Sir Nathaniel William Wraxall, 1st Baronet (8 April 1751 – 7 November 1831) was an English author.
He was born in Queen Square, Bristol, the son of a Bristol merchant, Nathaniel Wraxall, and his wife Anne, great niece of Sir James Thornhill the painter. He entered the employment of the East India Company in 1769, and served as judge-advocate and paymaster during the expeditions against Gujarat and Bharuch in 1771. In the following year he left the service of the company and returned to Europe.
He visited Portugal and was presented to the court, of which he gives a curious account in his Historical Memoirs; and in the north of Europe he made the acquaintance of several Danish nobles who had been exiled for their support of the deposed Queen Caroline Matilda, sister of George III. Among them were notably baron Frederik Ludvig Ernst Bülow (spouse of Anna Sofie Bülow), and count Ernst Schimmelmann (son of Caroline von Schimmelmann).
Wraxall at their suggestion undertook to endeavour to persuade the king to act on her behalf. He was able to secure an interview with her at Celle Castle in September 1774. His exertions are told in his Posthumous Memoirs. As the queen died on 11 May 1775, his schemes came to nothing and he complained that he was out-of-pocket, but George III took no notice of him for some time. In 1775 he published his first book, Cursory Remarks made in a Tour through some of the Northern Parts of Europe, which reached its fourth edition by 1807, when it was renamed A Tour Round the Baltic. In 1777 he travelled again in Germany and Italy. As he had by this time secured the patronage of important people, he obtained a complimentary lieutenant's commission from the king on the application of Lord Robert Manners, which gave him the right to wear uniform though he never performed any military service. He published his Memoirs of the Kings of France of the Race of Valois, to which he appended an account of his tour in the Western, Southern and Interior Provinces of France. In 1778 he went again on his travels to Germany and Italy, and accumulated materials for his Memoirs of the Courts of Berlin, Dresden, Warsaw and Vienna (1799).
In 1780 he entered Parliament for Hindon in Wiltshire, then for Ludgershall on 3 April 1784 in the Tory interest. He was still a supporter of Pitt when he was elected for Wallingford on 16 June 1790. He was defeated at a by-election in March 1794 in favour of Sir Francis Sykes, bart, and immediately began work on his French history in order to publish it the following year the beginning of a History of France from the Accession of Henry III to the Death of Louis XIV, but it was never completed.
Little is known of his later years except that he was made a baronet by the Prince Regent in 21 December 1813. His Historical Memoirs appeared in 1815, when he subsequently removed to Wraxall House, Charlton Kings, near Cheltenham. Both they and the Posthumous Memoirs (1836) are very readable and have real historical value. Wraxall believed that the government of the day, furious at his truthfulness, was behind a libel action which sent him to prison for three months in 1816. Hence the posthumous publication of the later memoirs. He died suddenly at Dover on 7 November 1831, whilst travelling to Naples.
Wraxall married Miss Jane, daughter of Peter Lascelles, in 1789. He was survived by two sons, Lieutenant-colonel William Lascelles Wraxall, second baronet (1791–1863), and Lt. Charles Edward Wraxall RA (1792–1854), the father of Sir Frederic Charles Lascelles Wraxall (1828–1865), who was a miscellaneous writer.
- August Fjelstrup: Damerne ved Karoline Mathildes Hof, 1909.
- Thomas Seccombe (1900). Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. 63. London: Smith, Elder & Co. . In
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). . Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Seccombe, Thomas (1900). Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. 63. London: Smith, Elder & Co. . In
- Turner, Katherine. "Wraxall, Sir Nathaniel William, first baronet (1751–1831)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/30012.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Preface to The Historical and Posthumous Memoirs of Sir N. W. Wraxall, by H. B. Wheatley (London, 1884).
|Parliament of Great Britain|
| Member of Parliament for Hindon
With: Lloyd Kenyon
Sir Peniston Lamb
George Augustus Selwyn
| Member of Parliament for Ludgershall
With: George Augustus Selwyn
George Augustus Selwyn
Sir Francis Sykes, Bt
| Member of Parliament for Wallingford
With: Sir Francis Sykes, Bt
Sir Francis Sykes, Bt
Francis Sykes (2)
|Baronetage of the United Kingdom|
|New creation|| Baronet