Na mele paleoleo
Nā mele paleoleo (sometimes "mele paleoleo") is a contemporary form of Hawaiian music that cuts and mixes American hip hop with Hawaiian rapping. Known as a form of Hawaiian performance poetry, spoken-word performers of na mele paleoleo are gaining popularity due to rap and hip hop influences. The first group to perform nā mele paleoleo was Sudden Rush in 1993. The term itself means "songs that speak loudly and angrily".
- Akindes, Fay Yokomizo. (March 31, 2001) Discourse Sudden Rush: Na Mele Paleoleo (Hawaiian Rap) as Liberatory Discourse. Volume 23; Issue 1; Page 82.
- Ho'omanawanui, Ku'ualoha. (January 1, 2005) The Contemporary Pacific He Lei Ho'oheno no na Kau a Kau: Language, Performance, and Form in Hawaiian Poetry. Volume 17; Issue 1; Page 29.
- Osumare, Halifu (2007). The Africanist Aesthetic in Global Hip-Hop: Power Moves. Springer. p. 143. ISBN 978-1-137-05964-2.