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Mushi Production headquarters in Tokyo

Mushi Production (虫プロダクション, Mushi Purodakushon, lit. "Bug Production") or Mushi Pro for short, is a Japanese animation studio headquartered in Fujimidai, Nerima, Tokyo, Japan.[1] It previously had a headquarters elsewhere in Nerima.[2]

The studio was headed by manga artist Osamu Tezuka.[3] Osamu Tezuka started it as a rivalry with Toei Animation, Tezuka's former employer, after Tezuka's contract with Toei expired in 1961.[citation needed] The studio pioneered TV animation in Japan, and was responsible for many successful anime television series, such as Astro Boy, Gokū no Daibōken, Princess Knight, Kimba the White Lion, Dororo and Ashita no Joe, as well as more adult-oriented feature films such as 1001 Nights, Cleopatra (the first Japanese X-rated animated film) and Belladonna of Sadness.

Morisawa argues that Tezuka "proposed an unrealistically suppressed production budget... in an attempt to outbid his competitors", a budget that contributed to the Studio's (and industry) low profitability.[3] Mushi Production, plagued by financial difficulties, declared bankruptcy in 1973 and its assets were divided.[3] Tezuka had already left the company by then, having stepped down as acting director in 1968 and formed a new animation studio, Tezuka Productions (which made such works as Marvelous Melmo and Unico). A new Mushi Production company was later founded in 1977. This company continues to operate today.


Original productionsEdit

(based on the works of Osamu Tezuka)

Non-original productionsEdit

(original TV/film productions, or adaptations of other material)

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Home. Mushi Production. Retrieved on March 15, 2012. "〒177-0034 東京都練馬区 富士見台2-30-5"
  2. ^ "Inquiries." Mushi Production. Retrieved on February 26, 2010. "本社:〒169-0075 東京都新宿区高田馬場 4丁目32番11号'
  3. ^ a b c Morisawa, T. (19 August 2014). "Managing the unmanageable: Emotional labour and creative hierarchy in the Japanese animation industry". Ethnography. 16 (2): 262. doi:10.1177/1466138114547624.
  4. ^ [1]. Cartoon Research. Retrieved on February 3, 2015.

External linksEdit