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Myosotis (/ˌm.əˈstɪs/;[2] from the Greek: μυοσωτίς "mouse's ear", which the foliage is thought to resemble) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Boraginaceae. In the northern hemisphere they are colloquially denominated forget-me-nots[3] or Scorpion grasses. The colloquial name "Forget-me-not" was calqued from the German Vergissmeinnicht and first used in English in AD 1398 through King Henry IV of England.[4] Similar names and variations are found in many languages. Myosotis alpestris is the state flower of Alaska[5] and Dalsland, Sweden. Plants of the genus are commonly confused with Chatham Islands Forget-me-nots which belong to the related genus Myosotidium.

Myosotis
Myosotis arvensis ois.JPG
Myosotis arvensis
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Boraginales
Family: Boraginaceae
Subfamily: Boraginoideae
Genus: Myosotis
L.
Type species
Myosotis scorpioides
L. [1]

Contents

DistributionEdit

More than 500 species names have been recorded, but only 74 species are presently accepted. The remainder are either synonyms of presently accepted or proposed names.[6] The genus is largely restricted to western Eurasia with circa 60 confirmed species and New Zealand with circa 40 confirmed species. A paucity of species occur elsewhere including in North America, South America, and Papua New Guinea.[3] Despite this, Myosotis species are now common throughout temperate latitudes because of the introduction of cultivars and alien species. Many are popular in horticulture. They prefer moist habitats. In locales where they are not native, they frequently escape to wetlands and riverbanks. Only those native to the Northern hemisphere are colloquially denominated "Forget-me-nots".

Genetic analysis indicates that the genus originated in the Northern Hemisphere and that the species native to Australia, New Zealand and South America are all derived from a single dispersal to the Southern Hemisphere.[3] One or two European species, especially Myosotis sylvatica (wood forget-me-not) were introduced into most of the temperate regions of Europe, Asia, and the Americas.

MorphologyEdit

Myosotis species have 5-merous actinomorphic flowers with 5 sepals and petals. Flowers are typically 1 cm in diameter or less; flatly faced; colored blue, pink, white, or yellow with yellow centers; and borne on scorpioid cymes. They typically flower in Spring or soon after the melting of snow in alpine ecosystems. They are annual or perennial. The foliage is alternate. Their roots are generally diffuse.

The seeds are contained in small, tulip-shaped pods along the stem to the flower. The pods attach to clothing when brushed against and eventually fall off, leaving the small seed within the pod to germinate elsewhere. Seeds can be collected by placing a sheet of paper under stems and shaking the seed pods onto the paper.

Myosotis scorpioides is also colloquially denominated scorpion grass because of the spiraling curvature of its inflorescence.

EcologyEdit

Myosotis are food for the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the setaceous Hebrew character. Many of the species in New Zealand are threatened.[7]

Presently 74 species are accepted in The Plant List:[6] of which 40 are endemic to New Zealand.[8] The full list of species includes:

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Carlos Lehnebach (2012). "Lectotypification of three species of forget-me-nots (Myosotis: Boraginaceae) from Australasia". Tuhinga. 23: 17–28.
  2. ^ "Myosotis". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  3. ^ a b c Richard C. Winkworth; Jürke Grau; Alastair W. Robertson; Peter J. Lockhart (2002). "The Origins and Evolution of the Genus Myosotis" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 24 (2): 180–93. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00210-5. PMID 12144755.
  4. ^ Sanders, Jack (2003). The Secrets of Wildflowers: A Delightful Feast of Little-Known Facts, Folklore, and History. Globe Pequot. ISBN 1-58574-668-1.
  5. ^ "Alaska Kid's Corner". State of Alaska. Retrieved 2016-05-21.
  6. ^ a b "Species in Myosotis". The Plant List. Retrieved 28 March 2015. Plant Life - Myosotis]
  7. ^ Lehnebach CA. 2012. Two New Species of Forget-Me-Nots (Myosotis, Boraginaceae) from New Zealand. Phytokeys 16: 53-64. [1].
  8. ^ NZ Flora factsheet - Myosotis

External linksEdit