A multiple birth is the culmination of one multiple pregnancy, wherein the mother delivers two or more offspring. A term most applicable to vertebrate species, multiple births occur in most kinds of mammals, with varying frequencies. Such births are often named according to the number of offspring, as in twins and triplets. In non-humans, the whole group may also be referred to as a litter, and multiple births may be more common than single births. Multiple births in humans are the exception and can be exceptionally rare in the largest mammals.
A multiple pregnancy may be the result of the fertilization of a single egg that then splits to create identical fetuses, or it may be the result of the fertilization of multiple eggs that create fraternal fetuses, or it may be a combination of these factors. A multiple pregnancy from a single zygote is called monozygotic, from two zygotes is called dizygotic, or from three or more zygotes is called polyzygotic. Similarly, the siblings themselves from a multiple birth may be referred to as monozygotic if they are identical or as polyzygotic if they are fraternal.
Each fertilized egg (zygote) may produce a single embryo, or it may split into two or more embryos, each carrying the same genetic material. Fetuses resulting from different zygotes are called fraternal and share only 50% of their genetic material, as ordinary full siblings from separate births do. Fetuses resulting from the same zygote share 100% of their genetic material and hence are called identical. Identical twins are always the same sex, except in cases of Klinefelter syndrome (also known as XXY syndrome and 47,XXY syndrome).
- 1 Terminology
- 2 Human multiple births
- 3 Causes and frequency
- 4 Risks
- 5 Management
- 6 Society and culture
- 7 Ethics of multiple births
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Terms used for the number of offspring in a multiple birth:
- two offspring – twins
- three offspring – triplets
- four offspring – quadruplets
- five offspring – quintuplets
- six offspring – sextuplets
- seven offspring – septuplets
- eight offspring – octuplets
- nine offspring – nonuplets
- ten offspring – decuplets
Terms used for multiple births or the genetic relationships of their offspring:
- Monozygotic – multiple (typically two) fetuses produced by the splitting of a single zygote
- Polyzygotic – multiple fetuses produced by two or more zygotes:
- Dizygotic – multiple (typically two) fetuses produced by two zygotes
- Trizygotic – three or more fetuses produced by three zygotes
- Sesquizygotic - an egg which is fertilized by 2 sperms, which produce 2 fetuses
- Monochorionic fetuses share one placenta; dichorionic twins, trichorionic triplets, etc. each has a separate placenta.
- Monoamniotic fetuses share one amniotic sac; diamniotic twins each have their own sac, as do triamniotic triplets, etc.
- There are many combinations possible—for example with dichorionic triamniotic triplets, one fetus has a separate placenta and two of the fetuses share a placenta, and each has its own amniotic sac.
Human multiple birthsEdit
In humans, the average length of pregnancy (two weeks fewer than gestation) is 38 weeks with a single fetus. This average decreases for each additional fetus: to thirty-six weeks for twin births, thirty-two weeks for triplets, and thirty weeks for quadruplets. With the decreasing gestation time, the risks from immaturity at birth and subsequent viability increase with the size of the sibling group. Only as of the twentieth century have more than four all survived infancy.
Recent history has also seen increasing numbers of multiple births. In the United States, it has been estimated that by 2011, 36% of twin births and 78% of triplet and higher-order births resulted from conception by assisted reproductive technology.
Twins are by far the most common form of multiple births in humans. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report more than 132,000 sets of twins out of 3.9 million births of all kinds each year, about 3.4%, or 1 in 30.
Dizygotic (fraternal) twins run in families; however, the male does not influence the chances of his partner having twins, even if there are twins in his family. The hyperovulation gene is the cause for having twins and is only a factor for the mother. Although the male does not influence his partner's chances of having twins, he could influence his children's chances for having twins. If a male carries the gene for hyperovulation and has a daughter, she may also have the gene for hyperovulation and then have twins herself.
Monozygotic (identical) twins do not run in families. The twinning is random, due to the egg splitting, so all parents have an equal chance of conceiving identical twins.
Triplets can be either fraternal, identical, or a combination of both. The most common are strictly fraternal triplets, which come from a polyzygotic pregnancy of three eggs. Less common are triplets from a dizygotic pregnancy, where one zygote divides into two identical fetuses, and the other does not. Least common are identical triplets; three fetuses from one egg. In this case the original zygote divides into two, and then one of those two zygotes divides again but the other does not.
Triplets are far less common than twins, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, accounting for only about 4300 sets in 3.9 million births, just a little more than 0.1%, or 1 in 1000. According to the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, only about 10% of these are identical triplets: about 1 in ten thousand. Nevertheless, only 4 sets of identical triplets were reported in the U.S. during 2015, about one in a million. According to Victor Khouzami, Chairman of Obstetrics at Greater Baltimore Medical Center, "No one really knows the incidence".
Identical triplets or quadruplets are very rare and result when the original fertilized egg splits and then one of the resultant cells splits again (for triplets) or, even more rarely, a further split occurs (for quadruplets). The odds of having identical triplets is unclear. News articles and other non-scientific organizations give odds from one in 60,000 to one in 200 million pregnancies.
Quadruplets are much rarer than twins or triplets. As of 2007, there were approximately 3500 sets recorded worldwide. Quadruplet births are becoming increasingly common due to fertility treatments. There are around 70 sets of all-identical quadruplets worldwide. Many sets of quadruplets contain a mixture of identical and fraternal siblings, such as three identical and one fraternal, two identical and two fraternal, or two pairs of identicals. One famous set of identical quadruplets was the Genain quadruplets, all of whom developed schizophrenia. Quadruplets are sometimes referred to as "quads" in Britain.
Quintuplets occur naturally in 1 in 55,000,000 births. The first quintuplets known to survive infancy were the identical female Canadian Dionne Quintuplets, born in 1934. Quintuplets are sometimes referred to as "quins" in the UK and "quints" in North America. Two famous sets of all girls quintupulets are the Busby quints from the TV series OutDaughtered and the fictional Nakano quints from the manga and anime series The Quintessential Quintuplets.
Born in Liverpool, England, on 18 November 1983, the Walton sextuplets were the world's first all-female surviving sextuplets, and the world's fourth known set of surviving sextuplets. Another well-known set of sextuplets is the Gosselin sextuplets, born on May 10, 2004, in Hershey, Pennsylvania. Reality television shows Jon & Kate Plus 8 and later Kate Plus 8 have chronicled the lives of these sextuplets. And the Waldrop Sextuplets from the reality show Sweet Home Sextuplets.
Very high-order multiple birthsEdit
In 1997, the McCaughey septuplets were born in Carlisle, Iowa. Multiple births of as many as eight babies have been born alive, the first set on record to the Chukwu family in Texas in 1998; one died and seven survived. In 2009, a second set, the Suleman octuplets, were born in Bellflower, California. As of 2019, all of them were alive and turned 10 years old.
There have been a few sets of nonuplets (9) in which a few babies were born alive, though none lived longer than a few days. There have been cases of human pregnancies that started out with ten, eleven, twelve or fifteen fetuses, but no instances of live births. The pregnancies of the 10, 11 and 15 fetuses have all resulted from fertility medications and assisted reproductive technology (ART). However, there has been one documented case when 12 fetuses were conceived naturally.
Causes and frequencyEdit
The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with North America and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (December 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- 1:89 (= 1.1%) or 1:80 (= 1.25%) for twins
- 1:892 (= 1:7921, about 0.013%) or 1:802 (= 1:6400) for triplets
- 1:893 (= approx. 0.000142%, less than 1:700,000) or 1:803 for quadruplets
- Twins, 132,562, 3.31%
- Triplets, 5,503, 0.14%
- Quadruplets, 313, 0.0078%
- Quintuplets and more, 37, 0.00092%
Human multiple births can occur either naturally (the woman ovulates multiple eggs or the fertilized egg splits into two) or as the result of infertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization (several embryos are often transferred to compensate for lower quality) or fertility drugs (which can cause multiple eggs to mature in one ovulatory cycle).
For reasons that are not yet known, the older a woman is, the more likely she is to have a multiple birth naturally. It is theorized that this is due to the higher level of follicle-stimulating hormone that older women sometimes have as their ovaries respond more slowly to FSH stimulation.
The number of multiple births has increased over the last decade. For example, in Canada between 1979 and 1999, the number of multiple birth babies increased 35%. Before the advent of ovulation-stimulating drugs, triplets were quite rare (approximately 1 in 8000 births) and higher-order births much rarer still. Much of the increase can probably be attributed to the impact of fertility treatments, such as in-vitro fertilization. Younger patients who undergo treatment with fertility medication containing artificial FSH, followed by intrauterine insemination, are particularly at risk for multiple births of higher order.
Certain factors appear to increase the likelihood that a woman will naturally conceive multiples. These include:
- mother's age: women over 35 are more likely to have multiples than younger women
- mother's use of fertility drugs: approximately 35% of pregnancies arising through the use of fertility treatments such as IVF involve more than one child
The increasing use of fertility drugs and consequent increased rate of multiple births has made the phenomenon of multiples more frequent and hence more visible. In 2004 the birth of sextuplets, six children, to Pennsylvania couple Kate and Jon Gosselin helped them to launch their television series, originally Jon & Kate Plus 8 and (following their divorce) Kate Plus 8, which became the highest-rated show on the TLC network.
Premature birth and low birth weightEdit
Babies born from multiple-birth pregnancies are much more likely to result in premature birth than those from single pregnancies. 51% of twins and 91% of triplets are born preterm, compared to 9.4% in singletons. 14% of twins and 41% of triplets are even born very preterm, compared to 1.7% in singletons.
As recently as 2015, there was no way to stop twins being born early. In women with single pregnancies drugs called betamimetics can relax the muscles of the uterus and delay birth. Giving betamimetics can give more time to give steroids, for the baby's lung development, or to transfer the mother to a hospital with a special care unit.
However, there is not enough evidence to say whether or not women with twin pregnancies should be given oral betamimetics to reduce the risk of preterm birth. In some studies betamimetics have reduced the rate of preterm labour in twin pregnancies however the studies are too small to draw any solid conclusions. Likewise, putting a stitch in the neck of the womb (a cervical suture) to prevent premature birth has not been shown to work in women carrying more than one baby due to the small sample sizes in the studies.
Cerebral palsy is more common among multiple births than single births, being 2.3 per 1,000 survivors in singletons, 13 in twins, and 45 in triplets in North West England. This is likely a side effect of premature birth and low birth weight.
Multiples may be monochorionic, sharing the same chorion, with resultant risk of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Monochorionic multiples may even be monoamniotic, sharing the same amniotic sac, resulting in risk of umbilical cord compression and nuchal cord. In very rare cases, there may be conjoined twins, possibly impairing function of internal organs.
Mortality rate (stillbirth)Edit
Multiples are also known to have a higher mortality rate. It is more common for multiple births to be stillborn, while for singletons the risk is not as high. A literary review on multiple pregnancies shows a study done on one set each of septuplets and octuplets, two sets of sextuplets, 8 sets of quintuplets, 17 sets of quadruplets, and 228 sets of triplets. By doing this study, Hammond found that the mean gestational age (how many weeks when birthed) at birth was 33.4 weeks for triplets and 31 weeks for quadruplets. This shows that stillbirth happens usually 3–5 weeks before the woman reaches full term and also that for sextuplets or higher it almost always ends in death of the fetuses. Though multiples are at a greater risk of being stillborn, there is inconclusive evidence whether the actual mortality rate is higher in multiples than in singletons.
Prevention in IVFEdit
Today many multiple pregnancies are the result of in vitro fertilisation (IVF). In a study in 1997 of 2,173 embryo transfers performed as part of in vitro fertilisation (IVF), 34% were successfully delivered pregnancies. The overall multiple pregnancy rate was 31.3% (24.7% twins, 5.8% triplets, and .08% quadruplets). Because IVFs are producing more multiples, a number of efforts are being made to reduce the risk of multiple births- specifically triplets or more. Medical practitioners are doing this by limiting the number of embryos per embryo transfer to one or two. That way, the risks for the mother and fetuses are decreased.
The appropriate number of embryos to be transferred depends on the age of the woman, whether it is the first, second or third full IVF cycle attempt and whether there are top-quality embryos available. According to a guideline from The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in 2013, the number of embryos transferred in a cycle should be chosen as in following table:
|Age||Attempt no.||Embryos transferred|
|2nd||1 if top-quality|
|3rd||No more than 2|
|37–39 years||1st & 2nd||1 if top-quality|
|2 if not top-quality|
|3rd||No more than 2|
Also, it is recommended to use single embryo transfer in all situations if a top-quality blastocyst is available.
Selective reduction (procedure)Edit
The procedure generally takes two days; the first day for testing in order to select which fetuses to remove, and the second day for the procedure itself, in which potassium chloride is injected into the heart of each selected fetus under the guidance of ultrasound imaging. Risks of the procedure include bleeding requiring transfusion, rupture of the uterus, retained placenta, infection, a miscarriage, and prelabor rupture of membranes. Each of these appears to be rare.
Selective reduction was developed in the mid-1980s, as people in the field of assisted reproductive technology became aware of the risks that multiple pregnancies carried for the mother and for the fetuses.
Care in pregnancyEdit
Women with a multiple pregnancy are usually seen more regularly by midwives or doctors than those with singleton pregnancies because of the higher risks of complications. However, there is currently no evidence to suggest that specialised antenatal services produce better outcomes for mother or babies than ‘normal’ antenatal care.
As preterm birth is such a risk for women with multiple pregnancies, it has been suggested that these women should be encouraged to follow a high-calorie diet to increase the birth weights of the babies. Evidence around this subject is not yet good enough to advise women to do this because the long term effects of the high-calorie diets on the mother are not known.
Cesarean section or vaginal deliveryEdit
A study in 2013 involving 106 participating centers in 25 countries came to the conclusion that, in a twin pregnancy of a gestational age between 32 weeks 0 days and 38 weeks 6 days, and the first twin is in cephalic presentation, planned Cesarean section does not significantly decrease or increase the risk of fetal or neonatal death or serious neonatal disability, as compared with planned vaginal delivery. In this study, 44% of the women planned for vaginal delivery still ended up having Cesarean section for unplanned reasons such as pregnancy complications. In comparison, it has been estimated that 75% of twin pregnancies in the United States were delivered by Cesarean section in 2008. Also in comparison, the rate of Cesarean section for all pregnancies in the general population varies between 40% and 14%.
Fetal position (the way the babies are lying in the womb) usually determines if they are delivered by caesarean section or vaginally. A review of good quality research on this subject found that if the twin that will be born first (i.e. is lowest in the womb) is head down there is no good evidence that caesarean section will be safer than a vaginal birth for the mother or babies.
Monoamniotic twins (twins that form after the splitting of a fertilised egg and share the same amniotic fluid sac) are at more risk of complications than twins that have their own sacs. There is also insufficient evidence around whether to deliver the babies early by caesarean section or to wait for labour to start naturally while running checks on the babies’ wellbeing. The birth of this type of twins should therefore be decided with the mother and her family and should take into account the need for good neonatal care services.
Cesarean delivery is needed when first twin is in non cephalic presentation or when it is a monoamniotic twin pregnancy.
Neonatal intensive careEdit
Multiple-birth infants are usually admitted to neonatal intensive care immediately after being born. The records for all the triplet pregnancies managed and delivered from 1992-1996 were looked over to see what the neonatal statistics were. Kaufman found from reviewing these files that during a five-year period, 55 triplet pregnancies, which is 165 babies, were delivered. Of the 165 babies 149 were admitted to neonatal intensive care after the delivery.
Society and cultureEdit
A study by the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality found that, in 2011, pregnant women covered by private insurance in the United States were older and more likely to have multiple gestation than women covered by Medicaid.
Certain cultures consider multiple births a portent of either good or evil.
In Ancient Rome, the legend of the twin brothers who founded the city (Romulus and Remus) made the birth of twin boys a blessing, while twin girls were seen as an unlucky burden, since both would have to be provided with an expensive dowry at about the same time.
In Greek mythology, fraternal twins Castor and Polydeuces, and Heracles and Iphicles, are sons of two different fathers. One of the twins (Polydeuces, Heracles) is the illegitimate son of the god Zeus; his brother is the son of their mother's mortal husband. A similar pair of twin sisters are Helen (of Troy) and Clytemnestra (who are also sisters of Castor and Polydeuces). The theme occurs in other mythologies as well, and is called superfecundation.
In certain medieval European chivalric romances, such as Marie de France's Le Fresne, a woman cites a multiple birth (often to a lower-class woman) as proof of adultery on her part; while this may reflect a widespread belief, it is invariably treated as malicious slander, to be justly punished by the accuser having a multiple birth of her own, and the events of the romance are triggered by her attempt to hide one or more of the children. A similar effect occurs in the Knight of the Swan romance, in the Beatrix variants of the Swan-Children; her taunt is punished by giving birth to seven children at once, and her wicked mother-in-law returns her taunt before exposing the children.
Ethics of multiple birthsEdit
Medically assisted procreationEdit
In vitro fertilization: In vitro fertilization (IVF) was first successfully completed in the 1970s as a form of assisted reproductive technology. Out of all the assisted reproductive technology available that is currently in practice, in vitro fertilization has the highest chance of producing multiple offspring. Per each female egg, IVF currently has a 60-70% chance of conceiving. Fertilization is made possible by administering a fertility drug to the eggs or by directly injecting semen into the eggs. There is an increased chance for women over the age of 35 to have multiple births. IVF is a common genetic and ethical topic. Through IVF individuals can produce offspring successfully when natural procreation is not viable. However, in vitro can become genetically specific and allow for the selection of particular genes or expressible traits to be dominantly present in the formed embryo. Ethical dilemmas arise when determining health care coverage and the deviation from natural selection and gene variations. In regards to multiple births different ethical concerns arise from the use of in vitro fertilization. Overall, multiple pregnancies can cause potential harm the mother and children due to potential complications. Such complications can include uterine bleeding and children not receiving equal nutrients. IVF has also revealed some pre term deliveries and lower birth weights in babies. While some view medically assisted procreation as a saving grace to have children, others consider these procedure to be unnatural and costly to the community.
Multifetal pregnancy reductionEdit
Multifetal pregnancy reduction is the reduction of one or more embryo's from the bearing woman. Selective reduction usually occurs for pregnancies assisted by assisted reproductive technology (ART). The first multifetal pregnancy reductions to occur in a clinical setting took place in the 1980s. Multiple pregnancies do not occur from a genetic predisposition. The genetic biology that results in twins is the fertilization of an egg or more at the time of conception. The procedure aims to reduce pregnancies down to approximately one to two fetuses. The overarching purpose of the procedure is not primarily to simply terminate life, but to increase the survival and success of the mother and babies. However, multifetal pregnancy reduction raises some ethical questions. The main argument is similar to abortion ethics (Abortion debate) in reduction of fetus versus fetus life. The protection of maternal well being versus harm of newly formed fetal life is an extension of the aforementioned ethical question. It can be viewed that all life is important and that no life should be terminated without consent from the life that is being terminated. A polar viewpoint advocates for the right of choice, that being the choice to terminate a pregnancy due to desire and/or pregnancy risks. Overall, most multifetal pregnancy reductions that occur as a result of ART are being done for the protection of the child bearer's health and to sometimes maximize the health of the present fetuses.
- Biological reproduction
- List of multiple births
- List of twins
- Conjoined twins
- Only child
- Three Identical Strangers
- Superfecundation (multiple pregnancy resulting from separate acts of sexual intercourse)
- Feodor Vassilyev
- Half a Dozen Babies, a 1999 drama film about the 1993-born Dilley sextuplets
- Quints - a Disney channel movie about teenage girl who becomes the older sister to quintuplets.
- "Glossary: Multiple pregnancy: antenatal care for twin and triplet pregnancies". NICE. September 2011.
- Kulkarni AD, Jamieson DJ, Jones HW, Kissin DM, Gallo MF, Macaluso M, Adashi EY (2013). "Fertility Treatments and Multiple Births in the United States". New England Journal of Medicine. 369 (23): 2218–2225. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1301467. PMID 24304051.
- Cohn, Meredith (October 23, 2015). "Rare identical triplets born to Baltimore couple". Baltim. Sun. Archived from the original on October 24, 2015. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
- Bellefonds, Colleen. "Do Twins Really Run in Families?". What to Expect. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
- "UOTW #19 - Ultrasound of the Week". Ultrasound of the Week. 23 September 2014. Archived from the original on 9 May 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
- Keating, Caitlin (January 10, 2015). "1 in a Million Chance: Minnesota Mom Welcomes Identical Triplets". People. Archived from the original on January 12, 2015. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- "Rare identical triplets born in Austria". Vienna. Reuters. August 8, 2007. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- Mohney, Gillian (December 5, 2013). "Identical Triplets, Conceived without Fertility Drugs, are 'One in a Million'". ABC News. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- Fierro, Pamela Prindle (December 15, 2014). "Identical Triplets". About.com. Archived from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
- "Mothers of Supertwins: Supertwins Statistics". Archived from the original on January 18, 2015. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- Mirsky, A. F.; Delisi, L. E.; Buchsbaum, M. S.; Quinn, O. W.; Schwerdt, P.; Siever, L. J.; Mann, L.; Weingartner, H.; Zec, R.; Sostek, A. (1984). "The Genain Quadruplets: Psychological studies". Psychiatry Research. 13 (1): 77–93. doi:10.1016/0165-1781(84)90120-3. PMID 6151205.
- "quad". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- "Multiples in pregnancy - twins triplets quads identical and fraternal". Baby2see.com. 2006. Archived from the original on 2015-02-04.
- "quin". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- "quint". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- "The day after Mother's Day, the Gosselin sextuplets arrive". Penn State University. 10 May 2004. Archived from the original on 2016-10-23.
- "US woman gives birth to octuplets". BBC. 27 January 2009. Archived from the original on 27 January 2009.
- "Octuplets born in Bellflower". LA Times. 26 January 2009. Archived from the original on 2014-12-20.
- "Octomum - Natalie Suleman's octuplets turn 10 - Sunday Night". Sunday Night. 20 March 2019.
- Bush, Melissa; Pernoll, Martin L. (15 September 2010). "Multiple Pregnancy". Pregnancy Health Center. Health.am.
- National Center for Health Statistics - Multiple Births Archived 2013-10-20 at the Wayback Machine
- National Vital Statistics Reports, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, Volume 61, Number 1, August 28, 2012, Births: Final Data for 2010 Archived July 20, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
- Beemsterboer SN, Homburg R, Gorter NA, Schats R, Hompes PG, Lambalk CB (2006). "The paradox of declining fertility but increasing twinning rates with advancing maternal age". Hum. Reprod. 21 (6): 1531–2. doi:10.1093/humrep/del009. PMID 16497698.
- "Multiple Pregnancy - ACOG". www.acog.org. Archived from the original on 2016-01-11. Retrieved 2016-01-13.
- Alexander GR, Kogan M, Martin J, Papiernik E (March 1998). "What are the fetal growth patterns of singletons, twins, and triplets in the United States?". Clin Obstet Gynecol. 41 (1): 114–25. doi:10.1097/00003081-199803000-00017. PMID 9504230. Note: This study was done by looking at the 1991–1995 U.S. Natality Files, which were received from the National Center for Health Statistics
- Yamasmit, W; Chaithongwongwatthana, S; Tolosa, JE; Limpongsanurak, S; Pereira, L; Lumbiganon, P (8 December 2015). "Prophylactic oral betamimetics for reducing preterm birth in women with a twin pregnancy". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 12 (12): CD004733. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004733.pub4. PMID 26645888.
- Neilson, JP; West, HM; Dowswell, T (5 February 2014). "Betamimetics for inhibiting preterm labour". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2 (2): CD004352. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004352.pub3. PMID 24500892.
- Rafael, TJ; Berghella, V; Alfirevic, Z (10 September 2014). "Cervical stitch (cerclage) for preventing preterm birth in multiple pregnancy". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9 (9): CD009166. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009166.pub2. PMID 25208049.
- Le, Julia (26 July 2011). "Scale-tipping triplets set world record". Mississauga News. Mississauga ON. Archived from the original on 21 November 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2011.; note that the record wasn't confirmed until July 2011.
- Pharoah PO, Cooke T (1996). "Cerebral palsy and multiple births". Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 75 (3): F174–7. doi:10.1136/fn.75.3.f174. PMC 1061194. PMID 8976682.
Note: They conducted a study by looking at the registered births of babies born with cerebral palsy during the periods of 1982-1989 in the counties of Merseyside and Cheshire.
- Hammond KR (1998). "Multifetal pregnancy reduction". J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 27 (3): 338–43. doi:10.1111/j.1552-6909.1998.tb02657.x. PMID 9620827.
- Elsner CW, Tucker MJ, Sweitzer CL, Brockman WD, Morton PC, Wright G, Toledo AA (1997). "Multiple pregnancy rate and embryo number transferred during in vitro fertilization". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 177 (2): 350–5, discussion 355–7. doi:10.1016/S0002-9378(97)70197-2. PMID 9290450.
- Fertility: assessment and treatment for people with fertility problems Archived 2013-02-23 at the Wayback Machine. NICE clinical guideline CG156 - Issued: February 2013
- McCall, CA; Grimes, DA; Lyerly, AD (June 2013). ""Therapeutic" bed rest in pregnancy: unethical and unsupported by data". Obstetrics and Gynecology. 121 (6): 1305–8. doi:10.1097/aog.0b013e318293f12f. PMID 23812466.
- "Opinion Number 719: Multifetal Pregnancy Reduction". American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Committee on Ethics. September 2017.
- Evans, MI; Andriole, S; Britt, DW (2014). "Fetal reduction: 25 years' experience". Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy. 35 (2): 69–82. doi:10.1159/000357974. PMID 24525884.
- Legendre, Claire-Marie; Moutel, Grégoire; Drouin, Régen; Favre, Romain; Bouffard, Chantal (2013). "Differences between selective termination of pregnancy and fetal reduction in multiple pregnancy: A narrative review". Reproductive BioMedicine Online. 26 (6): 542–54. doi:10.1016/j.rbmo.2013.02.004. PMID 23518032.
- Mundy, Liza (May 20, 2007). "Too Much to Carry?". Washington Post Magazine. Archived from the original on April 5, 2015.
- Padawer, Ruth (August 10, 2011). "The Two-Minus-One Pregnancy". New York Times Magazine.
- Dodd, JM; Dowswell, T; Crowther, CA (6 November 2015). "Specialised antenatal clinics for women with a multiple pregnancy for improving maternal and infant outcomes". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 11 (11): CD005300. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005300.pub4. PMID 26545291.
- Kwok, Man Ki; Yeung, Shiu Lun Au; Leung, Gabriel M.; Mary Schooling, C. (2016-03-01). "Birth weight and adult cardiovascular risk factors using multiple birth status as an instrumental variable in the 1958 British Birth Cohort". Preventive Medicine. 84: 69–75. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.12.016. ISSN 0091-7435. PMID 26748345.
- Bricker, L; Reed, K; Wood, L; Neilson, JP (24 November 2015). "Nutritional advice for improving outcomes in multiple pregnancies". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 11 (11): CD008867. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008867.pub3. PMID 26599328.
- Barrett JF, Hannah ME, Hutton EK, Willan AR, Allen AC, Armson BA, Gafni A, Joseph KS, Mason D, Ohlsson A, Ross S, Sanchez JJ, Asztalos EV (2013). "A Randomized Trial of Planned Cesarean or Vaginal Delivery for Twin Pregnancy". New England Journal of Medicine. 369 (14): 1295–1305. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1214939. PMC 3954096. PMID 24088091.
- Lee HC, Gould JB, Boscardin WJ, El-Sayed YY, Blumenfeld YJ (2011). "Trends in Cesarean Delivery for Twin Births in the United States". Obstetrics & Gynecology. 118 (5): 1095–101. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182318651. PMC 3202294. PMID 22015878.
- Women can choose Caesarean birth Archived 2012-08-19 at the Wayback Machine - BBC article by James Gallagher. 2011.
- Hofmeyr, GJ; Barrett, JF; Crowther, CA (19 December 2015). "Planned caesarean section for women with a twin pregnancy". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 12 (12): CD006553. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006553.pub3. PMC 4110647. PMID 26684389.
- Shub, A; Walker, SP (23 April 2015). "Planned early delivery versus expectant management for monoamniotic twins". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 4 (4): CD008820. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008820.pub2. PMID 25906204.
- Kaufman GE, Malone FD, Harvey-Wilkes KB, Chelmow D, Penzias AS, D'Alton ME (1998). "Neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with triplet pregnancy". Obstet Gynecol. 91 (3): 342–8. doi:10.1016/s0029-7844(97)00686-8. PMID 9491857.
- Moore JE, Witt WP, Elixhauser A (April 2014). "Complicating Conditions Associate With Childbirth, by Delivery Method and Payer, 2011". HCUP Statistical Brief #173. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Archived from the original on 2014-07-14.
- "Korea's 'lucky' triplets seized". Herald Sun. Fairfax. 2003-03-30.
- Laura A. Hibbard, Medieval Romance in England p295, 244 New York Burt Franklin,1963
- Laura A. Hibbard, Medieval Romance in England p239, 243 New York Burt Franklin,1963
- Sigalos, George Α.; Triantafyllidou, Olga; Vlahos, Nikos F. (2016-09-15). "Novel embryo selection techniques to increase embryo implantation in IVF attempts". Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 294 (6): 1117–1124. doi:10.1007/s00404-016-4196-5. ISSN 0932-0067. PMID 27628754.
- Guntram, Lisa; Zeiler, Kristin (2019-05-17). "The Ethics of the Societal Entrenchment-approach and the case of live uterus transplantation-IVF". Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy. 22 (4): 557–571. doi:10.1007/s11019-019-09891-w. ISSN 1386-7423. PMID 31102175.
- Porta, Roser; Capdevila, Eva; Botet, Francesc; Verd, Sergi; Ginovart, Gemma; Moliner, Elisenda; Nicolàs, Marta; Rios, Jose (2017-09-22). "Morbidity and mortality of very low birth weight multiples compared with singletons". The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. 32 (3): 389–397. doi:10.1080/14767058.2017.1379073. ISSN 1476-7058. PMID 28936899.
- Rao, Radhika (August 2015). "Selective Reduction: "A Soft Cover for Hard Choices" or Another Name for Abortion?". The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics. 43 (2): 196–205. doi:10.1111/jlme.12233. ISSN 1073-1105. PMID 26242939.
- Wang, Hong-Mei; Li, Hong-Yan; Wang, Xie-Tong; Wang, Yan-Yun; Li, Lei; Liang, Bo; Wang, Jing; Song, Jia (December 2017). "Radiofrequency ablation for selective reduction in complex monochorionic multiple pregnancies: A case series". Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 56 (6): 740–744. doi:10.1016/j.tjog.2017.10.006. ISSN 1028-4559. PMID 29241912.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Multiple births.|
|Look up twin, triplet, quadruplet, or quintuplet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|