NS Intercity Materieel
This article does not cite any sources. (May 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Intercity Materieel or ICM (English – Intercity Material or Intercity Rolling Stock) is an electric multiple unit (EMU) train type operated by the Nederlandse Spoorwegen in the Netherlands. The train got the nickname Koploper, because it had a so-called "walk through head". After these trains were modernised, the "walk through heads" were removed. The modernised train sets are referred to as Intercity Materieel Modern (ICMm).
|NS Class 4000/4200|
An unrefurbished ICM at Veluwe
A refurbished set in Utrecht Centraal
|In service||1977 – present|
|Formation||3 cars (4000)|
4 cars (4200)
|Capacity||4000 – 35 (1st), 163 (2nd)|
4200 – 59 (1st), 198 (2nd)
|Maximum speed||140 km/h (87 mph) (Service)|
|Power output||4000 – 1,248 kW (1,674 hp)|
4200 – 1,872 kW (2,510 hp)
|Electric system(s)||1.5 kV DC Catenary|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
The prototypes were built in 1977, and production lasted from 1983 to 1994 by Talbot. The first train sets came into service in 1977. Up to now, the trains run daily on the Dutch rail network and, together with the VIRM, form the most important equipment on services connecting the Randstad with the rest of the country.
- Intercity Materieel
- Plan Z
The trains are designed for long-distance intercity services. Their maximum allowed operating speed is 140 km/h, although their engines are designed to reach a top speed of 180 km/h. Their cabs are on the roof, which initially allowed through gangways between sets when coupled together, though the gangways were sealed during their refurbishment. Refurbishment of sets began in late 2006 and completed in 2011. The trains have compartments in the 1st class accommodation.
In 1977, a prototype batch numbered 4001–4007 were delivered. They first operated between Eindhoven and Venlo and then later between Amsterdam and Nijmegen. These were taken out of service in 2003, as NS considered them to be too expensive to keep running.
ICM-1 and ICM-2Edit
These were numbered 4011–4097 and were first introduced into service in 1983. All were delivered by 1990. These had been adjusted to remove the faults of the ICM-0. 4051–4097 are Thyristor controlled.
ICM-3 and ICM-4Edit
Between 1990 and 1994, 50 4-car units were delivered, numbered 4201 – 4250. These have track brakes. Between 1996 and 2007, unit 4231 had a full coach converted to 1st class and was renumbered 4444. This unit only operated one train a day between Groningen and The Hague. It has since been converted back to a regular carriage, but it continued carrying number 4444 at first. After its revision in 2011, this unit was given its original number (4231) back.
Walk through headEdit
The train's name Koploper means "Frontrunner" but the name can also be seen as a reference to "walking through the head" ("Headwalker"(Dutch: "Doorloopkop")). When ICM units joined, the doors at the end of the train would come out, and a walkway would emerge, coupling with the other set and allowing passengers and crew to walk through to the next set. (This makes it easy for conductors to check tickets and check on the security of the passengers. In addition, each set had catering cars before they were abolished in 2003.) However, since 31 October 2005, these were put out of use. The reason given was that they were not often used, but they also had many technical problems that made the trains late on a regular basis. During their refurbishment from 2006 onwards, these hallways were permanently sealed shut and the doors at the heads of the train were replaced by a light polyester plate, saving the NS maintenance costs.
Refurbishment and renewalEdit
From November 2006, the Koploper went through a process of refurbishment. The 4011–4097 series first went into a renovation. The first train left NedTrain's workshop in Haarlem in April 2007 and then put into the regular service. To distinguish the not yet modernized sets from the modernized sets, modernized train sets are referred to as ICMm. These sets feature new interiors with 13% more seats. One could distinguish apparent differences between 1st and 2nd Class. The first class consists of red seats and second class consists of blue seats, equal to SGMm units. Meanwhile, one improved the wheelchair toilet, installed air conditioning, OBIS, and digital travel information. On the exterior, the train sets were repainted showing blue window surrounds curving at the ends of units. Numbers are now nearer the front of the train. The connectors diverting the train compartments were revealed and digital destination screens were put at the trains ends. The renewal of the series 4011–4097 completed in June 2010. Refurbishing and renewing of the 4-car units took place between February 2010 and July 2011.
Between 1986 and 2002 many sets featured adverts.
- In 1986, in relation to the opening of the Amsterdam–Schiphol railway line, two units were painted in the colours of airplanes; 4011 was painted in KLM colours and 4012 in the colours of Martinair
- 4011, 4012 and 4024 were painted in the colours of Aegon
- 4050 was painted in the colours of Randstad and later in De Lage Landen colours
- 4023 advertised the Groningen Museum, but in NS colours from 1999; this train had white doors at the end and also featured altered interiors
- 4028 was temporarily stickered as a Children's Book Week Train in 2004
- 4201, 4240 and 4241 had Orange Olympic adverts, which featured sportsman on the side of the train. VIRM 9520 and 9525 also featured Orange Olympic adverts; during the refurbishments, these adverts were removed
Olympic set at Pijnacker (Now RandstadRail station)
Unrefurbished sets passing through Arnhem Velperpoort in 2007.
Refurbished sets 4011 and 4012 at Zwolle.
Unrefurbished set at Duivendrecht (Lower Level).
Unrefurbished set 4085 approaching Deventer from Zwolle.
Unrefurbished set at Platform 1 of Amsterdam Centraal
ICM with Aegon advert at Apeldoorn