Muhammad II ibn al-Husayn

Mohammed Bey (Arabic: أبو عبد اله محمد باشا باي) or M'hamed Bey (18 September 1811 – 22 September 1859)[1][2][3] was the eleventh Husainid Bey of Tunis, ruling from 1855 until his death.[4] He was the son of Al-Husayn II ibn Mahmud and his second wife Lalla Fatima al-Munastiri.[citation needed]

Muhammad II ibn al-Husayn
Mohammed Bey.jpg
Bey of Tunis
Reign30 May 1855 – 22 September 1859
PredecessorAhmad I ibn Mustafa
SuccessorMuhammad III as-Sadiq
Born(1811-09-18)18 September 1811
Le Bardo, Beylik of Tunis
Died22 September 1859(1859-09-22) (aged 48)
La Marsa, Beylik of Tunis

As Bey al-Mahalla (Heir Apparent) he had been awarded the rank of divisional general in the Ottoman army in August 1840, and was raised to the rank of marshal on 7 August 1855, shortly after he succeeded his cousin Ahmad Bey on 30 May 1855. He retained his predecessor's key minister Mustapha Khaznadar as Grand vizier[5] and surrounded himself with competent ministers such as Kheireddine Pacha and Generals Hussain and Rustum as well as devoted counsellors including Mohamed Bayram IV, Mahmoud Kabadou and Ismaïl Caïd Essebsi.

The proclamation of the Fundamental Pact in the Bardo Palace on 10 September 1857.

After his accession he proceeded with reforms, including, on 10 September 1857, the Fundamental Pact which recognised religious freedom and equality before the law for all inhabitants of the country, regardless of their religion.[6] In a decree of 30 August 1858, he established the first modern municipal government for the city of Tunis.[7]

He considerably extended and embellished the Dar al-Taj palace in La Marsa, stripping the old Mohammedia Palace favoured by his predecessor of building materials to do so.[8]

He died after only four years on the throne and was buried in the Tourbet el Bey in the Medina of Tunis.[2]


  1. ^ Ibn Abi Dhiaf, Présent des hommes de notre temps. Chroniques des rois de Tunis et du pacte fondamental, vol. IV, éd. Maison tunisienne de l'édition, Tunis, 1990, p. 207
  2. ^ a b Ibn Abi Dhiaf, op. cit., p. 293
  3. ^ G. S. van Krieken, Khayr al-Dîn et la Tunisie, 1850-1881, éd. Brill, Leyde, 1976, p. 36
  4. ^ Armand de Flaux, La régence de Tunis au dix-neuvième siècle, éd. Challamel Aîné, Paris, 1865, p. 238
  5. ^ Ibn Abi Dhiaf, op. cit., p. 210
  6. ^ Nazli Hafsia, Les premiers modernistes tunisiens. Abdeljelil Zaouche. 1873-1947, éd. MIM, Tunis, 2007, pp. 60–61
  7. ^ Paul Sebag, Tunis. Histoire d'une ville, éd. L'Harmattan, Paris, 1998, p. 289
  8. ^ Jacques Revault, Palais et résidences d'été de la région de Tunis (XVIe-XIXe siècles), éd. Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Paris, 1974, p. 74
Preceded by Bey of Tunis
Succeeded by