Murad Mirza (son of Akbar)

Shahzada Murad Mirza (15 June 1570[2] – 12 May 1599[3]) was a Mughal prince as the second surviving son of Mughal Emperor Akbar. He was the maternal grandfather of Nadira Banu Begum, wife of Prince Dara Shikoh (eldest son of the emperor Shah Jahan).

Shahzada Murad Mirza
Shahzada of the Mughal Empire
Mirza[1]
Portrait of Mughal prince Sultan Murad.jpg
Portrait of Murad, c. 1600
Born15 June 1570
Fatehpur Sikri, Agra
Died12 May 1599(1599-05-12) (aged 28)
Mughal Empire
Burial13 May 1599
Spouse
  • Habiba Banu Begum
    (m. 1587)
  • Daughter of Bahadur Khan
Issue
  • Rustam Mirza
  • Alam Sultan Mirza
  • Jahan Banu Begum
HouseTimurid Dynasty
DynastyMughal Dynasty
FatherAkbar
MotherMariam-uz-Zamani (disputed)
ReligionSunni Islam
Din-e-Ilahi

Birth and educationEdit

 
Birth of Prince Murad Mirza

According to the Tuzk-e-Jahangiri, he was a son of Akbar, born from a royal serving-girl.[4] Although many sources cite the mother of Salim and Murad to be the same and therefore insinuating Mariam-uz-Zamani to be his mother.[5] He was however for his first few years given to Salima Sultan Begum for the upbringing and returned to his mother's care in 1575 as Salima begum left for Hajj.

Murad was first educated by Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak and, as from 1580, by Jesuit priests Antonio de Montserrat[6] (as a tutor) and Francisco Aquaviva, who were called up by Akbar himself to teach Murad Portuguese and the basics of Christianity.

Murad became the first Mughal prince to be educated by western Jesuit priests or, as Dr. Oscar R. Gómez points out, the first person to be educated in the paradigmatic model driven by Murad's father Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar, the 3rd Dalai Lama Sonam Gyatso, and Jesuit Antonio de Montserrat, which resulted in the current existentialist model.[7]

Hence, Sultan Murad Pahari has become the first person resulting from the amalgamation of Tibetan tantric Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity.[8]

Military command and deathEdit

In 1577 (at the age of seven), Murad was awarded his first military rank, receiving a mansab of 7000 men.[9] In 1584, after he attained puberty, this was enhanced to 9000 men.[10] From 1593 Prince Murad was in command of the army in the Deccan.[11] He was ineffective in command largely due to his drunkenness.[11] His condition led to his replacement by Abu'l-Fazl, who arrived at Murad's camp in early May.[11]

Later life and deathEdit

Due to his failed expedition to Ahmadnagar, Murad Mirza fell into chronic grief and was pushed further into despair on the death of his son, Rustum and turned to excessive drinking. This excessive drinking lead to illnesses like epilepsy and chronic indigestion.[12]

In February 1599, Murad started his march towards Ahmadnagar in order to avoid going to Agra and meeting the Emperor. On 6 May 1599, he had a severe seizure and subsequently died in an unconscious state on 12 May, near Ahmadnagar.[12]

FamilyEdit

One of Prince Murad's wives was Habiba Banu Begum, the daughter of Mirza Aziz Koka, Known as Khan Azam.[13] He was the son of Akbar's milk mother, Jiji Anga. The marriage took place on 15 May 1587, when Murad was seventeen.[14] She was the mother of Prince Rustam Mirza born on 27 August 1588[15] and died on 30 November 1597,[16] and Prince Alam Sultan Mirza born on 4 November 1590 and died in infancy.[17]

Another of his wives was the daughter of Bahadur Khan, the son, and successor of Raja Ali Khan, ruler of Khandesh.[18] Akbar arranged this marriage, in order to exact more help from Khandesh for the Mughals' future operations in the Deccan.[19] His only daughter Princess Jahan Banu Begum was married to Prince Parviz Mirza, son of Emperor Jahangir. This marriage was held at the palace of his mother, Mariam-uz-Zamani.[20]

GovernorshipsEdit

  • Malwa 1590–1594
  • Berar 1596–1599
  • Assam 1595–1597

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Mughal title Mirza, the title of Mirza and not Khan or Padshah, which were the titles of the Mongol rulers.
  2. ^ Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, pg 395
  3. ^ Ain-i-Akbari volume2
  4. ^ transl.; ed.; Thackston, annot. by Wheeler M. (1999). The Jahangirnama: memoirs of Jahangir, Emperor of India. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 37. ISBN 9780195127188. {{cite book}}: |last2= has generic name (help)
  5. ^ Vincent Arthur Smith, Akbar the Great Mogul, 1542-1605, 1917
  6. ^ Spanish Geographical Society. "Antonio de Montserrat in the final frontier". Newsletter of the Spanish Geographical Society. 43. Archived from the original on 2015-11-26.
  7. ^ Gomez, Oscar R. (2013). Tantrism in the Society of Jesus – from Tibet to the Vatican today. Editorial MenteClara. p. 28. ISBN 978-987-24510-3-5.
  8. ^ Gomez, Oscar R. (2015). Antonio de Montserrat – Biography of the first Jesuit initiated in Tibetan Tantric Buddhism. Editorial MenteClara. p. 32. ISBN 978-987-24510-4-2.
  9. ^ Mansabdari system
  10. ^ Dr. Ricard Von Garbe, Akbar, The Emperor Of India, 1909
  11. ^ a b c Gascioigne, Bamber. A Brief History of the Great Moghuls: India's most flamboyant rulers. p. 113.
  12. ^ a b Fazl, Abul. The Akbarnama. Vol. III. Translated by Beveridge, Henry. Calcutta: ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL. pp. 1127–27.
  13. ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press for the Royal Asiatic Society. p. 1899.
  14. ^ Beveridge 1907, p. 791.
  15. ^ Beveridge 1907, p. 807.
  16. ^ Beveridge 1907, p. 1097.
  17. ^ Beveridge 1907, p. 881.
  18. ^ Maharashtra State Gazetteers: Aurangabad district. Director of Government Printing, Stationery and Publications, Maharashtra State. 1977. p. 107.
  19. ^ Khan, Yar Muhammad (1971). The Deccan Policy of the Mughuls. United Book Corporation. p. 77.
  20. ^ Jahangir, Emperor; Rogers, Alexander; Beveridge, Henry (1909). The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri; or, Memoirs of Jahangir. Translated by Alexander Rogers. Edited by Henry Beveridge. London Royal Asiatic Society. pp. 78, 81.

BibliographyEdit

  • Beveridge, Henry (1907). Akbarnama of Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak – Volume III. Asiatic Society, Calcutta.