Open main menu

Wikipedia β

Brown sugar types: Muscovado (top), dark brown (left), light brown (right)

Muscovado, also Khandsari and Khand, is a type of partially refined to unrefined sugar with a strong molasses content and flavour. It is technically considered either a non-centrifugal cane sugar or a centrifuged, partially refined sugar according to the process used by the manufacturer.[1][2] Muscovado contains higher levels of various minerals than processed white sugar, and is considered by some to be healthier.[3][4][5] Its main uses are in food and confectionery, and the manufacture of rum and other forms of alcohol. The largest producer and consumer of khandsari (muscovado) is India.[6][7]

Contents

TerminologyEdit

The Indian English names for this type of sugar are Khandsari and Khand (sometimes spelt Khaand). In most other forms of English the name is Muscovado, which derives from the Portuguese açúcar mascavado (unrefined sugar).[8]

There is no legal definition of muscavado, and no international standards for it such as Codex Alimentarius or Protected Designation of Origin. This has led to manufacturers calling various sugar products "muscovado", and has led to confusion between muscovado and brown sugar, and even with jaggery.

HistoryEdit

The process of refining sugar was invented in the Indian subcontinent 8,000 years ago, where sugarcane has been grown for thousands of years since the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation.[9][10]

Sugar production was an important trade in the British Empire. Sugarcane was produced in British colonies in the West Indies, India, Mauritius and Fiji, and in other territories including Cuba, the French West Indies, Java, Brazil, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Réunion and Louisiana. Sugarcane production often involved slavery or expliotative indentured servitude.[11] Raw sugar was shipped to Europe or to New England where it was refined or distilled into rum, much of which was re-exported at higher prices.[12] Sugar refineries were also established in Bihar, in eastern India.[13]

Raw sugar was brought to port in a variety of purities that could be sold either as raw sugar direct to market for making alcohol, or as muscovado exported sugar refineries such as those in Glasgow or London.[14] In the British Empire, raw sugars that had been refined enough to lose most of the molasses content were termed raw and deemed higher quality, while poor quality sugars with a high molasses content were referred to as muscovado, though the term brown sugar was sometimes used interchangeably.[14]

ProductionEdit

Boiling sugarcane juice to make molasses
pouring molasses for granulation by shearing

Production methodsEdit

Muscovado is made from the juice of sugar cane that is evaporated until crystallisation occurs. The solution of crystals and mother liquor (molasses) is called massecuite. In the 19th century several techniques were used for sugar production.[15][16][17][2][1][18] Muscovado is today produced by three main methods:[19][20]

  • The manual production method is to crystallise (granulate) massecuite by cooling it in pans and continuously shearing it by stirring with a large spatula (typically used in India) or by pressing it with the feet (typically used in Africa).
  • The industrial centrifuge method invented in late 18th to early 19th century, in which massecuite is crystallised using a centrifuge to separate a crystal-rich mush that is drained of its molasses in a vessel under gravity.
  • Modern industrial methods using a spray drier.

Massecuite is also used in the production of jaggery, in which it is set into moulds directly.[19]

Producer nationsEdit

Total global production is 10 to 11 million tons annually by 20 nations. The largest producer is India (58%), followed by Colombia (14%), Myanmar (9%), Pakistan (6%), Brazil (4%), Bangladesh (3%) and China (3%).[6][7]

In India, most khand (muscovado) is produced by 150 small to medium scale private manufacturers overseen by the Khadi and Village Industries Commission. These producers use traditional chemical-free organic manual shearing methods, each operating between 100 to 120 days per year with a typical capacity of between 200 to 350 tons of sugar cane per day.[6] The largest producing states in India are Maharashtra (58%), Bihar (6%), Karnataka (5%), Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh (6%).[6]

In Mauritius muscovado is produced by centrifuging massecuite, from which the molasses is left to drain naturally.[2]

In the Philippines muscovado may be generated from any of the three methods.[1][18][19][20] In the past, muscovado use to be one of the prominent export commodities of the Philippines, especially from the Negros region from the 19th century until the late 1970s.[21]

The production of muscovado in the Philippines, Barbados, and elsewhere had experienced a long period of decline when large mills took over sugar production from small farmers with small mills. In recent years an increased consumer interest in healthy and organic foods has revived interest in muscovado, creating a new market for small mills.[22]

NutritionEdit

 
Meethe Chawal, rice sweetend with khand or gur

Being a natural product, traditionally made khand is often considered nutritionally healthier than chemically-processed white sugar.[3][4][5]

When produced under regulated conditions muscovado is nutritionally richer than sugars,[23][better source needed] and retains more of the natural minerals in sugar cane juice, as shown in the following nutritional analysis (per 100 g):[24]

  • Total mineral salts 740 mg max.
  • Phosphorus (P) 3.9 mg max.
  • Calcium (Ca) 85 mg max.
  • Magnesium (Mg) 23 mg max.
  • Potassium (K) 100 mg max.
  • Iron (Fe) 1.3 mg max.
  • Calories 383 kCal[5]

UsesEdit

 
Besan laddu, Indian sweets prepared with khand
 
Masala tea and Indian filter coffee are sweetened with gur khaand (muscovado).

Food and confectioneryEdit

Muscovado is used as an ingredient in food and confectionery,[25][26] and as a sweetener in hot beverages. It is very dark brown and is slightly coarser and stickier than most brown sugars. Muscovado takes its flavor and color from its source, sugarcane juice. It offers good resistance to high temperatures and has a reasonably long shelf life.

Muscovado sugar can be substituted for brown sugar in most recipes by slightly reducing the liquid content of the recipe. A substitute for muscovado can be made by mixing white sugar with molasses (black treacle) at a ration of about 1:10 by weight.[27]

The use of khand in India in making sweets has been traced to at least 500 BC, when both raw and refined sugar were used.[25]

Along with gur, khandsari unrefined sugar is India's traditional sweetener,[26] commonly used in traditional recipes for Masala chai (spiced Indian tea), eating with roti by mixing with melted ghee, traditional Indian sweets that require sugar such as kheer (Indian rice pudding), gur or khand chawal (sweetened rice) or laddu.

Muscovado is often used to sweeten coffee.

 
Khandsari is used in Indian ayurveda medicine

AlcoholEdit

A significant proportion of India's production of Khandsari (muscovado) is used to for the illicit production desi daru, a distilled alcoholic drink.[6]

Ayurveda medicineEdit

Khandsari (muscovado) is also in traditional Ayurveda medicine to aid blood purification, digestion, bone health and the lungs.[28]

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Muscovado Sugar". Archived from the original on 17 April 2015. [self-published source]
  2. ^ a b c Prince, Rose (9 November 2011). "The sweetest flames: Brown sugar from Mauritius". Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 19 June 2017. 
  3. ^ a b Education World: The Human Development Magazine. 2004. Volume 6, Issues 7-12, pp.78
  4. ^ a b Souvenir, Silver Jubilee Celebrations and 22nd Annual Convention, Indian Society of Agricultural Engineers, 29-31 Oct. 1985 Held at Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, pp.116
  5. ^ a b c Jaggery Nutritional Value, Nutrition Facts & Analysis, Ayur Times, Dr. Jagdev Singh, 27 Nov 2014
  6. ^ a b c d e The gur and khaandsri industry & its practical impact on Indian Sugar Consumption level, World Association of Cane and Beet Growers, New Delhi. 23 March 2013, www.indiansugar.com
  7. ^ a b The Traditional versus the Modern: Case of Indian Sugar Industry. B. D. Dhawan. Economic and Political Weekly. Vol. 2, No. 15 (Apr. 15, 1967), pp. 723+725-727
  8. ^ "muscovado". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  9. ^ Essentials of Carbohydrate Chemistry. John F. Robyt. 2012. pp. 21. ISBN 1461216222
  10. ^ Entomology: Novel Approaches. P. C. Jain, M. C. Bhargava. 2007. pp72. ISBN 8189422324
  11. ^ "Triangular Trade". National Maritime Museum. Archived from the original on 25 November 2011. 
  12. ^ "Slavery in Rhode Island". Slavery in the North. 
  13. ^ Early Sugar Industry of Bihar – Bihargatha Archived 2011-09-10 at the Wayback Machine.. Bihargatha.in. Retrieved on 2012-01-07.
  14. ^ a b Accum, Fredrick Christian (1821) Culinary Chemistry Exhibiting the Scientific Principles of Cookery, London, p. 289.
  15. ^ Orr, W. (1844), The Magazine of Domestic Economy, Vol. 5, p. 107.
  16. ^ Reed, W. (1866), The History of Sugar and Sugar Producing Plants, pp. 82-89.
  17. ^ Martineau, G. (1918), "Sugar from several points of view", in The Chemical News and Journal of Industrial Science, 117.
  18. ^ a b "Muscovado Sugar" (PDF). Datupagles.com. Retrieved 2016-07-30. 
  19. ^ a b c Larkin, W. (1993). "Sugar and the Origins of Modern Philippine Society". pp. 55–58. 
  20. ^ a b Roger Knight, G. (2013), Commodities and Colonialism: The Story of Big Sugar in Indonesia, 1880-1942, p. 4.
  21. ^ Larkin, John A. "Sugar and the Origins of Modern Philippine Society". Escholarship.org. Retrieved 2008-12-01. 
  22. ^ Agriculture Business Week. "Muscovado Sugar : A New Sunshine Industry". Agribusinessweek.com. Retrieved 2009-05-27. 
  23. ^ Zhu, Agnes (24 October 2014). "Refined sugar vs. unrefined sugar". The Daily Californian. Berkeley, CA, USA. 
  24. ^ "Muscovado Sugar". Sugarindia.com. Archived from the original on 9 April 2016. 
  25. ^ a b Michael Krondl, Sweet Invention: A History of Dessert, Chicago Review Press, ISBN 978-1556529542, pp 34-35
  26. ^ a b Jaggery – A Traditional Indian Sweetener, PVK Rao, M Das SK Das, Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 2004, vol 2007 6(1), January 2007, pp. 95
  27. ^ Paula I. Figoni (2010). How Baking Works: Exploring the Fundamentals of Baking Science. New York: Wiley. p. 171. ISBN 0-470-39267-3. Retrieved 5 November 2011. 
  28. ^ Policy Brief- Technological and Policy Options for Modernization of Jaggery Industry in India, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, LS Gangwar, S Solomon & SI Anwar, pp.2