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Nabadwip (/ˌnæbəˈdwp/) is a city under Municipal administration in the Nadia District in West Bengal, (India). It is seated on the western bank of the Bhagirathi river. The Bhagirathi river originally flowed down the west of Nabadwip in the past, forming a natural boundary between the districts of Bardhaman and Nadia. With time it has shifted its course to where it is at present, cutting the city off from the rest of the Nadia district. It is considered to have been founded in 1063 AD, which served as the old capital of the Sena dynasty. It was a center of learning and philosophy in medieval India and is still noted for its traditional Sanskrit schools.[1] The Navya Nyaya school of logic reached its peak with the efforts of some well known contemporary philosophers of Nabadwip. The great Vaishnava saint, social reformer and an important figure of the Bhakti movement, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1533) was born here, for whose sake, this place has turned into an important center of pilgrimage for the Vaishnavs worldwide as well as the Hindus in general. Many devotees who adhere to the Gaudiya Vaishnavism come to Nabadwip for pilgrimage on the auspicious occasion of the Birthday celebration of Shri Mahaprabhu on the Phalguni Purnima (i.e. on the Full moon day of the March every year), and for various festivals in relation to Leelas of Shri Mahaprabhu like Sri Nabadwip-mandala Parikrama and other festivities like Dol yatra, Ras purnima Gaura-purnima.[2]

Nabadwip

Oxford of East
Spiritual Capital of the World
City
Nabadwip is located in West Bengal
Nabadwip
Nabadwip
Location in West Bengal, India
Coordinates: 23°25′N 88°22′E / 23.42°N 88.37°E / 23.42; 88.37Coordinates: 23°25′N 88°22′E / 23.42°N 88.37°E / 23.42; 88.37
Country India
StateWest Bengal
DistrictNadia
Established1063
Government
 • TypeMunicipality
 • BodyNabadwip Municipality
Area
 • City9.81 km2 (3.79 sq mi)
Elevation
14 m (46 ft)
Population
(2011)
 • City125,543
 • Density13,000/km2 (33,000/sq mi)
 • Urban
175,474
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
741302
Telephone code03472
Vehicle registrationWB 52
Lok Sabha constituencyRanaghat
Vidhan Sabha constituencyNabadwip
MLAPundarikakhya Saha
MPTapas Mandal
Websitenadia.nic.in www.nabadwipmunicipality.org

Contents

HistoryEdit

Prior to Gour, Nabadwip was the capital of Sena dynasty during the reigns of Ballal Sen and Lakshman Sen. They ruled Bengal from here in the period from 1159 to 1206.[3] In 1202, Nabadwip was attacked and invaded by Bakhtiyar Khilji who plundered Nabadwip. The Lakshman Sen, the old King, being afraid left the Capital. This victory paved the way for Muslim rule in Bengal.[4] Nabadwip and Nadia were great centres of learning and intellectual prowess. For five centuries, it was referred to as "Oxford of East".[5][6][7][8]

EtymologyEdit

The name of the city is derived from the conjugation of the Bengali words /naba/ (new) and /dwipa/ (island) meaning New-island. In the down stream of the river Ganga, the alluvial deposits carried over during its course that starts at the Himalayas, were gradually deposited, forming a new island which is present day's Nabadwip. The name Nabadwip and Nadia has the same connotation of the same geographical location flanked at west and north by the Ganga at earlier times. The claim that the name Nabadwip refers to an area comprising nine islets has no ground. There are many historical references in this respect. Actually the misconception around the nomenclature of the name "Nabadwip" arose since the publication of the book "Bhakti Ratnakar" of Narahari Chakraborty. Narahari Chakraborty's claim, however, is not supportable from the perspective of geographical definition of the term Island. He might have made-up the idea of "nine islands" since "naba" in Bengali also means 'nine'. Hence "Nabadwip" i.e. nine islands, namely Antardwip, Simantadwip, Rudradwip, Madhyadwip, Godrumdwip, Ritudwip, Jahnudwip, Modadrumdwip, and Koladwip. However again, it is to mention that all these islands are loosely scattered over a vast geographical area that the Historians do not approve of the idea as being "Nabadwip".

Nabadwip Metropolitan AreasEdit

DemographicsEdit

In the 2011 census, Nabadwip Urban Agglomeration had a population of 175,474, out of which 90,810 were males and 84,664 were females. The 0–6 years population was 8,388.In education section, total literates in Nabadwip city are 102,793 of which 55,569 are males while 47,224 are females. Average literacy rate of Nabadwip city is 87.75 percent of which male and female literacy was 91.14 and 84.07 percent. Total children (0-6) in Nabadwip city are 8,388 as per figure from Census India report on 2011. There were 4,329 boys while 4,059 are girls. The child forms 6.68% of total population of Nabadwip City.[4][9]

 
Nabadwip PS Map

As of 2001 India census,[10] Nabadwip had a population of 115,036. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Nabadwip has an average literacy rate of 75%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 80%, and female literacy is 70%. In Nabadwip, 9% of the population is under 6 years of age.

ReligionsEdit

Hinduism is majority religion in Nabadwip city with 98.97% followers. Islam is second most popular religion in city of Nabadwip with approximately 0.79% following it. In Nabadwip city, Christianity is followed by 0.04%, Jainism by 0.00%, Sikhism by 0.01% and Buddhism by 0.00%. Around 0.01% stated Other Religion, approximately 0.18% stated No Particular Religion.

Religion in Nabadwip (2011)[11]

  Hinduism (98.97%)
  Islam (0.79%)
  Christianity (0.04%)
  Sikhism (0.01%)
  Buddhism (0.00%)
  Jainism (0.00%)
  Other Religions (0.01%)
  No Particular Religion (0.18%)

Police stationEdit

Nabadwip police station has jurisdiction over Nabadwip municipality and Nabadwip CD Block.[12][13] The total area covered by the police station is 102.94 km2 and the population covered is 260,843 (2001 census).[14]

EducationEdit

There are a total of 18 high and higher secondary schools in Nabadwip, Notables among them are Nabadwip Bakultala High School, Nabadwip Hindu School (1873),Nabadwip Siksha Mandir (H.S), R.C.B Saraswatmandir, Jatiya Vidyalaya, Tarasundari Girls High School, Nabadwip Bakultala Girls High School, Nabadwip Balika Vidyalaya ,Sudarshan High School and Techno India School

e.t.c

 
Nabadwip Bakultala High School

There is a college namely Nabadwip Vidyasagar College (in the name of the Great Social Reformer and the Father of Bengali Prose) affiliated under University of Kalyani.

ClimateEdit

In summer, i.e. from April to June, the weather remains hot and temperature ranges from maximum of 35 °C to minimum of 26 °C.

Monsoon season prevails during beginning-June to mid-September. Also retrieving monsoon from mid-October till mid-November[15]

The weather is quite pleasant, the summers and winters are moderate. The level of moisture increases during summers.

Climate data for Nabadwip
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 26
(79)
29
(84)
34
(93)
37
(99)
37
(99)
35
(95)
33
(91)
33
(91)
33
(91)
33
(91)
31
(88)
27
(81)
32
(90)
Average low °C (°F) 12
(54)
15
(59)
20
(68)
24
(75)
25
(77)
26
(79)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
23
(73)
18
(64)
13
(55)
21
(70)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 1
(0)
2
(0.1)
3
(0.1)
4
(0.2)
107
(4.2)
243
(9.6)
377
(14.8)
321
(12.6)
280
(11)
129
(5.1)
1
(0)
1
(0)
1,469
(57.7)
Average rainy days 4 3 4 6 12 18 23 22 18 11 3 1 125
Average relative humidity (%) 63 55 52 58 65 75 83 83 81 74 66 65 68
Mean daily sunshine hours 6.6 7.1 7.3 7.8 7.3 4.1 3.0 3.4 3.9 5.9 6.4 6.6 5.8
Source: [5]

Nabadwip ClubsEdit

There are number of well-known clubs - Nabadwip Muktisurya Club (নব্দ্বীপ মুক্তিসূর্য ক্লাব), Nabadwip Puratattava Parisad, Nabadwip Bhatri Sangha, Aamra Kojon Club, Swami Vivekananda Club of Ramgobinda Road, Nadia Club, Royal Club, Town Club, Nirvik Samity, Nabindal, Vidyasagar Club of Charichara Para, Athletic Club, Swadhin Bharat Club, Milan Sangha, Sahanagar Utsahi Sangha, Nabadwip Sporting Club,Pratapnagar Tarun sangha,Pratap Sangha and many others.

MEDICAL-

Nabadwip State General Hospital is a government Hospital at Pratapnagar Nabadwip.

2.4 km from Bishnupriya Halt

MEDICAL-

A go

Medical AssociationEdit

 
Nabadwip Homœo Study circle (NHSC)

There are also a number of medical associations-

  • Nabadwip Homœo Study circle
  • Indian Medical Association &c.

FestivalEdit

 
The temple at Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's birthplace in Mayapur near Nabadwip, established by Bhaktivinoda Thakur in 1880s.
 
Sri Chaitanya and Nityananda, is shown performing a 'kirtan' in the streets of Nabadwip, Bengal.
 
Gourangini Mata in rash jatra

Festivals which are popular in Nabadwip

Although Ratha Yatra is the mzin festival of Odisha still Nabadwip have a pride of Ratha Yatra because of Chaitanya Deb. Nearly 20-25 Ratha Chariots are bloom in this occasion. here in Nabadwip one can found some exceptions like full hand idols of Lord Jagannatha. Here another speciality is a fruit called "Notkona" which is specially found in this eve, mainly brought from Assam. This Fruit is a vital part of Eastern part of Bengali.

 
The Ratha-Yatra of Jagannath In Nabadwip features unusual images with hands.[16]
 
specially found in ratha yatra in Nabadwip
[16]

In all the above, RAS Utsav and Dol Yatra are main attraction .People are coming from all over the world in both the occasion.

These are turned up to be the Festive moods of the people living in this city. Almost whole of the city observe these festivals with pomp and pleasure. The year round one can find the festive moods of people which is also rare in other parts of the world. The reason may be because of convergence of humanity from all parts of the world. There are the Vaishnobite Sect, Shaibite Sect of Hindu Religion assimilated with modern wisdom. Further the typical Bengali culture with its pride, attracts the public into festive mood. The natural beauty, geographic location endowed with the serpentine Ganga and panoramic view thereof, also instill the people merge into fete.

LibraryEdit

 
নবদ্বীপ সাধারণ গ্রন্থাগার(Nabadwip Public Library)
  • Nabadwip Public Library
  • Adorsho Pathagar &c.
  • Shilpi Gosthi Granthagar

TransportEdit

Nabadwip Dham railway station is the main railway station of Nabadwip, it is situated 105 km from Howrah on the Bandel-Katwa Branch Line.[17]

Bishnupriya Halt is another railway station of Nabadwip, 107 km from howrah junction and 38 km from katwa junction.

Nabadwip Dham is 65 km from Bandel,105 km from Howrah and 112 km from Sealdah on the Bandel-Katwa-Azimganj section of Eastern Railway.[18] It has very good railway communication with North Bengal, Assam, Bihar, Odisha and Kolkata.[19]

Rail stationEdit

It has 2 railway stations as Nabadwip Dham (NDAE), Bishnupriya Halt (VSPR) of Howrah Division .

Bus servicesEdit

Nabadwip- Thakurnagar via Krishnanagar, Shantipur, Fulia, Ranaghat, Chakdha, Haringhata, Ukrah, Gaighata.

Nabadwip- Burdwan Via Nadanghat, Kusumgram
Nabadwip- Benachity Via Nadanghat, Kusumgram, Burdwan, panagarh
Nabadwip- Asansol Via Nadanghat, Kusumgram, Burdwan, Durgapur
Nabadwip- Burnpur Via Nadanghat, Kusumgram, Burdwan, Durgapur, Asansol
Nabadwip- Bankura Via Nadanghat, Kusumgram, Burdwan, Durgapur
Nabadwip- Kalna Via Samudragarh
Nabadwip- Tarapith Via Katwa
Nabadwip- Tarakeswar Via Memari
Nabadwip- Rampurhat Via Katwa
Nabadwip- Basirhat Via Ranaghat, Habra
Nabadwip- Balurghat Via Baharampur, Malda
Nabadwip- Siliguri Via Baharampur, Malda
Nabadwip- Barasat Via Ranaghat
Nabadwip- Kalyani Via Ranaghat
Nabadwip- Memari Via Kalna, India
Nabadwip- Pandua, Hooghly Via Kalna, India
Nabadwip- Dinhata Via Berhampur, Maldah, Coochbehar
Nabadwip- Gangarampur Via Berhampur, Maldah
Nabadwip- Barakar Via Nadanghat, Kusumgram, Burdwan, Durgapur, Asansol
Nabadwip- Bajitpur Via Nadanghat, Kusumgram, Burdwan, Durgapur
Krishnanagar- Suri via Nabadwip, Katwa, Kirnahar
Karimpur- Burdwan via Krishnagar, Nabadwip
Santipur- Benachiti via Nabadwip, Burdwan
Maldah- Burdwan via Krishnagar, Nabadwip, Berhampur
Krishnanagar- Puruliya via Nabadwip, Burdwan, Durgapur, Bankura
Krishnanagar- Bolpur via Nabadwip, Katwa, Kirnahar
Ranaghat- Benachiti via Santipur, Krishnanagar, Nabadwip, Burdwan

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Navadwip". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  2. ^ Ro'sel, J.A. (1990). "The Evolution And Organization Of Pilgrimage To Jagannstha At Purt".
  3. ^ "Tourism-Details". nadia.nic.in. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  4. ^ Tourist Department Archived 9 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ Cotton, H.E.A., Calcutta Old and New, 1909/1980, p1, General Printers and Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
  6. ^ [1], About Nabadwip.
  7. ^ [2], Oxford of east.
  8. ^ [3], Physics Department of NVC.
  9. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-21.
  10. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
  11. ^ "Nabadwip Religion 2011". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  12. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Nadia". Table 2.1. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
  13. ^ "Nadia District Police". Police Unit. West Bengal Police. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
  14. ^ "Nabadwip Police Station Details". Nadia Police. Archived from the original on 29 March 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
  15. ^ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Krishnanagar, India". www.fallingrain.com. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  16. ^ a b বন্দ্যোপাধ্যায়, দেবাশিস. "আজ উল্টোরথ, নবদ্বীপে বিরলদৃষ্ট জগন্নাথ থাকেন নিভৃতেই". anandabazar.com. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  17. ^ Railway local time table
  18. ^ Eastern Railway time table.
  19. ^ "India Rail Info: A Busy Junction for Travellers and Rail Enthusiasts". indiarailinfo.com. Retrieved 5 April 2018.