NEXUS (frequent traveler program)
NEXUS is joint Canada Border Services Agency and U.S. Customs and Border Protection operated Trusted Traveler Program designed for pre-approved, low-risk travelers. Members of the program can avoid long waits at border entry points by using reserved lanes at land crossings into Canada and the United States (including from Mexico), by using self-serve kiosks at airports in Canada, the US and some international locations, or by phoning border officials for a marine entry. A NEXUS membership card is a valid document under the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (WHTI) so it can be used in place of a passport.
To qualify for the program, an applicant must be a citizen or permanent resident of Canada or the United States or citizen of Mexico that holds a Viajero Confiable membership. Permanent residents of the United States or Canada may need to reside in their respective country for three years before applying for NEXUS membership. A previous requirement to have resided in either country for three years has been removed to allow Canadian and American citizens living abroad, and those who have recently returned, to apply for NEXUS. Applicants must also be legally admissible to both Canada and the United States, must have complied with immigration and customs regulations during previous travel, and must undergo a criminal history check. Additionally, if the applicant is under 18, both parents must provide their written consent or attend the interview.
NEXUS applications can be submitted either online, via the U.S. Customs and Border Protection website, or on paper, processed by the Canada Border Services Agency. The application fee is $50 CAD, or USD, which is waived for applicants under the age of 18.
Applicants are screened for citizenship and immigration status, and checked for criminal history and positive matches on U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS), Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), Interpol terrorism and no-fly list, and United Nations databases, and the United Kingdom Police National Computer. Applicants who pass the initial screening are interviewed in person by agents of both the Canada Border Services Agency and U.S. Customs and Border Protection (typically one right after the other). After approval, members are mailed an RFID-enabled NEXUS card, valid for five years from the applicant's birthday following card issuance. Renewal typically takes place six months prior to expiration, and members may be required to attend another interview to verify that they still qualify for the program.
Shortly after the announcement of the US requirement for a WHTI document for all travelers by 2009, CBP and CBSA announced their commitment to streamline the membership renewal process for the NEXUS program, and now will waive the interview for members who have not had changes to their information and have maintained their low-risk status. The United States and Canada also announced they had begun enrollment blitzes to expedite the processing of NEXUS applications, and had launched an outreach and awareness plan to increase membership in NEXUS.
Viajero Confiable ProgramEdit
Members of Mexico's Viajero Confiable Program may apply for the NEXUS Program online as of 2016. US citizens who are members of Global Entry and meet other requirements may apply for the Viajero Confiable card.
At the 2016 North American Leaders’ Summit it was announced that by the end of 2016, "Canadian and American citizens who are members of the NEXUS Program will be eligible to apply to the Viajero Confiable Program, providing them with expedited immigration screening upon arrival at select international airports in Mexico," but as of October 2017 the Viajero Confiable Program does not yet accept Canadian applicants or US NEXUS card holders who are not part of Global Entry.
Use at land crossingsEdit
NEXUS cardholders are generally screened more quickly than non-NEXUS cardholders at Canadian and United States border crossings offering NEXUS, Ready and SENTRI lanes. However, they are still subject to standard immigration and customs checks, and may be selected for secondary screening.
Entering Canada by landEdit
Participating border crossing points typically have one lane solely reserved for NEXUS use, and some will also designate a second lane for NEXUS use on an as needed basis. A vehicle can only use the NEXUS lane if all of its passengers (including children) hold a valid NEXUS card, and nothing requiring a special customs declaration or payment of duty is being brought into Canada (see below).
Entering the US by landEdit
NEXUS cards are valid for RFID Ready Lanes at land crossings into the United States from Canada and Mexico.
Along the Mexican border, NEXUS members may utilize Secure Electronic Network for Travelers Rapid Inspection (SENTRI) lanes when entering the US by land, but must be traveling in an approved, registered vehicle (SENTRI requires members to register their vehicles into the program, which involves a thorough inspection by CBP, whereas NEXUS has no such requirement). Regardless of whether the traveler is in an approved vehicle or not, the NEXUS card is a WHTI compliant document, and may be used in any standard lane from Mexico into the United States as proof of identity and citizenship. Pedestrians can use dedicated SENTRI lines for expedited entry into the U.S. from Tijuana at the San Ysidro border crossing.
Items permitted in a NEXUS laneEdit
- Alcohol within a traveler's personal entitlement (the traveler must be out of country of residence for 48 hours)
- Tobacco products that are marked "Canada-Duty Paid"
- Gifts up to $60 each (into Canada) or up to $100 total (into the United States)
- Any reasonable amounts of personal effects
Items prohibited in a NEXUS laneEdit
Certain restricted and sensitive items cannot be brought through a NEXUS lane. Examples include:
- Cigarettes, cigars, cigarillos, or loose tobacco that is not marked "Canada-Duty Paid"
- Commercial or durable goods
- Firearms (legal to import, but specific paperwork must be filled out and a secondary inspection is usually required)
- Agricultural products (with limited exceptions for processed and locally grown foods in season)
- $10,000 or more in cash or bearer instruments (US$10,000 into the USA amd CAD$10,000 into Canada)
Land crossings with NEXUS lanesEdit
- Coutts, AB/Sweetgrass, MT
- British Columbia/Washington:
- Manitoba/North Dakota:
- New Brunswick/Maine:
- Ontario/Michigan/Minnesota/New York:
- Ambassador Bridge (Windsor, ON/Detroit)
- Blue Water Bridge (Sarnia, ON/Port Huron, MI) (also special NEXUS lane on the bridge and entering from Canadian side)
- Detroit-Windsor Tunnel (Windsor, ON/Detroit)
- Fort Frances, ON/International Falls, MN
- Peace Bridge (Fort Erie, ON/Buffalo)
- Queenston-Lewiston Bridge(NEXUS available Canada-bound only).
- Rainbow Bridge (Niagara Falls, ON/Niagara Falls, NY) (NEXUS available US-bound only. Canada-bound lane discontinued in January 2011)
- Sault Ste. Marie International Bridge (Sault Ste. Marie, ON/Sault Ste. Marie, MI)
- Thousand Islands Bridge (Hill Island, Ont/Wellesley Island NY) (NEXUS available US-bound only)
- Whirlpool Rapids Bridge (Niagara Falls, ON/Niagara Falls, NY) (NEXUS traffic only)
- Quebec/New York/Vermont:
NEXUS members can report to approximately 450 designated sites in Canada or land in the United States by phoning CBSA or CBP as applicable between 30 minutes and 4 hours before landing with specified information and appropriate declarations.
Use at airportsEdit
NEXUS members entering Canada from anywhere in the world may use a NEXUS machine to make customs declarations, as long as the member's irises are on file with the CBSA. If the member's irises are not on file, or the NEXUS machines are not working, NEXUS members may use the Special Services desk.
US and Canadian citizens may use NEXUS at United States pre-clearence facilities in designated Canadian airports as detailed below.
NEXUS allows travelers flying from many Canadian airports, even on domestic flights, to bypass the regular security screening line and use an expedited trusted traveler line.
Airports with NEXUS (customs and immigration and priority security screening)Edit
- Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport (Toronto island)
- Calgary International Airport
- Edmonton International Airport
- Halifax Robert L. Stanfield International Airport
- Montréal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport
- Ottawa Macdonald-Cartier International Airport
- Toronto Pearson International Airport
- Vancouver International Airport
- Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport
Airports (priority security screening only)Edit
- Greater Moncton International Airport
- Kelowna International Airport
- Québec City Jean Lesage International Airport
- Regina International Airport
- Saskatoon John G. Diefenbaker International Airport
- St. John's International Airport
- Victoria International Airport
Within and to the United StatesEdit
NEXUS fits with the US Global Entry program for expedited customs and immigration clearance, and TSA PreCheck for expedited airport security checks.
U.S. Global EntryEdit
Canadian and United States citizens can use their NEXUS membership at Global Entry kiosks regardless of where they are coming from. Those using a Global Entry kiosk don't need to fill out a customs declaration card. If the member needs to see an immigration officer, they get front-of-line privileges (as with all Global Entry members).
To use the Global Entry kiosks, a valid, machine readable passport is necessary. Travelers are not required to use the NEXUS card in the kiosk, but are advised it is prudent to carry it on their person. There is no additional cost to use Global Entry, and it can be used for the duration of the NEXUS membership.
Travelers leaving designated Canadian airports for the United States may use a NEXUS card in lieu of a passport because a NEXUS card is a WHTI compliant document. The designated Canadian airports are listed below and include Global Entry self service kiosks:
- Calgary International Airport (YYC)*Edmonton International Airport (YEG)
- Halifax Stanfield International Airport (YHZ)
- Montreal Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport (YUL)
- Ottawa Macdonald-Cartier International Airport (YOW)
- Toronto Pearson International Airport (YYZ)
- Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport (YWG)
- Vancouver International Airport (YVR)
Global Entry kiosks are also located at the following airports in the United States and internationally: (https://www.cbp.gov/travel/trusted-traveler-programs/global-entry/locations official list)
- Anchorage - Ted Stevens International Airport (ANC)
- Austin - Austin-Bergstrom International Airport (AUS)
- Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport (BWI)
- Boston-Logan International Airport (BOS)
- Burlington International Airport (BTV)x
- Charlotte-Douglas International Airport (CLT)
- Chicago Midway International Airport (MDW)x
- Chicago O'Hare International Airport (ORD)
- Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport (CVG)
- Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE)
- Dallas/Ft. Worth International Airport (DFW)
- Denver International Airport (DEN)
- Detroit Metropolitan Airport (DTW)
- Fairbanks International Airport (FAI)
- Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport (FLL)
- George Bush Intercontinental Airport, Houston (IAH)
- Guam International Airport (GUM)
- Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL)
- Honolulu International Airport (HNL)
- John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York (JFK)
- John Wayne Airport (SNA)x
- Lambert - St. Louis International Airport (STL)
- Los Angeles International Airport (LAX)
- McCarran International Airport, Las Vegas (LAS)
- Miami International Airport (MIA)
- Milwaukee - General Mitchell International Airport (MKE)
- Minneapolis/St. Paul International Airport (MSP)
- Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR)
- Oakland International Airport (OAK)x
- Orlando International Airport (MCO)
- Orlando-Sanford International Airport (SFB)
- Philadelphia International Airport (PHL)
- Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (PHX)
- Pittsburgh International Airport (PIT)
- Portland International Airport (PDX)
- Raleigh-Durham International Airport (RDU)x
- Saipan International Airport (SPN)x
- Salt Lake City International Airport (SLC)
- San Antonio International Airport (SAT)
- San Diego International Airport (SAN)
- San Francisco International Airport (SFO)
- San Jose International Airport (SJC)x
- San Juan-Luis Muñoz Marin International Airport (SJU)
- Seattle-Tacoma International Airport-SeaTac (SEA)
- Tampa International Airport (TPA)
- Washington-Dulles International Airport (IAD)
- Abu Dhabi International Airport (AUH)x
- Aruba - Queen Beatrix International Airport (AUA)x
- Shannon Airport (SNN)x
- Nassau - Sir Lynden Pindling International Airport, Bahamas (NAS)x
- Dublin Airport (DUB)x
xThere are no enrollment centers at these locations.
Canadian and US citizens who are NEXUS members may use TSA PreCheck on all participating airlines, for international and domestic US flights, by entering the Customs and Border Protection PASS ID / KTN (Known Traveler Number) from their NEXUS card into their flight reservation information or into their frequent flyer account.
Legal status of NEXUS cardEdit
In the United States, a trusted traveler card, such as NEXUS, is a valid secured document under the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative and may be used by itself to reenter the United States from Canada, including by air. Although the card creates a presumption of nationality, neither US nor Canadian law views the NEXUS card as full proof of citizenship. NEXUS cards issued after September 2010 are accepted as proof of citizenship (if the card holder is a citizen of either country), and the traveler is no longer required to carry the passport if traveling by land only. However, airport documentation checks can and do require presentation of a passport in addition to the NEXUS card in the event of a secondary inspection.
NEXUS and FAST membership cards are accepted as proof of identity and as documents that denote citizenship when entering Canada at all land and marine ports of entry. This means that citizens of Canada and the United States who are NEXUS or FAST members, and are carrying with them valid membership cards, are no longer required to carry other supplementary documents such as passports or birth certificates with them when entering Canada by boat or by land, when using non-NEXUS or non-FAST lanes.
NEXUS and FAST members who are not citizens of Canada or the United States are still required to travel with a passport and proof of permanent residence, and may be requested to present these documents to a border services officer upon arrival at the border.
- "CBSA Customs Notice 12-020". Canada Border Services Agency.
- "NEXUS". Canada Border Services Agency. May 8, 2012.
- "NEXUS Eligibility". U.S. Customs and Border Protection.
- "CBSA NEXUS eligibility". Canada Border Services Agency.
- "Border Facilitation". pm.gc.ca. June 29, 2016.
- "NEXUS General Information". U.S. Customs and Border Protection.
- "Canada Bound Rainbow Bridge NEXUS Lane Closing January 23, 2011", "Canada Border Services Agency", January 5, 2011, accessed January 27, 2011.
- "Marine crossings". Canada Border Services Agency.
- "NEXUS Air". Canada Border Services Agency.
- "Using your NEXUS card at security". Canadian Air Transport Security Authority. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- "NEXUS Air". Canada Border Services Agency. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
- "Using your NEXUS card". Canadian Air Transport Security Authority. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
- "Frequently Asked Questions about the NEXUS Program". Canada Border Services Agency. Government of Canada. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- Department of Homeland Security. "WHTI Program Background". U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- Government of Canada. "NEXUS - Air". Canada Border Services Agency. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "NEXUS Proof of ID". Canada Border Services Agency.
- "NEXUS Highway Program Celebrates 100,000th Member". U.S. Customs and Border Protection. September 21, 2006.
- "Crossing the Border with Nexus - RFID Technology". British Columbia Highway News.