Muhammad Jamalul Alam II

Muhammad Jamalul Alam II was the 26th Sultan of Brunei. He ascended to the throne in 1906 when he was only 17 years old. He ruled Brunei until his sudden death in 1924 due to malaria. Before he became sultan, he was known as Pengiran Muda Bongsu Muhammad Jamalul Alam.

Muhammad Jamalul Alam II
II محمد جمال العالم
Duli Yang Maha Mulia Al-Sultan
Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam II(Brunei).jpg
Reign10 May 1906 – 11 September 1924
PredecessorHashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin
SuccessorAhmad Tajuddin
Istana Kampong Ayer, Bandar Brunei, Brunei
Died11 September 1924 (aged 35)
Istana Majlis, Bandar Brunei, Brunei
Spouse1- Raja Isteri Fatimah (d. 7 March 1947)
2- Pengiran Isteri Tengah (d. 1924)
Issue1- Pengiran Muda Bongsu (1908-1910)
2- Pengiran Muda Besar Ahmad Tajuddin (1913-1950)
3- Pengiran Muda Anum (d. 1924)
4- Pengiran Muda Laila Gambar (d. 1924)
5-Pengiran Muda Tengah Omar Ali Saifuddien III (1914-1986)
6- Pengiran Anak Besar Bagol (d. 1945)
7- Pengiran Anak Puteri Hajah Besar (1902 - 1993)
8- Pengiran Anak Puteri Tengah (1910 - 1969)
9- Pengiran Anak Puteri Damit (b. 1911)
10- Pengiran Anak Puteri Hajah Tinggal
FatherHashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin
MotherPengiran Isteri Pengiran Anak Siti Fatimah

He was the eldest surviving son of Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin. When his father died, the responsibility of the Sultan was in the hands of the Majlis Pemangku Raja (Council of Regency). It was only in 1918 that he was crowned as sultan. He took a great deal of interest in the progress of the country, encouraging advances in agriculture, medicine and education.

He also encouraged learning Islam, which was often carried out in the surau (small mosque). As a sign of commitment to Islam, he built a mosque despite the country's lack of revenue. The mosque was built on a piece of land near the present Kampong Sultan Lama. The local community used the mosque until it was destroyed in wartime bombing during the reign of his son, Ahmad Tajuddin.

It was also during his reign that Islamic Law was officially introduced. This was known as Muhammadan Law. It was introduced in 1912, replacing the Kanun Brunei. Then in 1913, the Marriage and Divorce Act was introduced. He kept his position on the State Council, which met to approve and amend laws and policies. With the introduction of the Residential System in Brunei in 1906, all the executive power, except in matters of religion and tradition, was transferred from the Sultan to the Resident. In 1922, he moved from Istana Kampong Ayer to Istana Majlis.

His reign was a short one. An outbreak of malaria claimed his life as well as three members of his family. He died on 11 September 1924, aged 35. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Pengiran Muda Besar Ahmad Tajuddin. He was buried at the Royal Mausoleum at Jalan Tutong.


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Regnal titles
Preceded by
Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin
Sultan of Brunei
Succeeded by
Ahmad Tajuddin