Muzaffarpur (pronunciation (help·info)) is a city located in Muzaffarpur district in the Tirhut region of the Indian state of Bihar. It serves as the headquarters of the Tirhut division, the Muzaffarpur district and the Muzaffarpur Railway District. It is the fourth most populous city in Bihar.
|Municipal Corporation||Muzaffarpur Municipal Corporation|
|• Member of Parliament||Ajay Nishad|
|• Member of Legislative Council||Dinesh Prasad Singh|
|• Member of Legislative Assembly||Vijendra Chaudhary|
|• Mayor||Suresh Kumar|
|• Total||28.68 km2 (11.07 sq mi)|
|Elevation||60 m (200 ft)|
(census of 2011)
|• Rank||5th (Bihar)|
|• Additional official||Maithili,Urdu|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Sex ratio||890 (females per thousand males)♂/♀|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Muzaffarpur|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||Muzaffarpur|
Muzaffarpur is famous for Shahi lychees and is known as the Lychee Kingdom. Shahi litchi is set to become the fourth product from Bihar, after jardalu mango, katarni rice and Magahi paan (betel leaf) to get the Geographical Indication (GI) tag. It is situated on the banks of the perennial Burhi Gandak River, which flows from the Someshwar Hills of the Himalayas.
Muzaffarpur's significance in Indian civilization is due to its position between cultural and spiritual influences and is a melting pot of Hindu and Islamic culture. Muzaffarpur has had prominent Indian political leaders, such as Rajendra Prasad, Maghfoor Ahmad Ajazi, George Fernandes and J. B. Kripalani. The vernacular language of the region is Maithili and Bajjika dialect of Maithili is more common here, as per the linguist George Grierson.
The current city was established in 1875 during the British Raj for administrative convenience, by dividing the Tirhut district and was named after an aumil, Muzaffar Khan; thus the city came to be known as Muzaffarpur.
The city was founded by Muẓaffar Khan in the 18th century and was constituted a municipality in 1864. A major road and rail hub, it is a trade centre on the route between Patna (south) and Nepal (north). Rice and sugar milling and cutlery manufacture are the chief industries.
Muzaffarpur is located at  The city lies in a highly active seismic zone of India. In the disastrous earthquake on 15 January 1934, much of the town suffered severe damage and many lives were lost. It has an average elevation of 47 meters (154 feet). This saucer shaped, low-centered town lies on the great Indo-Gangetic plains of Bihar, over Himalayan silt and sand brought by the glacier-fed and rain-fed meandering rivers of the Himalayas..
Muzaffarpur has humid subtropical climate (Cwa) under Köppen climate classification. The summer, between April and June, is extremely hot and humid (28/40 °C, 90% max.) and winter is pleasantly cool, around 06/20 °C. Rainfall in Muzaffarpur Town is comparatively less to the other parts of Bihar.
Burhi Gandak River flows through Muzaffarpur district in south-easterly direction about 32 kilometres.
|Climate data for Muzaffarpur (1981–2010, extremes 1901–2009)|
|Record high °C (°F)||30.8
|Average high °C (°F)||21.9
|Average low °C (°F)||10.2
|Record low °C (°F)||2.7
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||10.4
|Average rainy days||0.8||0.9||0.8||1.4||4.3||6.8||12.7||11.5||8.8||2.2||0.3||0.5||51.0|
|Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)||77||66||54||49||60||72||82||82||82||77||74||78||71|
|Source: India Meteorological Department|
As of the 2011 India census, Muzaffarpur had a population of 393,724. Males constituted 52.96% (208,509) of the population and females 47.04% (185,215). Muzaffarpur had a literacy rate of 74.74%. Male literacy was 77.99%, and female literacy was 71.08%.
As per 2011 census data, there are total 275,233 Hindus whereas 74,680 Muslims and 1,352 Christians along with other small minorities.
In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Muzaffarpur one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the 36 districts in Bihar currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
The lychee crop, which is available from May to June, is mainly cultivated in the districts of Muzaffarpur and surrounding districts. Cultivation of litchi covers approximately an area of about 25,800 hectares producing about 300,000 tonnes every year. Litchi are exported to big cities of India like Mumbai, Kolkata, and even to other countries. India's share in the world litchi market amounts to less than 1%. The names of the litchi produced in Muzaffarpur are Shahi and China. The fruits are known for excellent aroma and quality.
Bihar's contribution in the production of lychee in about 40 percent of lychee produced in India.
Bihar has emerged as a brewery hub with major domestic and foreign firms setting up production units in the state. Vijay Mallya's group, United Breweries Group, is setting up a production unit to make litchi-flavoured wine, in Muzaffarpur in 2012. The company has leased litchi gardens.
Muzaffarpur based Prabhat Zarda Factory is one of the leading tobacco manufacturers of India.
Muzaffarpur Junction railway station is a main railway junction, with three suburban stations, Ram Dayalu Nagar , Narayanpur Anant (Sherpur) and Jubba Sahni . It is well connected to major cities of Bihar like Hajipur, Patna, Bhagalpur, Gaya, Begusarai, Bettiah, Motihari and Darbhanga. It also connects Muzaffarpur to many metropolitan cities in India like Delhi, Mumbai, and Kolkata.
National Highway 57 (India) comes via Gorakhpur, Motihari, Chakia and crosses Muzaffarpur and National Highway 57 (India) goes to Darbhanga, Purnia. The East–West Corridor crosses Muzaffarpur thus connecting it to all the major towns and cities in India. National Highway 22 (India) starting from Hajipur passes through Muzaffarpur and connects Muzaffarpur to Sitamarhi. National Highway 28 (India) connects Muzaffarpur to Barauni, all 6 National Highways having junction there.
Darbhanga Airport is the nearest domestic airport roughly 64 km away by road. Spicejet is currently working from Darbhanga Airport to different metropolitan cities. Patna Airport is the nearest customs airport roughly 70 km from the city.
Muzaffarpur has several educational institutions of repute. Some of the prominent ones are:
- Maghfoor Ahmad Ajazi, political activist and freedom fighter
- Rambriksh Benipuri Indian freedom movement activist, eminent writer of Hindi literature
- Sudhir Kumar Chaudhary, sports spectator and fan of the Indian Cricket Team
- Veena Devi, Indian politician, Member of 17th Lok Sabha
- Devaki Nandan Khatri, the author of Chandrakanta (in Hindi)
- Arunabh Kumar, founder and ex-CEO of TVF
- Shahbaz Nadeem, Indian cricketer
- Shreya Narayan, Bollywood actress
- Aishwarya Nigam, a Bollywood playback singer
- Rajendra Prasad, India's first president, worked as a professor of English in Langat Singh College
- Jubba Sahni, freedom fighter
- Uday Shankar media executive and former journalist, president of FICCI, The Walt Disney Company Asia Pacific, and chairman of Star India and The Walt Disney Company India
- Janki Ballabh Shastri, Hindi poet, writer and critic
- Baikunth Shukla revolutionary hanged by the British in 1934
- Yogendra Shukla revolutionary, Indian freedom movement activist, served time at Kalapani
- Basawon Singh revolutionary, Indian freedom movement activist
- Chandeshwar Prasad Narayan Singh, diplomat and freedom fighter
- Dinesh Prasad Singh, Indian politician
- Kishori Sinha Indian politician and educationalist
- Mridula Sinha, former Governor of Goa (2014–2019)
- Richa Soni, TV actress
- Ajay Nishad, Indian Politician, Member of 17th Lok Sabha
- Manish Singh, Indian Entrepreneur, Founder and CEO of ZZED Media
- "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 November 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
- "Muzaffarpurchunav 2020: क्या इस बार मंत्री जी लगाएंगे हैट्रिक या पूर्व विधायक विजेंद्र चौधरी करेंगे वापसी?". Dainik Jagran (in Hindi). 1 November 2020. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
- "52nd Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India" (PDF). nclm.nic.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
- "Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Government of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
- "Bihar's famous Shahi litchi to get GI tag soon".
- Destinations :: Vaishali ::Bihar State Tourism Development Corporation Archived 22 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Bstdc.bih.nic.in. Retrieved on 9 January 2011.
- "bihar". Scribd.com. Archived from the original on 8 November 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- Abhishek Kumar Kashyap, "The Bajjika language and speech community Archived 19 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine" in International Journal of the Sociology of Language 227:209-224, May 2014. DOI: 10.1515/ijsl-2014-0001. Accessed 18 February 2017
- Faizi, Amir Afaque Ahmad (2009). Self-help Groups and Marginalised Communities. Concept Publishing Company. p. 6. ISBN 978-81-8069-621-3. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- Law, Gwillim (25 September 2011). "Districts of India". Statoids. Archived from the original on 17 October 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
- "Muzaffarpur | India".
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Muzaffarpur Archived 21 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- Bihar India Earthquake Movie, 15 January 1934 Archived 6 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Harappa.com (15 January 1934). Retrieved on 9 January 2011.
- "Station: Muzaffarpur Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 513–514. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
- "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- "Muzaffarpur District Population, Bihar, List of Taluks in Muzaffarpur".
- Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (PDF). National Institute of Rural Development. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- "7. LYCHEE PRODUCTION IN INDIA". Fao.org. 31 May 1992. Archived from the original on 17 November 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- "Bihar is the top litchi producing State, about 300 thousand metric tonnes of litchi is being produced from 32 thousand hectare areas: Shri Radha Mohan Singh". pib.nic.in. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
- "Bihar emerging as brewery hub". Economic Times. 16 January 2012. Archived from the original on 24 May 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- Sinha, Nishant (20 July 2016). "Sale of tobacco products legal". The Telegraph. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
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