyin: Zhōngyāng Guójiā'ānquán Wěiyuánhuì) of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) was established at the 3rd Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee in November 2013,[1] and was considered a "major regrouping of the top CCP power structure."[2]

Central National Security Commission
中央国家安全委员会
Zhōngyāng Guójiā'ānquán Wěiyuánhuì
Danghui.svg
The emblem of the Chinese Communist Party
Agency overview
FormedNovember 2013
JurisdictionChinese Communist Party
HeadquartersBeijing
Ministers responsible
Parent agencyCentral Committee of the Chinese Communist Party

The CNSC aims to consolidate political leadership of all components of the security apparatus controlled by the Communist Party, including those headed formerly by former Politburo Standing Committee member Zhou Yongkang. These components would be combined into a single entity under the direct command of the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party. According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesman Qin Gang, the NSC aims to combat terrorism, separatism, and religious extremism.[3] It will also deal with national security strategy, crisis management, and links with foreign national security agencies.[2]

Analysts regarded the establishment of the NSC one of the most "concrete" and "eye-catching" outcomes of the Plenary Session, the culmination of a more than decade-long internal debate on whether China should have a national security council.[4]

OriginsEdit

The initial conception of the CNSC came during the Jiang Zemin era in 1997, with a proposal by Wang Daohan, later the president of the Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits.[5] Jiang had taken interest in the United States National Security Council during his state visit to the United States that year.[6] Out of concern that the establishment of such a body would give too much power to the leader, who would be head of both the commission and the Central Military Commission, it was never implemented.[6][7] The proposal was again reconsidered in 1999 after the United States bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade due to concern over how long it took various state security agencies to gather information on the incident and make it known to Chinese leadership.[7]

Xi Jinping later revived the idea as part of his reforms in the foreign policy and security sectors, as part of an attempt to overcome problems that have accumulated for many years.[8] The CNSC would thus fulfill Xi Jinping's ambitions for "Big power diplomacy with Chinese characteristics," rather than the quieter foreign policy agendas of previous administrations. Having a National Security Council assists in China's own "self-identification as a big power in world affairs." This also requires a more advanced diplomatic capability, a tasks in which the CNSC is supposed to assist in.[8]

PurposeEdit

The most common explanation for the creation of the CNSC relate to the personal and leadership style of Xi Jinping, and, in the eyes of commentators, his ambition to seize power.[9] These personal factors, however, coincide with China wielding a much greater level of national power. Xi wishes China to play a greater role in world affairs, and so a mechanism like the CNSC would allow it to plan and implement, from the center, "grand strategy" ideas and "big power diplomacy."[8]

Xi Jinping articulated a concept of "big security" in the first meeting of the CNSC on April 15, 2014, saying that China "should take an overall approach to national security, strengthen the confidence of the Chinese people in the path, theories and system of socialism with distinctive Chinese features, and ensure China’s durable peace and stability." These definitions contain meanings of both domestic security and foreign threats.[8]

MembershipEdit

Chairman
  • Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party, President of the People's Republic, Chairman of the Central Military Commission[10]
Vice Chairmen
  • Li Keqiang, Premier of the State Council, Politburo Standing Committee
  • Li Zhanshu, Chairman of the National People's Congress Standing Committee, Politburo Standing Committee
Members
General Office Chief

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Panda, Ankit (November 14, 2013). "What Will China's New National Security Council Do?". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on February 1, 2014. Retrieved January 31, 2014.
  2. ^ a b Ji, You (March 2016). "China's National Security Commission: theory, evolution and operations". Journal of Contemporary China. 25 (98): 178–196. doi:10.1080/10670564.2015.1075717. ISSN 1067-0564. S2CID 154533489.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  3. ^ "China Hints at Domestic Role for National Security Commitee [sic]". Voice of America. November 13, 2013. Archived from the original on 22 November 2013. Retrieved July 29, 2019.
  4. ^ "CSIS" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04.
  5. ^ "第五权力机构 国安会的诸多未解之谜". dailynews.sina.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-12. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
  6. ^ a b "中国筹设国安委 江泽民时代曾有此提议 [China Sets up NSC, Once Proposed in Jiang Era]". Ta Kung Pao (in Chinese). 12 November 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2020. 事实上在江泽民担任总书记时期,中国就曾考虑设立国安委这样的组织。中国于1997年首次提出成立国家安全委员会的方案。当时,中国国家主席江泽民访问美国时看到美国的国家安全委员会后,计划组建国家安全委员会。但由于担心如果中央军委主席再掌管国家安全委员会则权力过大,最终就不了了之。
  7. ^ a b Ji 2016, p. 184.
  8. ^ a b c d Hu, Weixing (2016-03-03). "Xi Jinping's 'Big Power Diplomacy' and China's Central National Security Commission (CNSC)". Journal of Contemporary China. 25 (98): 163–177. doi:10.1080/10670564.2015.1075716. hdl:10722/234775. ISSN 1067-0564. S2CID 155807161.
  9. ^ McLaughlin, Kathleen. "Chinese power play: Xi Jinping creates a national security council". Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729. Archived from the original on 2016-03-12. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
  10. ^ "Xi Jinping to lead national security commission". China Daily. January 24, 2014. Archived from the original on February 3, 2014. Retrieved January 31, 2014.