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Muhammad's letters to the heads of state

According to al-Tabari in his History of the Prophets and Kings, Muhammad decided after the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah to send letters to many rulers of the world, inviting them to Islam. [1][2][3] Non-Muslims have disputed this tradition, however.[4]

Muhammad, according to traditional Islamic historiography, sent ambassadors with such letters to Heraclius the Caesar of Byzantium, Chosroes II the Khosrau of Persia, the Negus of Abyssinia, Muqawqis the ruler of Egypt, Harith Gassani the governor of Syria, Munzir ibn Sawa and to the ruler of Bahrain.[5]

To the Byzantine emperorEdit

Purported letter sent by Muhammad to Heraclius, emperor of Byzantium; reproduction taken from Majid Ali Khan, Muhammad The Final MessengerIslamic Book Service, New Delhi (1998).

The text of the letter to Heraclius, as transmitted by Muslim historians, reads as follows:

من محمد بن عبد الله إلى هرقل عظيم الروم: سلام على من اتبع الهدى، أما بعد فإنى أدعوك بدعوة الإسلام . أسلم تسلم ويؤتك الله أجرك مرتين ، فإن توليت فإن عليك إثم الأريسيِّين.

{قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَلَا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضًا أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ ۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَقُولُوا اشْهَدُوا بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ} [سورة آل عمران : 64].

In the name of God, the Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy

From Muhammad, son of Abdullah to Heraclius the Leader of the Romans:

Peace be upon he who follows the guidance.

Furthermore, I invite you with the invitation of Islam. If you submit then you will find safety and God will double your reward. If you turn away, you will bear the Arians’ sins.

"O People of the Scripture! Come to a common word between us and you: that we shall worship none but God, and that we shall ascribe no partner unto Him, and that none of us shall take others for lords beside God. And if they turn away, then say: Bear witness that we are they who have surrendered (unto Him).

— Quran, Chapter: Aal Imran “The House of Joachim” 3:64

To the king of EthiopiaEdit

Letter of the Prophet Muhammed to Armah, the Negus:

كتاب رسول الإسلام صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى النجاشي

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم من محمد رسول الإسلام إلى النجاشى ملك الحبشة: سلام عليك إنى أحمد الله إليك ،الله الذي لا إله إلا هو الملك القدوس السلام المؤمن المهيمن، وأشهد أن عيسى بن مريم روح الله وكلمته ألقاها إلى مريم البتول الطيبة الحصينة، فحملت بعيسى فخلقه الله من روحه كما خلق آدم بيده، وإنى أدعوك وجنودك إلى الله عز وجل، وقد بلغت ونصحت فاقبلوا نصحى، والسلام على من اتبع الهدى

Letter of the Prophet of Islam, peace be upon him. In the name of God the most beneficial the Merciful. Mohammed the Prophet of Islam to Nagaci king of Abyssinia:

Peace to you that I thank God for you, God, who there is no god but He, the King, the Holy peace insured dominant, and I bear witness that Jesus son of Mary, the Spirit of God and his speech was delivered to the Virgin Mary the good bunker. God created Jesus from his soul, just as he created Adam with his hand, and I invite you and your soldiers to God Almighty, has reached and advised receive my advice, and peace be upon those who follow guidance

To the governor of BahrainEdit

Letter of the Prophet Muhammed to Munzir ibn Sawa Al Tamimi (reproduction of a manuscript copy of the letter taken from Sultan Ahmed Qureshi, Letters of the Holy Prophet, Karachi (1983).

To Muqawqis of EgyptEdit

Drawing of the Prophet Muhammed to the Muqawqis, discovered in Egypt in 1858.[7]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Lings, Martin (1994). Muhammad: His Life based on the earliest sources. Suhail Academy Lahore. p. 260.
  2. ^ Khan, Dr. Majid Ali (1998). Muhammad The Final Messenger. Islamic Book Service, New Delhi, 110002 (India). pp. 250–251. ISBN 81-85738-25-4.
  3. ^ Haykal, Muhammad Husayn (1993). The Life of Muhammad (Translated from the 8th Edition By Ism'il Ragi A. Al Faruqi). Islami Book Trust, Kula Lumpur. p. 360.
  4. ^ Gabriel Said Reynolds, The Emergence of Islam (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2012), p. 49.
  5. ^ For example, Sigismund Koelle reports that "Ibn Ishak also mentions the names of nine different messengers who had to carry Mohammed's letters to the following potentates: (1) to the Emperor of the Greeks; (2) to Chosroes, the king of Persia; (3) to Najashi, the prince of Abyssinia; (4) to Mokawkas, the prince of Alexandria; (5) to Jeifar and Iyaz, the princes of Oman; (6) to Thumama and Hawza, the princes of Yemama; (7) to Munzir, the prince of Bahrein; (8) to El Harith, the prince of the border districts of Syria; and (9) to the Himyarite Harith Ibn Abd Kulal, the prince of Yemen." Koelle, S. W. (1889). Mohammed and Mohammedanism Critically Considered (p. 194). London: Rivingtons.
  6. ^ Translation was copied and modified from some websites here [1], [2]. It would be appreciated if there is a better translation.
  7. ^ "the original of the letter was discovered in 1858 by Monsieur Etienne Barthelemy, member of a French expedition, in a monastery in Egypt and is now carefully preserved in Constantinople. Several photographs of the letter have since been published. The first one was published in the well-known Egyptian newspaper Al-Hilal in November 1904" Muhammad Zafrulla Khan, Muhammad: Seal of the Prophets, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1980 (chapter 12). The drawing of the letter published in Al-Hilal was reproduced in David Samuel Margoliouth, Mohammed and the Rise of Islam, London (1905), p. 365, which is the source of this image.
  8. ^ Margoliouth, D. S. (1905). Mohammed and the Rise of Islam (Third Edition., p. 365). New York; London: G. P. Putnam's Sons; The Knickerbocker Press.