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The Musahars are a Dalit group found in the states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in India, on the Terai in Nepal as well as Bangladesh. They are also known as Banbasi,[1] and on the plateau as pasi.[2] In Bangladesh, they are known as Mushahar.[3] Their name literally means 'rat-eater' due to their main former occupation of catching rats, and there are many who are still forced to do this work due to destitution and poverty.

USAID Measuring Impact Conservation Enterprise Retrospective (Nepal; National Trust for Nature Conservation) (39403497735).jpg
Musahar woman collecting firewood near Sauraha, Chitwan District, Nepal
LanguagesBhojpuri, Maithili
CountryIndia, Nepal, Bangladesh
Original stateUttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand
RegionEastern Gangetic Plain and the Terai
Family namesManjhi
Notable membersDashrath Manjhi, Jitan Ram Manjhi, Bhagwati Devi


Photo of a Musahar taken as part of a caste survey by Herbert Hope Risley in Bihar, 1890s

The Musahar were traditionally rat-catchers, and there is still uncertainty as to their exact origin. According to a local legend, Lord Brahma created man and gave him a horse to ride. The first Musahar decided to dig holes in the belly of the horse to fix his feet as he rode. This offended Lord Brahma, who cursed them by making them rat-catchers.[4]

Modern genetic studies have found Musahars cluster very closely with Munda tribes like the Santhals and the Hos, and also have similar haplogroups like O2 and M40. Therefore one theory is that the Musahars were originally a hunter-gatherer Munda-speaking tribal group who found themselves having to work in the fields of Bhojpuri speaking landlords. Therefore they learned Bhojpuri to communicate better with their masters, and slowly underwent a language shift away from their Munda language towards Bhojpuri as their kids learned the language in school, and the social stigma of their tribal roots resulted in them becoming a Dalit caste.[5] Some Musahars have claimed that they once had their own language but it was lost when they migrated.[6] This process has been observed in another tribal population, the Baiga, who also once spoke a Munda language but shifted to an Indo-European language in the past. However, unlike the Musahars, the Baiga remained isolated from society at large and so were seen as a tribe rather than a caste.

In Bihar, the word Musahar is said to be derived from mūs, a local Bhojpuri and Sanskrit (mūṣ) word for a rat or mouse, on account of their traditional occupation as rat catchers.[7]

They are found in eastern Uttar Pradesh,[1] Bihar[8] and north Madhya Pradesh and the Terai region of Nepal. The Musahars speak Bhojpuri and Maithili.

Present circumstancesEdit

The Musahar consists of three endogamous clans: Bhagat, Sakatiya and Turkahia. Although they are now mostly landless agriculture labourers, they sometimes have to resort to rat catching to survive during lean times. They are one of the most marginalised groups in India, and suffer widespread discrimination. Although the Musahar are Hindu, and celebrate most Hindu festivals like Holi and Diwali, they believe in a number of tribal deities, including Dinabhadri and Buniya Baba.[1] Musahars also have their own rituals like the kul pooja, in which participants bathe in boiling milk to worship the ancestors. They also offer liquor during pooja and weddings.[9]

The Musahar are found throughout eastern UP, southern Nepal and Bihar, and are employed in Bihar's stone quarries. Many have also emigrated to the states of Punjab and Haryana as agricultural labourers, with many Musahars of Nepal working as migrant labourers for 6 months at a time.[9] They speak Bhojpuri and Maithili but many now have working knowledge of Hindi.[8]

Almost all Musahars live in rural areas, with a mere 3% living in the city. In the rural areas, Musahar are primarily bonded agricultural labourers, but often go without work for as much as eight months in a year. Children work alongside their parents in the fields or as rag-pickers, earning as little as 25 to 30 rupees daily. The Musahar literacy rate is 3 percent, but falls below 1 percent among women. By some estimates, as many as 85 percent of some villages of Musahars suffer from malnutrition and with access to health centres scant, diseases such as malaria and kala-azar are prevalent.[9]

The Government of Bihar operates the Mahadalit Mission, which partially funds some programs to expand education and other social welfare programs for the Musahar. An example is the Prerna schools operated by Sudha Varghese, residential schools for Musahar girls that include vocational training in the curriculum. Varghese also operates Nari Gunjan, which has 50 centres teaching 1500 Musahar girls throughout Bihar.[citation needed]

The 2011 Census of India for Uttar Pradesh showed the Musahar population as around 2.5 lakh. The same census also showed around 25 lakh Mushahars in Bihar.[10] However, Musahar activists have disputed this figure, claiming the Mushahar population in Bihar is over 40 lakh.[11] Over 2.3 Lakh Musahars live in Nepal, most in conditions similar to their counterparts in India.[9]

Some Musahars in Uttar Pradesh wish to be listed as a Scheduled Tribe, citing their claimed tribal roots that they saw in tribals from other areas of the country as well as the perception that richer Dalit castes like Jatavs were the only ones who could access reservations.[4]

In BangladeshEdit

Mushahars from the Chota Nagpur Plateau were transported by the British to the Sylhet region where they were made to work in tea plantations. They can still be found in areas in Habiganj such as Teliapara and Rema where they continue the same livelihood. They are an ethnic minority with a mere population of 3000. They are divided into 6 clans; Trihutia, Maghaiya, Ghatwar, Darwar, Khairawar and Rikhian.[3]


  1. ^ a b c A Hasan & J C Das (ed.). People of India Uttar Pradesh. XLII Part Three. Manohar Publications. pp. 1006–1012.
  2. ^ Sachchidananda (1 January 1988). Tradition And Development. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 124–. ISBN 978-81-7022-072-5. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
  3. ^ a b Jengcham, Subhash. "Mushahar". Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  4. ^ a b Mar 2, Shailvee Sharda | TNN | Updated:; 2017; Ist, 12:39. "UP elections 2017: Plagued by 'divine curse', Musahars see no redemption in new politicians | Uttar-Pradesh Election News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 28 August 2019.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  5. ^ Chaubey, Gyaneshwer (8 February 2008). "Language Shift by Indigenous Population: A Model Genetic Study in South Asia". International Journal of Human Genetics. 08 (1). doi:10.31901/24566330.2008/08.01.04. ISSN 0972-3757.
  6. ^ Giri, Madhu. Politico economic history of marginalization and change among the Musahars of east-central Tarai Nepal. OCLC 927407719.
  7. ^ Vijay S. Upadhyay; Gaya Pandey (1 January 1993). History Of Anthropological Thought. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 436–. ISBN 978-81-7022-492-1. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
  8. ^ a b S Gopal & Hetukar Jha (ed.). People of India Bihar. XVI Part Two. Seagull Books. pp. 702–707.
  9. ^ a b c d Nepal human rights year book 2018 : English edition : this report covers the period - January to December 2017. Paudel, Madan,, Mishra, Rajesh (Editor),, Informal Sector Service Centre (Kathmandu, Nepal) (First ed.). Kathmandu, Nepal. ISBN 9789937896498. OCLC 1030370989.CS1 maint: others (link)
  10. ^ "A-10 Individual Scheduled Caste Primary Census Abstract Data and its Appendix - Uttar Pradesh". Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
  11. ^ "Elections 2019: Polls Come and Go, No Progress for Mushahars of Bihar". NewsClick. 9 April 2019. Retrieved 13 June 2019.