Muthu (film)

Muthu (transl. Pearl) is a 1995 Indian Tamil-language masala film[3] written and directed by K. S. Ravikumar, and produced by Kavithalayaa Productions. The film stars Rajinikanth, Meena and Sarath Babu; with Radha Ravi, Senthil, Vadivelu, Jayabharathi, Subhashri and Ponnambalam all acting in supporting roles. It is a remake of the Malayalam film Thenmavin Kombath (1994). The film revolves around a zamindar and his worker falling in love with the same woman who, unknown to the zamindar, loves the worker exclusively.

Muthu
Muthu film poster.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed byK. S. Ravikumar
Screenplay byK. S. Ravikumar
Based onThenmavin Kombath
Produced byRajam Balachander
Pushpa Kandaswamy
StarringRajinikanth
Meena
Sarath Babu
CinematographyAshok Rajan
Edited byK. Thanikachalam
Music byA. R. Rahman
Production
company
Distributed bySivasakthi Movie Makers
Release date
  • 23 October 1995 (1995-10-23)
Running time
165 minutes[1]
CountryIndia
LanguageTamil
Box office$3.06 million (Japan)[2]

After Rajinikanth narrated the outline of Thenmavin Kombath, he told Ravikumar to develop the screenplay of the remake without watching the original film. Although largely written to suit the tastes of Tamil-speaking audiences, the remake retains the core premise of the original, while adding new plot details and characters. Ashok Rajan acted as the film's cinematographer. Principal photography began in June 1995 and took place in Mysore, Madras and Kerala. The film was edited by K. Thanikachalam and the music composed by A. R. Rahman, with lyrics written by Vairamuthu.

Muthu was released on 23 October 1995, during the Diwali holiday period. It became a silver jubilee hit. Rajinikanth won various awards for his performance, including the Tamil Nadu State Film Award and the Cinema Express Award, both for Best Actor. A dubbed Japanese version titled Muthu Odoru Maharaja (transl. Muthu – The Dancing Maharaja) was released in 1998 and became the highest-grossing Indian film in Japan, sparking a short-lived boom of Indian films released in Japan and helping Rajinikanth gain a large fan following there. The film was remade in Kannada as Sahukara in 2004.

PlotEdit

Muthu is a charioteer working for zamindar Raja Malayasimman. While watching a play, Raja falls in love with an actress, Ranganayaki, when the garland she throws inadvertently falls on him. When Raja sees another of her plays and witnesses her being harassed by a local village chief, he tells Muthu to rescue her. Muthu fights the village chief's goons and rescues Ranganayaki. When more goons appear, Raja advises Muthu to take Ranganayaki safely away in their two-horse chariot while he manages the goons. Muthu agrees and escapes with her.

Ranganayaki dislikes Muthu's company but is forced to continue accompanying him. They both become tired and leave the horses to seek their own route, landing in Kerala. Muthu, not knowing Malayalam, gets into trouble for asking passersby for a kiss as wrongly tutored by Ranganayaki. Finally, she comes to his rescue. After learning what she had meant, Muthu surprises Ranganayaki by kissing her. They fall in love and return to Raja's palace.

Ranganayaki is secretly escaping her abusive brother-in-law, Pratap Rayudu, who killed her sister and is now searching for her. So, she requests to continue staying at the palace. Her associates also join. Raja's maternal uncle Ambalathar, keen to take control of Raja's wealth, plans to get his daughter Padmini married to Raja. Raja's mother Sivakamiyammal keeps requesting her son to marry, referring to Padmini. But Raja, dreaming of marrying Ranganayaki, nods his head, and Sivakami sends word to her brother Ambalathar. When Ambalathar arrives and speaks of marriage, Raja reveals his intention to marry Ranganayaki. Angered, Ambalathar brings Rayudu to the palace, who forcibly tries to take Ranganayaki until Muthu subdues him and sends him away.

To remove Ranganayaki and Muthu from the palace and get his daughter married, Ambalathar provokes Raja, through his informer Kaali at the palace, by alleging that Muthu is romancing Ranganayaki. Kaali deliberately misinterprets the discussions between Muthu and Ranganayaki (who are at a distance) as Muthu compelling Ranganayaki to marry him. Believing Kaali's words and what he had seen, an enraged Raja throws Muthu out of the palace after having him beaten up by Kaali. Muthu, who is in shock, does not fight back. Sivakami, who had gone to a temple with Ranganayaki, returns and is shocked on learning what happened. She berates Raja, revealing the fact that Ranganayaki loves Muthu (not Raja) as well as the truth about Muthu's past.

Years ago, Muthu's father was the zamindar of the estate. Since he was childless, he named Raja, the son of his cousin Rajasekhar, his successor. Soon after, his wife conceived and died while giving birth to Muthu. At Ambalathar's instigation, Rajasekhar fraudulently obtained the zamindar's signature on blank papers and forced all of the property to be transferred to his name. Oblivious, the zamindar donated land to the villagers who returned to complain that the lands were not in his name. The zamindar realised what happened, but instead of punishing Rajasekhar, handed over the entire property to him and decided to leave the palace with his infant son Muthu. Sivakami pleaded that she be given the responsibility of raising Muthu. The zamindar agreed but said that his son must be raised as a commoner. After the zamindar left, a remorseful Rajasekhar committed suicide, and Sivakami moved to another village.

Sivakami says she had lied to the public that the zamindar's son had died, and that the zamindar currently lives nearby as a mystic nomad. Raja, realising his mistake, decides to go meet the zamindar and bring him back. Kaali, having overheard this conversation, reports to Ambalathar, who decides to murder Raja and frame Muthu so that he can take over the property. Kaali beats Raja, throws him into a waterfall and informs everyone that Muthu killed Raja. Muthu beats Kaali and makes him reveal that Ambalathar asked him to kill Raja. The villagers chase Ambalathar until Raja arrives with his bride Padmini. Raja was rescued by the zamindar and decided to marry Padmini. He forgives Ambalathar. Raja tells Muthu of his true identity, and Muthu rushes to meet his father, only to find that he has already left the place. Muthu becomes the new zamindar but prefers to identify as a worker.

CastEdit

ProductionEdit

DevelopmentEdit

Rajinikanth wanted K. S. Ravikumar to direct a film for him, and Ravikumar agreed to do so once he finished work on Periya Kudumbam (1995).[9] After buying the rights to remake the 1994 Malayalam film Thenmavin Kombath,[10][11] Rajinikanth narrated the outline of that film and so told Ravikumar to develop a screenplay of the remake, but he did not let Ravikumar watch the film. The project did not initially have a producer, so Rajinikanth offered to take care of financial matters, but Ravikumar refused. Ravikumar developed the screenplay at the Woodlands Hotel with help from his assistant directors including Ramesh Khanna, while occasionally going to Rajinikanth's office.[9] The film was initially titled Velan before being retitled Muthu. This also marks Rajinikanth’s first collaboration with the director.[12] Although Ravikumar was the primary dialogue writer, Rajinikanth wrote certain "punch" dialogues like "Kedaikkaradhu kedaikkama irukkadhu. Kedaikkama irukardhu kedaikadhu" (transl. What is to be obtained would not be lost. What is not to be obtained would be lost).[9]

After completing three-fourths of the script, Ravikumar got permission to watch Thenmavin Kombath and was shocked to see the film's lack of resemblance to his screenplay. Rajinikanth told Ravikumar he did not want him to watch the film to avoid getting "inspired".[9] Though Ravikumar took enough liberties to suit the tastes of Tamil-speaking audiences,[1] the remake retained the original's core premise of a boss and his worker falling in love with the same woman and several other plot points such as the worker and his lover losing their way and ending up in a new land.[9] New plot details and characters were added, including the protagonist's zamindar father and flashback scenes revolving around him.[11] According to Kalaipuli S. Thanu, he was originally going to produce the film, but could not due to "various reasons".[13] It was soon picked up by K. Balachander's Kavithalayaa Productions,[14] and produced by Rajam Balachander and Pushpa Kandaswamy. The cinematography was handled by Ashok Rajan, and editing was handled by K. Thanikachalam.[12]

CastingEdit

Rajinikanth played two roles: Muthu and his unnamed father.[11] Meena was Ravikumar's first choice for the role of Ranganayaki. Though her mother was concerned about the amount of screen time Meena would receive when compared to Subhashri (who was cast as Padmini), Meena took the role. Arvind Swamy was initially approached to portray Raja Malayasimman but was hesitant to act the scene where his character would slap Muthu. He was a fan of Rajinikanth and felt slapping the actor would anger his fans.[9] Jayaram was later approached for the role but hesitated for the same reason.[15] Though Jayaram suggested making changes to the scene, Ravikumar refused to do so. Sarath Babu was finally cast for the role, at Rajinikanth's suggestion.[9]

Vadivelu and Radha Ravi were cast as Valayapathy and Ambalathar, characters not present in the Malayalam original but created by Ravikumar.[11] Radha Ravi was not initially interested in playing Ambalathar since he had grown weary of playing negative roles, but Rajinikanth's insisted.[16] Rajinikanth wanted Ravikumar to make a cameo appearance as a Tamil-speaking Malayali. Ravikumar agreed after initial reluctance and dyed his hair white to portray the character.[8][17]

FilmingEdit

Principal photography began on 1 June 1995.[18] The first shooting schedule took place in Mysore. While filming the introductory song "Oruvan Oruvan", the team brought two horses via lorry to each place where the film was to be shot. Ravikumar did not want to allocate four or five days for filming the song; instead he "used up about 20–30 minutes every day at all the locations we shot at. That way, [he] had a very colourful introduction song".[9] After filming the opening scenes of the song, the team shot the climax scene involving a crowd of more than 5,000 people. Following this, scenes including Muthu's father were shot at the Lalitha Mahal.[9][19][20] The rest of the film was shot at Travancore Palace in Madras (renamed Chennai in 1996),[9] and Kerala.[8] A blue skirt Meena had worn while shooting some scenes had faded as a result of her sitting under the "scorching" sunlight for so long, so an identical skirt was prepared before she began filming the "Kuluvalile" song sequence.[21]

The song "Thillana Thillana" was shot at AVM Studios, during the final shooting schedule which took place alongside post-production. According to Ravikumar, the song's dance choreographer, B. H. Tharun Kumar, told him "he just needed one set on a single floor in AVM and that he'd change the colour of the set to suit the mood of the song. Everything – from the costumes of Rajini and Meena and dancers to the background – were matching".[22] He added, "We'd pack up by night and the technicians would change the colour of the entire set overnight, and be ready for shoot at 7 am again. The top lights had already been fixed, so they'd do the other small lights and we will go for take by 9 am. We'll wrap up by 6 pm, and then, the technicians would start work on the colour of the set again".[22] The introductory "Super Star" title card first used in Annaamalai (1992) was also used here.[23]

MusicEdit

Muthu's soundtrack was composed by A. R. Rahman, with lyrics written by Vairamuthu.[24] It is the first film where Rahman, Rajinikanth and Ravikumar worked together.[9][25] A Hindi version of the soundtrack, titled Muthu Maharaja, features lyrics by P. K. Mishra,[26] whereas the Telugu soundtrack contains lyrics written by Bhuvana Chandra.[27] The songs were recorded at the Panchathan Record Inn in Madras.[24] The soundtrack was released on 8 October 1995 under the Pyramid label. The audio launch was held at Kalaivanar Arangam in Madras, where Rajinikanth, Kamal Haasan along with Ravikumar, Rahman and Vairamuthu unveiled the audio cassettes to the public.[28] The songs from Muthu were later retained in its Kannada remake in 2004, Sahukara, though Rajesh Ramanath was credited for its music.[29]

ThemesEdit

Some critics have felt that the dialogue "Naan eppo varuven, epdi varuvennu yarukkum theriyathu. Aana vara vendiya nerathula correcta vandhuduven" (transl. Nobody knows when or how I will come, but I will come when the time is right) hinted at Rajinikanth's political aspirations.[30][31][32] Writing for PopMatters, Ranjani Krishnakumar felt that Muthu singing "Katchiyellam ippo namakkedhukku, kaalathin kaiyyil adhu irukku" (transl. Why do we need a [political] party now; time will tell) also underlined Rajinikanth's political manoeuvres,[33] while critic Naman Ramachandran feels Rajinikanth was actually dispelling rumours of him joining politics through those lyrics.[25] Writing for Mint, Shoba Narayan said that Rajinikanth's heroines play to every traditional stereotype and cited Ranganayaki's name as an example, adding, "the names set the tone for the character."[34]

ReleaseEdit

Muthu was released on 23 October 1995, during the Diwali holiday frame,[35][36] and began screening during the openings of Kuruthipunal and Chandralekha.[37] In Madras, the film was distributed by Sivasakthi Pandian through Sivasakthi Movie Makers,[38] and in Coimbatore by Tirupur Subramaniam.[39] Though Ravikumar initially feared the film would fail since screenings were declining during the third week of its run at Udhayam Theatre, it ultimately ran there for over 88 days at full capacity and became a silver jubilee hit.[9] The film was dubbed into Telugu under the same title and Rajinikanth's voice was dubbed by Mano.[40] It was also dubbed in Hindi as Muthu Maharaja.[26]

ReceptionEdit

Writing for INDOlink, Anand Kannan rated the film 3.5 out of 4 stars, saying, "What makes the movie charming is the clean, [simple-hearted] humour, and of course the unfailing Rajnikanth formula – dances, punch lines, fights, comedy, and restrained doses of preaching. And add some political undercurrent in the dialogue/lyrics, you have a jubilee film".[41] He praised the performances of the main cast, especially Rajinikanth, but felt he was not convincing when playing Muthu's father. He also did not like how Senthil and Vadivelu were underutilised.[41] Ananda Vikatan gave the film a rating of 42 out of 100, wrote that the film was consistent and described it as an engaging masala entertainer. They also praised the song sequences for their vibrancy.[42] R. P. R. of Kalki felt the film was not as fast-paced as most Rajinikanth films, unsure whether this was the editor's fault or the writer's. He said the film put more emphasis on the songs than the dialogues.[43]

AccoladesEdit

Event Award Awardee Ref.
Tamil Nadu State Film Awards Best Actor Rajinikanth [44]
[45]
Best Lyricist Vairamuthu
Best Choreographer B. H. Tharun Kumar
Cinema Express Awards Best Actor – Tamil Rajinikanth [46]
Film Fans Association Awards Best Actor Rajinikanth
Kalasagar Awards Best Actor Rajinikanth

Japanese versionEdit

In 1996, Japanese film critic Jun Edoki discovered the film at a video shop in Little India, Singapore. He said, "[Muthu] was absolutely fascinating—even without subtitles".[47] Edoki then approached several Japanese distributors, wanting release the film in Japan. Eventually, Xanadeux [ja] agreed to release it.[48] In 1998, they dubbed the film in Japanese. It was given the Japanese title Muthu Odoru Maharaja (ムトゥ 踊るマハラジャ), meaning Muthu – The Dancing Maharaja.[3]

Muthu Odoru Maharaja initially had a limited release, starting on 13 June 1998 at Cinema Rise in Tokyo's Shibuya district, where it completed a 23-week run. It sold 127,000 tickets and grossed ¥208 million ($1.59 million), becoming the theatre's highest-grossing film of 1998, with distributor Atsushi Ichikawa describing it as "the Titanic of the art theaters".[47] It then received a nationwide release across 100 theatres,[2] drawing nearly 500,000 in audiences[47] and grossing ¥400 million ($3.06 million),[2][49] equivalent to 126 million (equivalent to 480 million or US$6.0 million in 2020).[50]

Prior to Muthu, the previous highest-grossing Indian film in Japan was the Bollywood film Raju Ban Gaya Gentleman from 1992, which was released there in 1997. Muthu surpassed it and became the most successful Indian film in Japan, as well as 1998's top film in the category of independent "first-run show" theatres. The success of Raju Ban Gaya Gentleman and Muthu sparked a short-lived boom of Indian films released in Japan, ending in 1999.[3] Muthu was also the second highest-grossing 1995 Indian film overseas, behind only another Bollywood film, Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge.[51] As of November 2018, Muthu remains the highest-grossing Indian film in Japan.[2]

On 14 December 2006, the then Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh, made a special note about the reach of the film in Japan during his speech at the National Diet of Japan.[52] A 4K remaster of the film was released in Japan on 23 November 2018.[2]

LegacyEdit

Muthu helped Rajinikanth and Meena gain a large fan following in Japan.[53][54] The video for "Thillana Thillana" became famous for Meena's belly dance, which features many closeup shots of her navel.[55] Meena danced to the song on an episode of the talk show Simply Kushboo.[56] The film itself has been frequently aired on Sun TV and recorded large viewership there.[57] As well, many dialogues attained popularity such as "Kedaikkaradhu kedaikkama irukkadhu. Kedaikkama irukardhu kedaikadhu",[9] "Naan eppo varuven, epdi varuvennu yarukkum theriyathu. Aana vara vendiya nerathula correcta vandhuduven",[30] and the Malayalam dialogue "Eruki anachu oru umma tharum" (Hug me tight, and kiss me).[58] Sivasakthi Pandian used the profits he made from distributing Muthu to finance his first film as a producer, Vaanmathi (1996).[38]

The attire worn by Rajinikanth in "Kuluvalile" – a white shirt and lungi – became popular.[59][60] A 100-second fight sequence from Muthu was used in the French film I Do (2006) with permission from Kavithalayaa Productions.[61] In 2017, artist Rajesh Arachi released an English-language comic book adaptation of Muthu. It was published by Chelvam Comics.[62][63] In the same year, a film tribute to Rajinikanth titled 12-12-1950 was released. The main characters are named after Rajinikanth's films, one of them being Muthu.[64] In 2018, GRT Hotels in Chennai started creating dishes named after Rajinikanth's films, with one being named Muthu, consisting of "gun powder arancini in the shape of pearls".[65] In early 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic in India, a song spreading awareness about COVID-19, titled "Corona Corona" and set the tune of "Thillana Thillana", became viral.[66]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Dhananjayan 2011, p. 177.
  2. ^ a b c d e "見る極楽浄土!4K版「ムトゥ 踊るマハラジャ」新写真8枚到着". Natalie (in Japanese). 9 November 2018. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  3. ^ a b c Matsuoka, Tamaki (2008). Asia to Watch, Asia to Present: The Promotion of Asian/Indian Cinema in Japan (PDF). Senri Ethnological Studies, Reitaku University. p. 246. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
  4. ^ a b c Ramachandran 2014, p. 162.
  5. ^ "A supervillain for a superstar". Cinema Express. 12 January 2020. Archived from the original on 2 November 2020. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Muthu Cast and Crew". Moviefone. Archived from the original on 30 October 2020. Retrieved 5 November 2020.
  7. ^ "Veteran actor Jyothi Lakshmi passes away". Deccan Chronicle. 10 August 2016. Archived from the original on 5 November 2020. Retrieved 5 November 2020.
  8. ^ a b c The Hindu 2012, p. 38.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Lakshmi, V (23 October 2020). "#25YearsOfMuthu: Rajini sir was confident that Muthu would work: KS Ravikumar". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 26 October 2020. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  10. ^ "KS Ravikumar: Even if it's a remake, I only take the basic story and do my own screenplay". The Times of India. 21 September 2020. Archived from the original on 20 October 2020. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  11. ^ a b c d Galatta Tamil (12 July 2020). "MUTHU-ல அப்பா CHARACTER-க்கு பேரே இல்ல தெரியுமா?" – K.S. Ravikumar Opens Up for the First Time ["Did you know the father character in Muthu has no name?" – K.S. Ravikumar Opens Up for the First Time] (in Tamil). Event occurs at 21:21. Archived from the original on 27 January 2022. Retrieved 8 November 2020 – via YouTube.
  12. ^ a b "சாதனை புரிந்த தமிழ் படங்கள் – 308– எஸ்.கணேஷ்" [Tamil films which achieved milestones;– 308– S.Ganesh]. Dinamalar (in Tamil). Nellai. 15 August 2017. Archived from the original on 30 October 2020. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  13. ^ "Thanu reveals that Rajinikanth was interested in 'Drishyam' remake!". Sify. 5 April 2021. Archived from the original on 6 April 2021. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
  14. ^ Ramachandran 2014, p. 161.
  15. ^ "Slap in the face for Kamal". Rediff.com. 18 August 2000. Archived from the original on 2 October 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  16. ^ Srinivasan, Sudhir (27 December 2014). "Spirited act". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 November 2020. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  17. ^ Srinivasan, Meera (25 February 2011). "Big stars glitter in small roles too". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 November 2020. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  18. ^ "முத்து". Dina Thanthi (in Tamil). 1 June 1995.
  19. ^ Khajane, Muralidhara (16 June 2007). "Fans in Mysore disappointed". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 26 October 2020. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  20. ^ Ramachandran 2014, p. 4.
  21. ^ Lakshmi, V (23 October 2020). "#25YearsofMuthu: I had to make another blue skirt for Muthu because the first one had faded from all that sitting and shooting in the sun: Meena". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 26 October 2020. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
  22. ^ a b Lakshmi, V (23 October 2020). "#25YearsOfMuthu: KS Ravikumar reveals the secret behind the colourful set in Thillana Thillana". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 23 November 2020. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
  23. ^ Shivakumar, Vivek (11 December 2018). "A Superstar Career Through Titles". Film Companion. Archived from the original on 5 September 2020. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  24. ^ a b "Muthu". AVDigital. Archived from the original on 5 November 2020. Retrieved 5 November 2020.
  25. ^ a b Ramachandran 2014, p. 163.
  26. ^ a b Arunachalam, Param. BollySwar: 1991–2000. Mavrix Infotech. p. 615. ISBN 9788193848210.
  27. ^ "Muthu". Gaana. Archived from the original on 4 November 2020. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  28. ^ Kavithalayaa (21 November 2018). Muthu Audio launch – Ulaganayagan Kamal Hassan speech | Rajinikanth | AR Rahman. Event occurs at 0:19. Archived from the original on 29 January 2022. Retrieved 25 November 2020 – via YouTube.
  29. ^ M.L.N (23 August 2004). "Best of both". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 4 November 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  30. ^ a b Saraswathi, S (10 June 2018). "Rajinikanth's Most Popular Dialogues". Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 20 July 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  31. ^ "Rajinikanth to join politics? 5 times Thalaivar hinted at the same in his films". India Today. 18 May 2017. Archived from the original on 20 July 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  32. ^ "The longest teaser: Rajinikanth may have hinted his political debut with his film dialogues". The New Indian Express. 1 January 2018. Archived from the original on 20 July 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  33. ^ Krishnakumar, Ranjani (24 April 2017). "Tamil Film 'Mannan' Presses the Limits of Using Violence on a Female Nemesis". PopMatters. Archived from the original on 21 September 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  34. ^ Narayan, Shoba (21 July 2016). "All is well in the Rajini world". Mint. Archived from the original on 20 July 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  35. ^ "ரஜினி அரசியல்: 16- எப்ப வருவேன்; எப்படி வருவேன்?" [Rajini Politics: 16- When will I come; How will I come?]. Hindu Tamil Thisai (in Tamil). 30 January 2018. Archived from the original on 10 November 2019. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  36. ^ Sundaram, Nandhu (23 October 2020). "25 Years On, Kamal Haasan's 'Kuruthipunal' Has Aged Better Than Many Of Its Contemporaries". HuffPost. India. Archived from the original on 26 October 2020. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  37. ^ Rajaveebeeshika (29 October 2018). "Sarkar Diwali release: 11 other times Vijay's films released during the festival". Times Now. Archived from the original on 30 July 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  38. ^ a b "Producer Sivasakthi Pandian reveals he had made Ajith's Vaanmathi from profits of Rajinikanth's Muthu". Times Now. 15 July 2019. Archived from the original on 15 July 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  39. ^ Menon, Thinkal (12 August 2020). "#45YearsOfRajinism: Rajini sir believes that nobody who has invested money in a film should lose, says Tirupur Subramaniam". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 28 July 2021. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  40. ^ Nadadhur, Srivathsan (6 June 2018). "Mano : The voice of Rajini". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 November 2020. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  41. ^ Dhananjayan 2011, p. 179.
  42. ^ ஆர். பி. ஆர். (5 November 1995). "முத்து". Kalki (in Tamil). p. 24. Archived from the original on 13 September 2022. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  43. ^ "TAMIL CINEMA | I997-- YEAR HIGHLIGHTS". Dinakaran. 1997. Archived from the original on 5 January 2009. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  44. ^ Anandan, Film News (2004). Sadhanaigal Padaitha Thamizh Thiraipada Varalaru [Tamil Film History and Its Achievements] (in Tamil). Sivagami Publications. p. 738.
  45. ^ Ramachandran 2014, p. 269.
  46. ^ a b c "Dancing Maharajas". Newsweek. 9 May 1999. Archived from the original on 30 March 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  47. ^ Rajitha (7 June 1999). "Rajni conquers Japan". Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 29 April 2021. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
  48. ^ "Official exchange rate (LCU per US$, period average) – Japan". World Bank. 1998. Archived from the original on 24 September 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  49. ^ "Official exchange rate (LCU per US$, period average) – India". World Bank. 1998. Archived from the original on 6 December 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  50. ^ "Top Overseas Grossers 1995". Box Office India. Archived from the original on 16 January 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  51. ^ "It's India-Japan Friendship Year". The Hindu. PTI. 15 December 2006. Archived from the original on 20 May 2007. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  52. ^ Saroj Kumar, S (4 January 2012). "Brand Rajinikanth". The Financial Express. India. Archived from the original on 12 March 2021. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  53. ^ Warrier, Shobha (18 June 1999). "Pioneer Muthu". Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 12 March 2021. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  54. ^ Bamzai, Kaveree; Rege, Prachi; Rathnam, Shilpa (3 June 2011). "Rise of the Navel". India Today. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
  55. ^ "Meena to do Thillana Thillana on Simply Khushboo". The Times of India. 12 November 2015. Archived from the original on 20 March 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  56. ^ "மக்களிடையே இன்னமும் வரவேற்பைப் பெறும் முத்து" [Muthu is still popular among people]. Hindu Tamil Thisai (in Tamil). 30 July 2020. Archived from the original on 3 October 2020. Retrieved 5 November 2020.
  57. ^ "11 Movies To Turn Every Rajini Fan Nostalgic!". JFW. 12 April 2016. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  58. ^ Srinivasan, Latha (6 January 2016). "International Lungi Day: Actors who rocked the lungi look on screen". Daily News & Analysis. Archived from the original on 24 March 2021. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
  59. ^ "The teasing Thalaiva". The Indian Express. 17 May 2017. Archived from the original on 29 April 2021. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
  60. ^ Tharakan, Tony (23 December 2006). "Rajnikant in French comedy". Daily News & Analysis. Archived from the original on 9 September 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  61. ^ Arachi, Rajesh (2 March 2017). "Muthu – Movie as Comic book : The famous Rajnikanth Tamil movie as English Comic Book". Amazon. Chelvam Comics. Archived from the original on 7 April 2021. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  62. ^ Menon, Thinkal (26 August 2018). "Kollywood's comic connection". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  63. ^ Rajendran, Gopinath (10 July 2017). "A tribute to Thalaivar". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 2 September 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  64. ^ "Chennai hotels offer Kabali dishes in quintessential Rajini style". Asianet News. 31 March 2018. Archived from the original on 4 November 2020. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  65. ^ CR, Sharanya (29 March 2020). "Chill Karo Naa, say this group of musicians". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 30 May 2021.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit