Protected areas of South Australia
Protected areas of South Australia consists of protected areas located within South Australia and its immediate onshore waters and which are managed by South Australian Government agencies. As of March 2018, South Australia contains 359 separate protected areas declared under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972, the Crown Land Management Act 2009 and the Wilderness Protection Act 1992 which have a total land area of 211,387.48 km2 (81,617.16 sq mi) or 21.5% of the state's area.
The jurisdiction for legislation of protected areas within South Australia and the immediate onshore waters known officially as ‘the coastal waters and waters within the limits of South Australia' belongs to the South Australian government. The major piece of legislation concerned with the creation and the subsequent management of protected areas is the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972. Protected areas created by this Act form the majority of South Australia’s contribution to the National Reserve System.
Other state legislation that may create protected areas include the following: Forestry Act 1950, Wilderness Protection Act 1992, Historic Shipwrecks Act 1981, River Murray Act 2003, Adelaide Dolphin Sanctuary Act 2005, Fisheries Management Act 2007, Marine Parks Act 2007, Crown Land Management Act 2009, Arkaroola Protection Act 2012 and Native Vegetation Act 1991.
While the Australian Government does not have the power under the Australian constitution to legislate for protected areas within South Australia, its treaty obligations and its constitutional responsibilities do permit it to develop policy for protected areas and to enter into agreements concerning protected areas. Examples include nomination of sites under the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (also known as the Ramsar Convention) and establishment of agreements for Indigenous Protected Areas.
National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972Edit
The National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (also known as the ‘National Parks Act’) is the principal legislation in South Australia in respect to the establishment and management of protected areas. The act uses the term ‘reserve’ in lieu of the term ‘protected area’ while the agency which administers the act generally uses the term 'park'. It is concerned with the establishment and management of reserves, establishment of sanctuaries, conservation of native plants and animals, declaration of protected animals, the management of protected animals in respect to taking, keeping, farming and harvesting, and the control of hunting.
As of February 2014, reserves declared under this act totalled 320 with a total area of 19,226,432 ha (47,509,550 acres) or 19.6% of South Australia's area. As of August 2021[update], there are around 360 parks across South Australia subject to the act and National Parks Regulations.
National parks are "areas considered to be of national significance due to wildlife, natural features of the land, or Aboriginal or European heritage". As of May 2020, the following national parks have been declared:
Conservation parks are 'areas protected for the purpose of conserving wildlife or the natural or historic features of the land'. As of March 2018, the following conservation parks have been declared:
- Acraman Creek
- Aldinga Scrub
- Althorpe Islands
- Avoid Bay Islands
- Baird Bay Islands
- Bascombe Well
- Baudin Rocks
- Beatrice Islet
- Belt Hill
- Big Heath
- Bird Islands
- Black Hill
- Black Rock
- Bullock Hill
- Busby Islet
- Butchers Gap
- Calpatanna Waterhole
- Cap Island
- Cape Blanche
- Cape Gantheaume
- Cape Willoughby
- Caralue Bluff
- Carappee Hill
- Caroona Creek
- Carpenter Rocks
- Christmas Rocks
- Clements Gap
- Corrobinnie Hill
- Cox Scrub
- Cudlee Creek
- Cygnet Estuary
- Darke Range
- Deep Creek
- Desert Camp
- Dingley Dell
- Douglas Point
- Eba Island
- Elliot Price
- Eric Bonython
- Ewens Ponds
- Fort Glanville
- Fowlers Bay
- Franklin Harbor
- Gambier Islands
- Gawler Ranges
- Glen Roy
- Goose Island
- Grass Tree
- Greenly Island
- Guichen Bay
- Gum Lagoon
- Gum Tree Gully
- Hacks Lagoon
- Hallett Cove
- Hanson Scrub
- Hogwash Bend
- Hopkins Creek
- Horsnell Gully
- Ironstone Hill
- Jip Jip
- Kapunda Island
- Kellidie Bay
- Kelly Hill
- Kelvin Powrie
- Kenneth Stirling
- Lake Frome
- Lake Gilles
- Lake Hawdon South
- Lake Newland
- Lake St Clair
- Laura Bay
- Leven Beach
- Lipson Island
- Little Dip
- Lower Glenelg River
- Maize Island Lagoon
- Mark Oliphant
- Marne Valley
- Martin Washpool
- Martindale Hall
- Mary Seymour
- Media Island
- Middlecamp Hills
- Moana Sands
- Monarto Woodlands
- Moody Tank
- Mount Billy
- Mount Boothby
- Mount Brown
- Mount Dutton Bay
- Mount George
- Mount Magnificent
- Mount Monster
- Mount Scott
- Mount Taylor
- Mowantjie Willauwar
- Mullinger Swamp
- Munga-Thirri—Simpson Desert
- Nene Valley
- Nepean Bay
- Neptune Islands
- Newland Head
- Ngaut Ngaut
- Nicolas Baudin Island
- Nuyts Archipelago
- Nuyts Reef
- Olive Island
- Para Wirra
- Paranki Lagoon
- Pelican Lagoon
- Penguin Island
- Piccaninnie Ponds
- Pigface Island
- Pike River
- Pine Hill Soak
- Point Bell
- Point Davenport
- Point Labatt
- Poonthie Ruwe
- Porter Scrub
- Pualco Range
- Pullen Island
- Ramco Point
- Red Banks
- Reedy Creek
- Rilli Island
- Rocky Island (North)
- Rocky Island (South)
- Salt Lagoon Islands
- Sandy Creek
- Sceale Bay
- Scott Creek
- Seal Bay
- Searcy Bay
- Sheoak Hill
- Sinclair Island
- Sir Joseph Banks Group
- Sleaford Mere
- Spaniards Gully
- Spring Gully
- Spring Mount
- Swan Reach
- Tantanoola Caves
- Telford Scrub
- Telowie Gorge
- The Dutchmans Stern
- The Knoll
- The Pages
- The Plug Range
- Tilley Swamp
- Torrens Island
- Troubridge Island
- Tucknott Scrub
- Tumby Island
- Venus Bay
- Verran Tanks
- Vivigani Ardune
- Vivonne Bay
- Wabma Kadarbu Mound Springs
- Waldegrave Islands
- Wanilla Land Settlement
- West Island
- Whidbey Isles
- White Dam
- Wills Creek
- Wirrabara Range
- Wolseley Common
Former conservation parks include Cape Hart, Cape Torrens, Ediacara, Investigator Group, Isles of St Francis, Mount Rescue, Mount Shaugh, Naracoorte Caves, Port Gawler and Scorpion Springs and Western River.
Regional reserves are 'areas proclaimed for the purpose of conserving wildlife or natural or historical features while allowing responsible use of the area's natural resources.' As of March 2018, the following regional reserves have been declared:
Other South Australian legislationEdit
Conservation reserves are a parcels of 'land set aside for conservation of natural and cultural features under the Crown Land Management Act 2009.' As of March 2018, the following conservation reserves have been declared:
As of March 2018, reserves declared under the Crown Land Management Act 2009 totalled 15 with a total area of 19,471 ha (48,110 acres) or less than 0.1% of South Australia’s area.
Native Forest ReservesEdit
The Forestry Act 1950 allows for the declaration of forest reserves for ‘purposes relating to the conservation, development and management of land supporting native flora and fauna…’ Native forest reserves are administered by the South Australian Forestry Corporation (trading as ForestrySA) which is a wholly owned state government business. As of March 2014, the following native forest reserves which are located in the Southern Flinders Ranges, the Mount Lofty Ranges and the Limestone Coast have been declared:
Wilderness Protection AreasEdit
The Wilderness Protection Act 1992 was established in 1992 to provide for ‘the protection of wilderness and the restoration of land to its condition before European colonisation’. The day-to-day administration of the act is carried out by DEW. As of March 2018, the following areas have been declared:
As of March 2018, reserves declared under the Wilderness Protection Act 1992 totalled 14 with a total area of 1,843,454 ha (4,555,270 acres) or 1.9% of South Australia’s area.
Protected zones for Historic Shipwreck sitesEdit
The Historic Shipwrecks Act 1981 which is administered by DEW allows for the creation of protected zones over land and water around historic shipwrecks. The following protected zones have been declared:
River Murray protection areaEdit
As of September 2010, the following protection areas have been designated:
- The floodplain of the River Murray within South Australia including Lake Alexandrina, Lake Albert and the Coorong.
- The watershed of the following tributaries arising from the east side of the Mount Lofty Ranges - Marne, Bremer and Finniss rivers.
The following areas have been declared under the Fisheries Management Act 2007 (SA). Aquatic reserves which are managed by the Department of Primary Industries & Regions (PIRSA), were 'established to protect the habitat, ecosystems and communities of the rich variety of underwater organisms found in the marine and estuarine waters of South Australia'. Aquatic reserves are considered to be IUCN Category II protected areas.
Adelaide Dolphin SanctuaryEdit
Adelaide Dolphin Sanctuary (ADS) is a sanctuary area intended to protect the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) population residing in the Port Adelaide River estuary and Barker Inlet as well as protecting and enhancing the Port Adelaide River estuary and Barker Inlet. The sanctuary was declared under the Adelaide Dolphin Sanctuary Act 2005 and is managed by DEW.
Marine parks are marine protected areas located within the immediate onshore waters of SA set aside under the Marine Parks Act 2007 (SA) 'to preserve the biological diversity of the state's coastal, estuarine and marine environments while allowing ecologically sustainable use of the area's natural resources.' As of December 2013, the following marine parks have been declared:
- Far West Coast Marine Park
- Nuyts Archipelago Marine Park
- West Coast Bays Marine Park
- Investigator Marine Park
- Thorny Passage Marine Park
- Sir Joseph Banks Group Marine Park
- Neptune Islands Group (Ron and Valerie Taylor) Marine Park
- Gambier Islands Group Marine Park
- Franklin Harbor Marine Park
- Upper Spencer Gulf Marine Park
- Eastern Spencer Gulf Marine Park
- Southern Spencer Gulf Marine Park
- Lower Yorke Peninsula Marine Park
- Upper Gulf St Vincent Marine Park
- Encounter Marine Park
- Western Kangaroo Island Marine Park
- Southern Kangaroo Island Marine Park
- Upper South East Marine Park
- Lower South East Marine Park
Arkaroola Protection AreaEdit
The Arkaroola Protection Act 2012 which commenced operation on 26 April 2012 was created to ‘establish the Arkaroola Protection Area; to provide for the proper management and care of the area; and to prohibit mining activities in the area’. The protection area which is located 600 km (370 mi) north of Adelaide includes the Arkaroola Pastoral Lease and the Mawson Plateau part of the Mount Freeling Pastoral Lease. The former lease which has not been stocked for over 30 years is operated for the purpose of conservation and tourism under the name, Arkaroola Wilderness Sanctuary. The protection area is reported as satisfying the definition of a "category II National Park".
Native vegetation heritage agreementsEdit
A native vegetation heritage agreements, usually known as a heritage agreement, is a legally binding agreement between a landowner and the Minister for Environment, Sustainability and Conservation where the landowner agrees to protect native vegetation in perpetuity. In return, the Minister may agree to reduce statutory fees such as local government rates or offer assistance in term of funding of works such as fencing or provision of expert advice to ‘protecting and improving the conservation value of the heritage agreement area’. The enabling legislation is the Native Vegetation Act 1991. Land covered by heritage agreements is considered to meet IUCN Category III. As of February 2014, 1537 agreements in respect to 634,242 hectares (1,567,250 acres) of land within SA or 0.64% of the area of SA have been entered into between landowners and the minister. A notable example is the Gluepot Reserve.
World heritage siteEdit
As of March 2015, Naracoorte Caves National Park is the sole World Heritage Site located in South Australia. It was co-listed under the name “Australian Fossil Mammal Sites (Riversleigh / Naracoorte)” with Riversleigh located in Queensland during 1994 in recognition of the fossil assemblages present at both sites which are considered to be a “superb illustration of the key stages of evolution of Australia’s unique fauna”.
As a contracting party to the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (known as the Ramsar Convention), Australia is encouraged ‘to nominate sites containing representative, rare or unique wetlands, or that are important for conserving biological diversity, to the List of Wetlands of International Importance’. As of March 2014, the Australian Government has nominated the following Ramsar sites within South Australia:
- Banrock Station Wetland Complex
- Bool and Hacks Lagoons
- Coongie Lakes
- Coorong and Lakes Alexandrina and Albert Wetland
- Piccaninnie Ponds Karst Wetlands
Indigenous Protected AreasEdit
An Indigenous Protected Area (IPA) is a voluntary agreement between owners of indigenous owned land (known as traditional owners) and the Australian government which is intended to ‘promote biodiversity and cultural resource conservation on indigenous owned land’. As of March 2014, there are six IPAs in existence within South Australia:
- Antara-Sandy Bore
- Mount Willoughby
- Watarru and Walalkara
The Mamungari Conservation Park in western South Australia which was formerly known as the Unnamed Conservation Park is co-managed by its traditional owners and DEW.
The Riverland Biosphere Reserve is located in the Riverland near Renmark. Two of its components are Calperum and Taylorville Stations which were respectively purchased by the Chicago Zoological Society in 1993 and the Australian Landscape Trust in 2000 with the ownership being deeded to the Director of National Parks. Both properties are managed by the Australian Landscape Trust.
Privately held reserves in South AustraliaEdit
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- "Historic Shipwrecks Act 1981" (PDF). Government of South Australia. p. 4. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
- "Protected zone permits". Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
- "River Murray Act 2003" (PDF). Government of South Australia. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
- "River Murray protection area" (PDF). Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
- "Aquatic reserves". Primary Industries and Regions SA (PIRSA). Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- "Summary of SA Marine Protected Areas by Type (see 'SA Reserve List' tab)". Australian Government - Department of the Environment. 10 February 2003. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- National Parks and Wildlife (Protected Animals—Marine Mammals) Regulations 2010 under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (PDF). Government of South Australia (GSA), Attorney-General's Department. 2014. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 January 2018. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- "The Adelaide Dolphin Sanctuary". Natural Resources Management Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
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- "Arkaroola". Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
- "Arkaroola". Arkaroola Pty Ltd. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
- "Heritage agreements FAQs" (PDF). Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- "Important Bird Areas factsheet: Riverland Mallee". BirdLife International. 2014. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- World Heritage Committee. "Australian Fossil Mammal Sites (Riversleigh / Naracoorte)". United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
- "Australia's Ramsar Sites". Department of the Environment (Australia). Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "Australia's Ramsar Sites" (PDF). Department of the Environment (Australia). Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "Indigenous Protected Areas". Department of the Environment (Australia). Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "Antara-Sandy Bore Indigenous Protected Area". Department of the Environment (Australia). Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- "Kalka-Pipalyatjara Indigenous Protected Area". Department of the Environment (Australia). Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- "Mount Willoughby Indigenous Protected Area". Department of the Environment (Australia). Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- "Nantawarrina Indigenous Protected Area". Department of the Environment (Australia). Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- "Walalkara and Watarru Indigenous Protected Areas". Department of the Environment (Australia). Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- "Yalata Indigenous Protected Area". Department of the Environment (Australia). Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- "Mamungari Conservation Park". Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- "Calperum and Taylorville Stations". Australian government, Department of the Environment. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- "Danggali Wilderness Protection Area and Conservation Park Management Plan 2011" (PDF). Department of Environment and Natural Resources. p. 2. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- Parks SA homepage, formerly the National Parks and Wildlife Service
- Primary Industries and Regions SA (PIRSA) Fisheries Aquatic reserves and marine parks
- DEW Maritime Heritage homepage
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