Mulan (Disney character)
Fa Mulan is a character, inspired by an actual historic figure, who appears in Walt Disney Pictures' animated feature film Mulan (1998), as well as its sequel Mulan II (2004). Her speaking voice is provided by actress Ming-Na Wen, while singer Lea Salonga provides the character's singing voice. Created by author Robert D. San Souci, Mulan is based on the legendary Chinese warrior Hua Mulan from the poem the Ballad of Mulan. The only child of an aging war veteran, Mulan disregards both tradition and the law by disguising herself as a man in order to enlist herself in the army in lieu of her feeble father.
Mulan as she appears in Disney's Mulan.
|First appearance||Mulan (1998)|
|Created by||Robert D. San Souci|
|Based on||Hua Mulan from the Ballad of Hua Mulan|
|Full name||Fa Mulan|
|Aliases||Fa Ping (male alter ego)|
Fa Zhou (father)|
Fa Li (mother)
Grandmother Fa (grandmother)|
General Li (father-in-law)
Disney had originally conceived Mulan as an oppressed young Chinese woman who ultimately elopes to Europe to be with a British prince. However, director Tony Bancroft, who was inspired by the well-being of his own daughters, wanted Mulan to be a different, unique kind of Disney heroine – one who is strong and independent, whose fate does not depend upon a male character. Thus, the relationship between Mulan and Captain Li Shang was relegated to that of a minor subplot, while Mulan's bravery and strength were emphasized in order to ensure that she remained the hero of her own story. Mulan's supervising animator was Mark Henn, who deliberately designed the character so that she would appear less feminine than her predecessors.
Reception towards Mulan's personality has been generally positive, with critics praising her bravery and heroism. However, some commentators have accused Disney of Westernizing the character, while her romantic relationship with Shang has been widely accused of compromising Mulan's heroism.
Conception and writingEdit
Mulan was originally conceived as an animated short in 1994, in which a miserable Chinese girl elopes to the West to be with a British prince. While developing a series of treatments based on traditional stories and folk tales, children's book author Robert D. San Souci discovered the Ballad of Mulan, an ancient Chinese poem about Hua Mulan – a Chinese woman who replaces her ailing father in the army by disguising herself as a man. Fascinated by Hua Mulan's story, San Souci suggested the poem to Disney; the studio hired San Souci himself to write the film's treatment and story.
Mulan explores the age-old theme of remaining true to oneself, with co-director Tony Bancroft summarizing the character's role in the film as "the story of a girl who can't help who she is but she exists in a different society that tells her who she is supposed to be." Because the Ballad of Mulan is such a beloved and well-known story, San Souci longed to maintain the character's integrity. However, certain creative liberties were taken with the story in regards to Mulan's role, such as the character neglecting to ask her parents' permission prior to enlisting herself in the army. Additionally, Mulan's surname was changed from "Hua" to "Fa." Finally, Mulan's true identity is discovered much earlier in the film, soon after the army's initial encounter with the enemy, whereas her comrades remain ignorant throughout their entire 12 years at war until after Mulan has returned home.
In addition, unlike preceding traditional Disney animated feature films, the developing romantic relationship between Mulan and Li Shang is treated as more of a subplot as opposed to a traditional central plot, as observed by film critic Andy Klein of Animation World Network. Klein commented, "Mulan isn't waiting for her prince to someday come; when he does arrive, having known her primarily as a man, and having learned to admire her for her deeper qualities, the romance is muted and subtle." Throughout the movie they are constantly working towards helping each other change into better and truer versions of themselves in order to achieve their true potential.
Mulan's speaking voice is provided by Chinese-American actress Ming-Na Wen. Because the character "represented [traditional] Chinese values" and is depicted as being "dramatic ... close to her father, very respectful," Bancroft believed that Wen possessed the "perfect" voice for Mulan, which he additionally described as "very Chinese." Born and raised in Macau, China, Wen was very much familiar with both the legend of Hua Mulan and the Ballad of Mulan at the time of her audition for the role, having grown up being read the poem by her mother. Wen explained, "I think every Chinese kid grows up with this story," additionally likening the poem's popularity in China to that of the Western Parson Weems fable in which American president George Washington chops down his father's beloved cherry tree.
Mulan served as Wen's first voice-acting role. In an interview with IGN, the actress elaborated on the recording process, specifically the fact that she was required to record the majority of the character's dialogue in isolation, saying, "I just loved the story so much and identified so much with the character of Mulan it was easy for me. I loved using my imagination. I felt like I was a little kid again, being silly with an imaginary sword and riding on an imaginary horse and talking to an imaginary dragon. So it was a lot of fun for me." In spite of the fact that, throughout the film, Mulan shares several intimate scenes with her guardian, a miniature Chinese dragon named Mushu who is voiced by American actor and comedian Eddie Murphy, Wen and her co-star never actually encountered each other while working on Mulan due to the fact that they recorded their respective dialogue at separate times in separate locations.
Upon being cast as Mulan's speaking voice, Wen was immediately informed by Disney that she would not be providing the character's singing voice. The actress took no offense to this decision, commenting jokingly "I don't blame them." The directors hired Filipina singer and actress Lea Salonga to dub the character's respective singing voice, heard in the film's songs "Reflection", "I'll Make a Man Out of You" and "A Girl Worth Fighting For", on Wen's behalf. According to Thomas S. Hischak, author of the book Disney Voice Actors: A Biographical Dictionary, Salonga was originally cast to provide both Mulan's speaking and singing voices. However, the directors eventually felt that her attempt at impersonating a man in the form of Mulan's male alter-ego "Ping" was rather unconvincing, and ultimately replacing Salonga with Wen. Six years prior to Mulan, Salonga provided the singing voice of Princess Jasmine in Disney's Aladdin (1992) on behalf of American actress Linda Larkin. While auditioning for Mulan, Salonga asked jokingly, "Why do I have to audition? ... I was already a princess before. Wasn't that enough?"
Characterization and designEdit
The film's screenplay was constantly being revised and re-written. Naturally, so was Mulan's characterization and role in the film. The writers wanted Mulan to represent a "different kind of Disney heroine," specifically described as one who "didn't need a tiara, but was still just as much as graceful, strong, and courageous." Between the two, Bancroft and his twin brother Tom, an animator who also worked on Mulan, have a total of seven daughters. This further inspired the filmmakers to portray Mulan as a unique heroine who is "not another damsel in distress" in favor of having her resemble "a strong female Disney character who would truly be the heroine of her own story" instead, essentially a "female role model. The characteristics of strength and courage were a must for Mulan." In an interview with The Christian Post, Bancroft elaborated on the way in which he, as the film's director, continued to consider the well-being of his two young daughters while working on Mulan, having "wanted to make ... a unique heroine that hadn't been seen before" and provide for them "someone who would be strong on her own, without a prince saving her." Addressing the way in which Mulan differs from traditional Disney heroines and princesses, Bancroft explained, "Most Disney heroines have an outside source that comes in and helps them change. Mulan stays consistent. From the first frame all the way through the end of the movie, her personality, her drive it all stays the same."
|"When we drew her, we had the opportunity to actually adjust her design a little bit so that when she was disguised as Ping, as a soldier, that she was physically a little different in how we drew her than when she was herself as Mulan ... That was something we took advantage of. So, certainly, that was a challenge to have her disguised as a boy whereas she's still a girl who doesn't understand what being a boy is all about or about boys move and act, and that's part of how she learns ... that was part of the fun and the challenge of doing Mulan. You have essentially two characters to play with."|
|— Henn, on animating Mulan as "Ping".|
Visually, the animators were influenced by both traditional Chinese and Japanese artwork. In the specific case of Mulan, "The characters' simple lines ... resemble classic Asian painting", as demonstrated by the animators' innovate "'less is more' approach" to traditional animation. Chinese artist Chen Yi mentored the animators, "helping [them] to come up with these designs." Mark Henn served as Mulan's supervising animator. Animating the character in her male disguise as "Ping" offered an unprecedented challenge for Henn. In order to solve this unique dilemma, Henn was provided with "the opportunity to ... adjust her design a little bit so that when she was disguised as Ping, as a soldier, that she was physically a little different in how we drew her than when she was herself as Mulan." Physically, Mulan was also designed to appear less feminine than preceding traditional Disney animated heroines, specifically Pocahontas from Pocahontas (1995) and Esmeralda from The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1996), because "you can't pass as a man in the army with a Barbie-style figure."
Henn revealed that he was drawn to "Mulan's story [because it] was so unique and compelling that it just captivated me from the beginning". Animating the characters' distinct emotions using the traditional Chinese style turned out to be somewhat challenging for Henn. The animator explained, "We don't create realism in the sense that if you're doing a human character, it's not going to look realistic ... the balance is finding an appealing way of drawing using the visual tools that you have in the design to convey the believable emotions that you want to get across." In addition to Mulan, Henn was also responsible for animating Fa Zhou, Mulan's elderly father. He described the complex relationship between the two characters as "the emotional heart of the story". Fathering one daughter himself, Henn drew inspiration from his own emotions as well as past personal experiences while animating several intimate scenes shared by the two characters.[self-published source]
Several film critics have described Mulan as a tomboy. Andy Patrizio of IGN observed, "In this slightly modernized version of the story, Mulan ... is something of a rebel and a tomboy. She has no interest in being a good little subservient wife, despite her sighing parents' wishes." Jo Johnson, in contribution to the book Queers in American Popular Culture Volume 1: Film and Television, wrote that "Unlike other Disney heroines, Mulan is immediately coded as a tomboy," observing the way in which the character speaks using a full mouth. Johnson additionally noticed several ways in which Mulan's design and personality differ from those typically associated with traditional Disney heroines and princesses, citing the character's clumsy, awkward demeanor; broad shoulders and muscular limbs; unruly single strand of hair; and choice of everyday attire which usually consists of loose, baggy clothing concealing her "traditionally slim Disney waist." Additionally, Mulan's intelligence has been observed in several professional analyses, with critics often citing the character as "brainy."
The film begins with a soldier walking through the Great Wall, when a falcon named Hayabusa knocks off his helmet. Then, the Huns, who are led by the ruthless Shan Yu, invade Han China by breaching the Great Wall, while the Chinese emperor orders a general mobilization. Conscription notices require one man from each family to join the Chinese army.
When Fa Mulan hears that her elderly father, Fa Zhou, the only man in their family and an army veteran, is once more to go to war, she becomes anxious, and apprehensive, due to his weakening health. Taking her father's old armor, she disguises herself as a man, so that she can enlist instead of her parent. The family quickly learn of her departure, and Mulan's grandmother prays to the family ancestors for Mulan's safety. The ancestors order their "great stone dragon" to protect Mulan.
A small dragon named Mushu, a disgraced former guardian, is sent to awaken the stone dragon, but accidentally destroys it in the process. He conceals from the ancestors, and resolves to protect Mulan himself.
Reporting to the training camp, Mulan is able to pass as a man, although her military skills are initially lacking. Mushu provides clumsy guidance to Mulan on how to behave like a man. Under the command of Captain Li Shang, she and her fellow recruits Yao, Ling, and Chien-Po, gradually become trained warriors. Desiring to see Mulan succeed, Mushu creates a fake order from Shang's father, General Li, ordering Shang to follow the main imperial army into the mountains. The reinforcements set out, but arrive at a burnt-out encampment, where they discover that General Li and his troops have been massacred by the Huns.
As the reinforcements solemnly leave the mountains, they are ambushed by the Huns, but Mulan cleverly uses a cannon to cause an avalanche, which buries most of the invaders. An enraged Shan Yu slashes her in the chest, and her deception is revealed when the wound is bandaged.
Instead of executing Mulan as the law requires, Shang spares her life, but nonetheless expels her from the army. Mulan is left to follow alone as the recruits depart for the imperial city to report the news of the Huns' destruction. However, it is discovered that several Hun warriors, including Shan Yu, have survived the avalanche, and Mulan catches sight of them as they make their way to the city, intent on capturing the emperor.
At the imperial city, Mulan is unable to convince Shang about Shan Yu's survival; the Huns capture the emperor, and seize the palace. With Mulan's help, Yao, Ling, and Chien-Po pose as concubines, and are able to enter the palace. With the help of Shang, they defeat Shan Yu's men; as Shang prevents Shan Yu from assassinating the Emperor, Mulan lures the Hun leader onto the roof, where she engages him in single combat. Meanwhile, acting on Mulan's instructions and signal, Mushu fires a large skyrocket at Shan Yu. The rocket strikes, and propels him into a fireworks launching tower, where he dies in the resulting explosion.
Mulan is praised by the Emperor and the assembled inhabitants of the city, who bow to her in an unprecedented honor. While she accepts the crest of the Emperor, and the sword of Shan Yu as gifts, she politely declines his offer to be his advisor, and asks to return to her family.
Mulan returns home, where she presents these gifts to her father, who is overjoyed to have Mulan back safely. Having become enamored with Mulan, Shang soon arrives under the pretext of returning her helmet, but accepts the family's invitation to stay for dinner. Mushu is reinstated as a Fa family guardian by the ancestors amid a returning celebration. When Mulan thanks Mushu, she kisses him on the forehead, followed by her dog, Little Brother, and a herd of chickens bursting into the Temple, with a Great Ancestor calling Mushu's name, ending the film.
One whole month after the events of the original movie, Mulan and Li Shang preparing to marry but distracted by a task from the Emperor, who wants his three daughters escorted to their own marriage ceremony. Their romantic relationship becomes somewhat strained during the trip, as the romantic couple has differing views on various issues. Meanwhile, Mushu realizes that if Mulan marries Shang, she will not need him anymore as her guardian spirit, and decides to trick the two into breaking up. When bandits attack, Mulan and Shang fight them off, but Mulan is devastated when Shang is seemingly killed trying to save her. To make sure the three princesses are not forced to marry against their will, Mulan takes their place marrying the eldest son of the ruler of the neighboring land. Shang survives the accident and arrives in time to stop the wedding but ultimately Mulan is saved by Mushu who, posing as the mighty Golden Dragon of Unity, frees the three princesses from their vows, and marries Mulan and Li Shang himself causing Mulan to forgive him for his actions. Afterwards, Mulan informs Li Shang of Mushu's existence and he combines the temples of his family and hers, allowing Mushu to keep his position.
Ralph Breaks the InternetEdit
Disney Princess franchiseEdit
Mulan is the eighth official member the Disney Princess franchise, a media franchise marketed towards young girls. As children, the characters such as Mulan demonstrates the positive aspects of never giving up, not being restricted to gender roles and the importance of family and honor. These aspects of the film are more in keeping with a traditional Chinese perspective on cultural value, such as the importance of family and honor. Featured on the official Disney Princess website, the character's brief biography reads, "Mulan is a loving girl who is always brave and bold. When her country needs it most, she disguises herself as a man and goes off to fight. She uses courage and determination to win the day." Mulan is currently the only official member of the Disney Princess franchise who is not a legitimate princess "in the traditional sense," as she was neither born the daughter of a king or queen nor does she become princess consort by marrying a prince. Additionally, she is also the franchise's first and currently only East Asian member.
Mulan appears regularly for meet-and-greets, parades and shows at the Walt Disney Parks and Resorts, including at the Chinese Pavilion at Epcot. Mulan and Mushu, as a kite, make cameo appearances in the Hong Kong Disneyland and Disneyland Resort versions of It's a Small World. In Disneyland, she also makes appearances in the Disney Princess Fantasy Faire Village and regularly performs in the new show Mickey and the Magical Map in the Fantasyland Theater. In the aforementioned show, she performs a trio with fellow Disney Princesses Pocahontas and Rapunzel. As a tribute, there is a portrait of her along with other Disney Princesses at the Princess Fairytale Hall at the Magic Kingdom.
On the Disney Cruise Line ships and in Hong Kong Disneyland, Mulan and Li Shang appear in the stage show The Golden Mickeys. Mulan is also known to come out for meet-and-greets on the ships as well. She is also featured in the Disney on Ice shows Princess Classics and Princess Wishes.
Mulan makes cameo appearances in the Disney's House of Mouse television series and the direct-to-video release Mickey's Magical Christmas: Snowed in at the House of Mouse. She was scheduled to appear in the second installment of the Disney Princess Enchanted Tales series of DVDs along with Cinderella. It was to premiere in 2008 but was cancelled due to poor sales of the first DVD.
On August 2014, Ming-Na Wen and Lea Salonga reprise their roles as Mulan for the first time since Mulan 2 in the Disney Channel show Sofia the First. In the episode "Princesses to the Rescue," Mulan reminds Sofia and her friends Amber and Jun they are "Stronger Than They Know" in song. Mulan is the 7th Disney princess to appear on the show.
In the Disney TV film Descendants, while Mulan herself does not appear, reference is made to her in the form of her daughter Lonnie, portrayed by Dianne Doan, who becomes friends with the main characters. Lonnie returns in the sequel, Descendants 2, where she assists the former villain kids in a rescue mission on the Isle of the Lost to retrieve Prince Ben; in return, Jay (the son of Jafar), acknowledging how his heritage should encourage him to bend rules, appoints Lonnie captain of the school's fencing team in his place after she was initially rejected as the rules stated that teams must consist of the captain and eight men. At the film's conclusion, Lonnie is shown dancing with Jay, hinting at a developing relationship.
Mulan appears as a playable character in Disney's Story Studio: Mulan, an action video game released in December 1999 by Disney Interactive Studios exclusively for the video game console Sony PlayStation. Loosely based on the plot of the original animated film, the video game's concept and premise revolves around "Players ... assum[ing] the role of Mulan on her quest to recover the missing scrolls." Mulan also appears as a playable character in Disney's Mulan, a similar video game released the previous year on October 10, 1998 by THQ for Nintendo Game Boy.
Disney Infinity 3.0 has announced and released Mulan as one of the playable characters and figures.
Kingdom Hearts franchiseEdit
Mulan appears in the Square Enix and Disney video game Kingdom Hearts II in the Land of the Dragons world. She aids Sora in battle, taking the place of either Donald or Goofy. She uses a jian called "Sword of the Ancestor" for regular combat, and her combination attacks include Red Rocket and other fire attacks, thanks to Mushu. She goes under her pseudonym (Ping) for the majority of Sora's first visit to her world, but has abandoned it by the time of their second visit, which follows an original storyline.
Reception and legacyEdit
Reception towards Mulan's personality and characterization have been generally positive. Time Out hailed Mulan as "A feisty young go-getter [who] rises above the male-dominated world in which she lives." Ken Fox of TV Guide wrote, "Intelligent and fiercely independent, Mulan ... runs afoul of social expectations that a woman will be always obedient and duty-bound to her husband." Bridget Byrne of Boxoffice wrote that "Mulan ... has pride, charm, spirit and aesthetic appeal which prevents her from being upstaged by the vigorous and exciting action in which she participates." Variety's Todd McCarthy praised the character for inspiring "a turn of the circle from such age-old Disney classics ... in which passive heroines were rescued by blandly noble princes." McCarthy continued, "Here, it's the girl who does the rescuing, saving not only the prince but the emperor himself from oblivion, and this in a distant culture where women were expected to obey strictly prescribed rules." Similarly, Margaret A. McGurk of The Cincinnati Enquirer lauded Mulan for "solv[ing] her G.I. Jane dilemma by proving that brains can do more than brawn." Hailing the character as "Among the strongest heroines in Walt's cartoon canon," Ian Freer of Empire enthused, "Mulan's engaging mixture of vulnerability and derring-do becomes incredibly easy to root for." Hollis Chacona of The Austin Chronicle dubbed Mulan a "winning protagonist." Likewise, the Los Angeles Times' Kenneth Turan wrote, "As a vivacious rebel who has to be true to herself no matter what, Mulan is an excellent heroine, perfect for the young female demographic the studio is most anxious to attract", additionally calling her a "more likable and resourceful role model than Pocahontas".
Although largely well-liked, Mulan's characterization has drawn some mild criticism and speculation, inspiring a series of generally mixed to positive reviews from some film critics. Entertainment Weekly's Owen Gleiberman wrote, "Far more than Beauty and the Beast or the stolidly virtuous Pocahontas, Mulan showcases a girl who gets to use her wits ... a testament to the power of mind over brawn." However, Gleiberman continued, "Mulan finally falls a notch short of Disney's best ... because the heroine's empowerment remains ... an emotionally isolated quest." Similarly, Moira Macdonald of The Seattle Times hailed Mulan as "a strong, engaging character who, unlike many of her Disney counterparts, needs no one to rescue her from danger," while questioning her personality, asking, "was it really necessary to bestow Mulan with self-esteem problems? Because she seems so confident and intelligent, her sad statement that she wants to 'see something worthwhile' in the mirror comes as a bit of a shock."
Critics were not unanimous in their praise. The Phoenix's Jeffrey Gantz felt that character was unoriginal, inaccurate and Westernized, writing, "[her] costumes (particularly the kimono and obi Mulan wears to the Matchmaker) and hairdos look Japanese ... Give Mulan Native American features and you have Pocahontas." Similarly, James Berardinelli of ReelViews felt that the character's depiction was too "familiar," reviewing, "Although she looks different from Ariel, Belle, Jasmine, and Pocahontas, Mulan is very much the same type of individual: a woman with a strong, independent streak who is unwilling to bend to the customs of her culture, which decree that the role of the female is to be ornamental. The film isn't very subtle in reinforcing the idea of equality between the sexes". Additionally, some critics, such as Alex von Tunzelmann of The Guardian, have criticized Mulan for her violence, writing, "Disney struggles to make Mulan both a killer and a heroine ... Gingerly, the film attempts to tread a middle path, implying that Mulan annihilates most of the Hun army by causing an avalanche, and having her dispatch Shan Yu with a load of fireworks. Very pretty. But still technically killing." However, von Tunzelmann did conclude more positively, "as Disney heroines go, Mulan herself is a clear improvement on the standard-issue drippy princess."
Relationship with ShangEdit
Unlike the generally positive reviews received by Mulan, critical reception towards the character's romantic relationship with Li Shang has been largely negative, drawing much speculation from critics who accused Mulan of having "a typical girl-hooks-up-with-boy ending." Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times observed, "The message here is standard feminist empowerment: Defy the matchmaker, dress as a boy, and choose your own career. But Mulan has it both ways, since inevitably Mulan's heart goes pitty-pat over Shang, the handsome young captain she's assigned to serve under. The movie breaks with the tradition in which the male hero rescues the heroine, but is still totally sold on the Western idea of romantic love." The New York Times' Janet Maslin negatively opined, "For all of Mulan's courage and independence in rebelling against the matchmakers, this is still enough of a fairy tale to need Mr. Right."
"Mulan has been hailed as a feminist Disney movie because it showcases a young woman who leads China to victory using her quick wit, pride, and a strong sense of family honor—all while masquerading as a man named Ping. Even though Mulan (as Ping) gains the respect of the army commander and her comrades, once they discover that she is a woman, her army commander and potential love-interest, Shang, loses respect for her and even hates her. "Ping" had been doing an even better job than Shang, but when Shang finds out Ping is a woman, his stupid male ego breaks on impact. Mulan is sentenced to death, and Shang, the macho man of the film, ultimately gets to decide her fate. The only reason she survives is because Shang decides he'd rather just send her home. Wow. To add insult to injury, at the end of the film, Shang fixes up his shattered ego by claiming Mulan as a suitor. Even as Mulan is being praised and cheered in the Forbidden City after she almost single-handedly saves China (this time, as a woman), at the end of the film, the audience is reminded that Mulan is really just another woman looking for a man. Mulan's real victory isn't saving her country from invasion. No, it's marrying Shang."
Betsy Wallace of Common Sense Media observed that Mulan "doesn't fit the princess mold, and most moviegoers had never heard of her." Conclusively, Wallace wrote, "it's too bad that in the end she still needs to be married off to a 'Prince Charming' who saves the day." In contribution to the book Beyond Adaptation: Essays on Radical Transformations of Original Works, Lan Dong wrote, "Even though Mulan achieves success after she resumes her female self ... it is compromised by Mulan and Li Shang's potential engagement at the end of the film."
Cultural significance and accoladesEdit
Mulan is culturally recognized for her unique role in Mulan specifically in regards to the character's heroism, ethnicity and disinterest in romance, serving as a departure from traditional Disney heroines and princesses because she "challenged gender stereotypes and offered up an animated Disney experience that isn't princess-centric" as "one of the few strong, self-propelled female characters that Disney has." Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times observed the way in which Mulan's role in the film as "an independent, not completely boy-crazy heroine is somewhat new for Disney." According to Sara Veal of The Jakarta Post, Mulan "promotes self-reliance, determination and is uninterested in marriage or romance ... the film ends on her saving her country, rather than a romantic resolution." Succeeding non-white Disney Princesses Jasmine and Pocahontas, Mulan's characterization as Disney's first East Asian princess assisted in the diversification of the Disney Princess franchise, introducing "Disney princesses ... portrayed as women of color." Peter Travers of Rolling Stone commented, "Mulan ... makes a feisty prefeminist," continuing, "She doesn't swoon over Captain Shang, the hunky officer ... which leaves Shang ... frustrated ... Mulan, let the record show, does not put out." PopMatters' Jesse Hassenger wrote that unlike other Disney films, "Mulan holds the advantage of a smart, strong heroine—not just a superhot princess figure." Ryan Mazie of Box Office Prophets felt that Mulan "might be the most important and forward-thinking Disney Princess movie made up until that point where the female character solely takes control over her own destiny without the aid of a mighty Prince."
In 2012, CNN's Stephanie Goldberg recognized Mulan as one of Disney's bravest and most heroic animated heroines to-date in her article "Brave's Merida and other animated heroines," writing, "Mulan bent traditional gender roles when she took her father's place in the Chinese army." The Georgia Institute of Technology ranked Mulan the fourteenth greatest Disney character of all-time. Similarly, in 2013, Mulan was ranked the greatest animated Disney heroine according to a poll conducted by Jim Vejvoda of IGN.
In 1999, Mulan's theme song "Reflection", performed by Mulan, was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song at the 56th Golden Globe Awards, but ultimately lost to Celine Dion and Andrea Bocelli's "The Prayer" from Quest for Camelot (1998). "Reflection" is often credited with establishing the successful musical career of American recording artist Christina Aguilera, who famously recorded a pop rendition of the ballad prior to the release of her platinum-selling self-titled debut album in 1999, on which the song is featured. Additionally, the song peaked at number nineteen on the BillboardAdult Contemporary chart. In 2011, Salonga was honored with a Disney Legends award in commemoration of her role as Mulan's singing voice. Additionally, Salonga performed a live rendition of "Reflection" at the ceremony.
The 2013 Disney princess redesigns portrayed Mulan with features that differ from her film appearance. The artwork featured Mulan with blue eyes, bigger lips, noticeably lighter skin, and golden clothing which does not resemble any outfit she has worn in the film. Her new appearance has caused an uproar due to the whitewash of her character. This was particularly troubling as Mulan is one of the few princesses of color. Shavon L. McKinstry of SPARK Movement writes that Mulan's redesign "seem to be directly counter to her personality and character in her film", and also notes how all the princesses of color have been "noticeably pushed to the back or left out completely" from the new Disney merchandise which featured the redesigns.
McKinstry argues that Disney "prefers to portray one demographic of princess, simultaneously alienating so much of their fanbase", pointing out that of the "ten Disney Princesses in the brand, six are white". The importance of Mulan and other non-white princesses can be seen in the 2009 study of the effects of children's cartoons on the body image of young girls by doctors Sharon Hayes and Stacey Tantleff-Dunn. The study revealed that in the group of girls ranging from 3 to 6 years old, 30.6% of the group would change their physical appearance if they could. Of these respondents, over half would change their hair and over a quarter would change something about their body, such as skin color. Of all girls surveyed, 8% said they would have to change their hair or skin color to become a princess, stating things like they would "change from brown skin to white skin", for example. The interviewed group was predominantly white.
Disney has since altered the coloration in Mulan's design by changing the blue eye highlight to brown, darkening the color of her skin, and changing her clothing to better resemble her attire in the film.
- Shaffer, Joshua C. (September 22, 2010). "Mulan". Discovering the Magic Kingdom: An Unofficial Disneyland Vacation Guide. United States: AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1-4520-6312-6. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- "Linasia's Exclusive Interview with Robert D. San Souci". Angelfire. Retrieved February 23, 2013.
- McCluskey, Audrey T, ed. (2007). Frame by Frame Three. United States: Indiana University Press. p. 509. ISBN 0253348293. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- Martin, Sami K. (March 12, 2013). "Tony Bancroft on 'Mulan': 'I Want to Bring Christian-Based Values to All My Work'". The Christian Post. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
- Klein, Andy (July 1998). "Disney's Mulan: A More Modern Heroine". Animation World Network. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
- Kuo, Angela (October 2009). "The Mulan FAQ – How was the story changed?". OoCities. Angela Kuo. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Mayer, Jeffrey (November 27, 2013). "13 Disney Princesses – and the Actresses Who Voiced Them". Time. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- Noyer, Jérémie (August 14, 2008). "Tony Bancroft balances the yin and the yang in directing Mulan". Animated Views. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- Patrizio, Andy (October 27, 2004). "An Interview with Ming-Na". IGN. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- Canavese, Peter (May 18, 2002). "Ming-Na—Mulan—02/18/05". Groucho Reviews. Peter Canavese. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- Erlewine, Stephen. "Original Soundtrack – Mulan". AllMusic. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Hischak, Thomas S. (2011-09-21). "Salonga, Lea". Disney Voice Actors: A Biographical Dictionary. United States: McFarland & Company (published November 19, 2011). p. 186. ISBN 978-0-7864-6271-1. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- Burch, Richard (October 1, 2013). "Disney 53: Mulan". The Hollywood News. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- Talley, Lori (October 24, 2001). "Lea Salonga: Her Own Rules". Backstage. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- Nason, Pat (November 23, 2004). "Analysis: Avoiding Hollywood stereotypes". United Press International. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- Minow, Nell. "Interview: Tom Bancroft of "Mulan"". Beliefnet. Archived from the original on March 1, 2014. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
- Sikora, Jennifer. "Mulan and Mulan II – An Interview with Tom and Tony Bancroft". 5 Minutes for Mom. 5 Minutes for Mom. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- Smith, Kristy (March 12, 2013). "An Interview with Tony and Tom Bancroft – Director and Animator of Disney's Mulan #DisneyOzEvent #Mulan". Adventures of a Couponista. Adventures of a Couponista. Archived from the original on February 27, 2014. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
- Salinas, Tara (March 12, 2013). "MULAN Animators Tony & Tom Bancroft interview #DisneyOzEvent #Mulan". Trippin With Tara. Genesis Framework. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
- Bryson, Carey (March 12, 2013). "Mulan Easter Eggs and Fun Facts". About.com. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
- "The Making of Mulan – Interview with the Bancroft Brothers – #DisneyOzEvent #Mulan". Mom Knows It All. Mom Knows It All. March 12, 2013. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- Hsiao, Rita (March 12, 2013). "Behind the Creation of Mulan with Tom & Tony Bancroft #Mulan #DisneyOzEvent". Mom with a Dot Com. mom with a dot com. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
- Noyer, Jérémie (January 22, 2010). "The Princess and the Frog's Supervising Animator Mark Henn – Part 3: The Orlando Features". Animated Views. Animated Views. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
- Toto, Christian (March 15, 2013). "BH Interview: 'Mulan' Director, Animator Embrace Faith, Honor with Disney Neo-Classic". Breitbart. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
- "Who's Who in Mulan". OoCities. Geocities. October 2009. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- "50mostinfluentialdisneyanimators – 10. Mark Henn". 50mostinfluentialdisneyanimators. WordPress.com. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- Ghez, Didier (2011-09-30). "Mark Henn (b. 1958)". Walt's People: Talking Disney With the Artists Who Knew Him. 5. United States: Xlibris Corporation (published September 30, 2011). p. 578. ISBN 978-1-4257-8314-3. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- "She's a Man, Baby! – Mulan". Elle. August 11, 2011. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher (2008-09-23). "Amazons". Well-Behaved Women Seldom Make History. United States: Random House LLC (published September 23, 2008). p. 51. ISBN 978-1-4000-7527-0. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Parker, Wayne. "A Father's Guide to the Disney Princesses – Mulan". About.com. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- Patrizio, Andy (October 18, 2004). "Mulan: Special Edition". IGN Entertainment. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Johnson, Jo (2010). "We'll Have a Gay Old Time". In Elledge, Jim. Queers in American Popular Culture Volume 1: Film and television. 1. United States: Praeger. pp. 259–261. ISBN 978-0-313-35459-5. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Turan, Kenneth (June 19, 1998). "'Mulan': Formula With a New Flavor". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- Allen, Frank (May 2, 2013). "Mulan". BSkyB. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Sun, Rebecca; Ford, Rebecca (November 29, 2017). "Disney's 'Mulan' Finds Its Star (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2017-11-30.
- Dill, Karen E. (December 4, 2009). "First Black Disney Princess Debuts, 70+ years after Snow White". Psychology Today. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- Orestein, Peggy (December 24, 2006). "What's Wrong With Cinderella?". The New York Times. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
- "Meet Mulan". Disney Princess. Disney. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
- Parker, Wayne. "A Father's Guide to the Disney Princesses". About.com. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- Brokaw, Francine. "The Disney Princess Reign Supreme". Family Choice Awards. Family Magazines. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- "Say "So Long !" to direct-to-video sequels : DisneyToon Studios tunes out Sharon Morrill". Jim Hill Media. Retrieved 2012-06-09.
- "First Look:Ming-Na Wen is Back at Mulan – This Time on Sofia the First". TV Guide. July 22, 2014. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
- White, Matt (January 11, 2000). "Mulan". IGN. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
- Hernandez, Tara (1999). "Disney's Story Studio: Mulan". allgame. AllGame. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
- "Mulan – About This Game". IGN. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
- "Disney's Mulan". 1UP.com. IGN Entertainment Games. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
- "The Land of Dragons". KHInsider. KHInsider. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
- Square (2005-12-22). Kingdom Hearts II. PlayStation 2. Square Electronic Arts.
- "Fa Mulan". KHInsider. KHInsider. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
- A, D (1998). "Mulan". Time Out. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- Byrne, Bridget (June 19, 1998). "Mulan". Boxoffice. BOXOFFICE Media, LLC. Archived from the original on March 2, 2014. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- McCarthy, Todd (June 8, 1998). "Review: 'Mulan – 'Mulan' Blazes New Femme Territory'". Variety. Variety Media, LLC. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- McGurk, Margaret A. (June 19, 1998). "Magic of 'Mulan'". The Cincinnati Enquirer. news.cincinnati.com. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- Freer, Ian (1998). "Mulan". Empire. Archived from the original on March 2, 2014. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
- Chacona, Hollis (June 19, 1998). "Mulan". The Austin Chronicle. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
- Gleiberman, Owen (June 19, 1998). "Mulan (1998)". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
- Macdonald, Moira (June 19, 1998). "Disney's 'Mulan': Surprising Words And Scenes – And Visual Beauty, Too". The Seattle Times. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- Gantz, Jeffrey (June 18, 1998). "Romance takes a back seat to action in Mulan". The Phoenix. Boston MA. Archived from the original on October 29, 2014. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- "Mulan". ReelViews. James Berardinelli. 1998. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- von Tunzelmann, Alex (September 9, 2010). "Disney's Mulan takes a hammer to a Chinese puzzle". The Guardian. Retrieved March 9, 2014.
- Samudrala, Ram (1998). "Mulan". Retrieved March 9, 2014.
- Ebert, Roger (1998). "Mulan". RogerEbert.com. Ebert Digital LLC. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- Maslin, Janet (June 19, 1998). "Mulan (1998) FILM REVIEW; A Warrior, She Takes on Huns and Stereotypes". The New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- "Mulan: Just Another Princess". Teen Ink. Retrieved March 9, 2014.
- Wallace, Betsy (August 1, 2005). "Mulan". Common Sense Media Inc. Retrieved March 9, 2014.
- Dong, Lan (2010-03-01). "Mulan: Disney's Hybrid Heroine". In Frus, Phyllis. Beyond Adaptation: Essays on Radical Transformations of Original Works. United States: McFarland & Company (published March 2, 2010). p. 165. ISBN 978-0-7864-4223-2. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
- Peck, Aaron (March 15, 2013). "Mulan / Mulan II". High Def Digest. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- Veal, Sara (January 10, 2010). "Another year, another Disney princess". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- Siddiqi, Humaa (October 22, 2013). "Reimagining the look of Disney princesses". University of Illinois at Chicago News Centre. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- Travers, Peter (June 19, 1998). "Mulan". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media LLC. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- Hassenger, Jesse (March 14, 2013). "'The Hunchback of Notre Dame' and 'Mulan' Are from Disney's Artistically Vital Years". PopMatters. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- Mazie, Ryan (June 18, 2012). "Are You With Us? Mulan". Box Office Prophets. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
- Goldberg, Stephanie (June 22, 2012). "'Brave's' Merida and other animated heroines". CNN. Retrieved March 9, 2014.
- "Top 100 Disney characters according to Board 8's Disney Gauntlets (as of Gauntlet #200)" (PDF). Georgia Institute of Technology. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 1, 2013. Retrieved March 9, 2014.
- Vejvoda, Jim (November 27, 2013). "Who is Your Favorite Disney Animated Movie Heroine?". Retrieved March 9, 2014.
- Weber, Dick (April 16, 2008). "Academy Award Nominee Pens song for feature 'Horror in the Wind'". PRWeb. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
- Serpick, Evan. "Christina Aguilera – Biography". Rolling Stone. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
- Goldhaber, Mark (August 2, 2011). "Disney Legends Class of 2011: Modern princesses, the Muppet master and more". USA Today. Gannett Co. Inc. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- Alijunaid, Ahsan (August 21, 2011). "Lea Salonga becomes a Disney legend". Allvoices. Archived from the original on March 14, 2014. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- McKinstry, Shavon L. "Bright Like a Diamond, White Like a Princess", SPARK MOVEMENT, April 17, 2013. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
- Hayes, S. and Tantleff-Dunn, S. "Am I too fat to be a princess? Examining the effects of popular children's media on young girls' body image", British Journal of Developmental Psychology, December 23, 2010.