Mount Logan (/ˈlɡən/ LOH-ghən) is the highest mountain in Canada and the second-highest peak in North America after Denali. The mountain was named after Sir William Edmond Logan, a Canadian geologist and founder of the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC). Mount Logan is located within Kluane National Park Reserve[6] in southwestern Yukon, less than 40 km (25 mi) north of the Yukon–Alaska border. Mount Logan is the source of the Hubbard and Logan glaciers. Although many shield volcanoes are much larger in size and mass, Mount Logan is believed to have the largest base circumference of any non-volcanic mountain on Earth,[7] including a massif with eleven peaks over 5,000 m (16,000 ft).[8][9]

Mount Logan
Mount Logan from the southeast
Highest point
Elevation5,959 m (19,551 ft)[1][2]
Prominence5,250 m (17,220 ft)[3]
Parent peakDenali[4]
Coordinates60°34′02″N 140°24′19″W / 60.56722°N 140.40528°W / 60.56722; -140.40528[5]
Mount Logan is located in Yukon
Mount Logan
Mount Logan
Location in Yukon, Canada
Parent rangeSaint Elias Mountains
Topo mapNTS 115C9 McArthur Peak[5]
First ascent1925 by A.H. MacCarthy et al.
Easiest routeglacier/snow/ice climb

Due to active tectonic uplifting, Mount Logan is still rising in height (approximately 0.35 mm (0.014 in) per year).[10] Before 1992, the exact elevation of Mount Logan was unknown and measurements ranged from 5,959 to 6,050 m (19,551 to 19,849 ft). In May 1992, a GSC expedition climbed Mount Logan and fixed the current height of 5,959 m (19,551 ft) using GPS.[8][11][12]

Temperatures are extremely low on and near Mount Logan. On the 5,000 m (16,000 ft) plateau, air temperature hovers around −45 °C (−49 °F) in the winter and reaches near freezing in summer with the median temperature for the year around −27 °C (−17 °F). Minimal snow melt leads to a significant ice cap, almost 300 m (980 ft) thick in certain spots.[9]

Peaks of the massif edit

The Mount Logan massif is considered to contain all the surrounding peaks with less than 500 m (1,600 ft) of prominence, as listed below:

Peak Height Prominence Coordinates
Main[3] 5,959 m (19,551 ft) 5,250 m (17,220 ft) above Mentasta Pass 60°34′2″N 140°24′19″W / 60.56722°N 140.40528°W / 60.56722; -140.40528 ((primary peak))
Philippe Peak (West)[13] 5,925 m (19,439 ft) 265 m (869 ft) 60°34′42.6″N 140°26′02.4″W / 60.578500°N 140.434000°W / 60.578500; -140.434000 (Philippe Peak)
Logan East Peak (Stuart Peak)[14] 5,898 m (19,350 ft) 198 m (650 ft) 60°34′31.1″N 140°22′00.1″W / 60.575306°N 140.366694°W / 60.575306; -140.366694 (Logan East Peak)
Houston's Peak[15] 5,740 m (18,830 ft) 100 m (330 ft) 60°35′03.5″N 140°27′20.5″W / 60.584306°N 140.455694°W / 60.584306; -140.455694 (Houston's Peak)
Prospector Peak[16] 5,644 m (18,517 ft) 344 m (1,129 ft) 60°35′58.9″N 140°30′40.7″W / 60.599694°N 140.511306°W / 60.599694; -140.511306 (Prospector Peak)
AINA Peak[17] 5,630 m (18,470 ft) 130 m (430 ft) 60°36′31.8″N 140°31′48.6″W / 60.608833°N 140.530167°W / 60.608833; -140.530167 (AINA Peak)
Russell Peak[18] 5,580 m (18,310 ft) 80 m (260 ft) 60°35′31.2″N 140°29′08.9″W / 60.592000°N 140.485806°W / 60.592000; -140.485806 (Russell Peak)
Tudor Peak (Logan North Peak)[19] 5,559 m (18,238 ft) 219 m (719 ft) 60°36′58.2″N 140°29′35.4″W / 60.616167°N 140.493167°W / 60.616167; -140.493167 (Tudor Peak)
Saxon Peak (Northeast)[20] 5,500 m (18,000 ft) 80 m (260 ft) 60°37′12.0″N 140°27′57.6″W / 60.620000°N 140.466000°W / 60.620000; -140.466000 (Saxon Peak)
Queen Peak[21] 5,380 m (17,650 ft) 160 m (520 ft) 60°36′33.5″N 140°35′12.5″W / 60.609306°N 140.586806°W / 60.609306; -140.586806 (Queen Peak)
Capet Peak (Northwest)[22] 5,250 m (17,220 ft) 240 m (790 ft) 60°38′15.0″N 140°32′41.3″W / 60.637500°N 140.544806°W / 60.637500; -140.544806 (Capet Peak)
Catenary Peak[23] 4,097 m (13,442 ft) 397 m (1,302 ft) 60°36′36.0″N 140°17′52.1″W / 60.610000°N 140.297806°W / 60.610000; -140.297806 (Catenary Peak)
Teddy Peak[24] 3,956 m (12,979 ft) 456 m (1,496 ft) 60°32′37.7″N 140°28′41.5″W / 60.543806°N 140.478194°W / 60.543806; -140.478194 (Teddy Peak)

Discovery and naming edit

Mount Logan is not readily visible from the surrounding lowlands or the coast, due to its position in the heart of the Saint Elias Mountains, although it can be seen from 201 km (125 mi) out to sea.[25] Pictures taken across Yakutat Bay to the south southeast suggest it is visible from near Yakutat. Its first reported sighting was in 1890 by Israel C. Russell, during an expedition to nearby Mount Saint Elias, from the crest of the Pinnacle Pass Hills (60°9.5′N 140°18′W / 60.1583°N 140.300°W / 60.1583; -140.300). He wrote: "The clouds parting toward the northeast revealed several giant peaks not before seen... One stranger, rising in three white domes far above the clouds, was especially magnificent".[26][27] Russell gave the mountain its present name.

In 1894, Mount Logan's elevation was determined to be about 5,900 m (19,500 ft), making it the highest known peak in North America at the time.[28] In 1898, Denali was determined to be higher.[29]

Ascent attempts edit

First ascent edit

Mount Logan from the North East, as seen from Kluane Icefield

In 1922, a geologist approached the Alpine Club of Canada with the suggestion that the club send a team to the mountain to reach the summit for the first time. An international team of Canadian, British and American climbers was assembled the following year, initially planning an attempt in 1924 but forced by funding and preparation delays to postpone the trip until 1925. The international team of climbers began their journey in early May, crossing the mainland from the Pacific coast by train. They then walked the remaining 200 km (120 mi) to within 10 km (6.2 mi) of the Logan Glacier where they established base camp. In the early evening of June 23, 1925, Albert H. MacCarthy (leader), H.F. Lambart, Allen Carpé, Norman H. Read, W.W. Foster, and Andy Taylor stood on top for the first time.[9][30] It had taken them 65 days to approach the mountain from the nearest town (McCarthy across the border in Alaska), reach the summit, and return, with all climbers intact, although some of them suffered severe frostbite.[31]

Subsequent notable ascents and attempts edit

A climber on the knife ridge (east ridge)
  • 1957 East Ridge. Don Monk, Gil Roberts and three others (US) reached the East Peak on July 19 after a 24-day climb.[32][33]
  • 1959 East Ridge, second ascent and first alpine-style ascent, Hans Gmoser and five others (Canada). Starting from Kluane Lake, they hiked and skied 160 km (100 mi) to reach the base of the mountain. They climbed the ridge in six days and summited the East Peak on June 12.[34]
  • 1965 Hummingbird Ridge (South Ridge). Dick Long, Allen Steck, John Evans, Jim Wilson, Franklin Coale Sr., and Paul Bacon (US) over 30 days, mid-July to Mid-August. Fred Beckey remarked: "When they got back we just couldn't believe that they had climbed that thing. We didn't think they had a chance".[35] This climb is featured in Fifty Classic Climbs of North America. As of 2023 the climb remains unrepeated.
  • 1967, July, the first traverse of Mt. Logan was made by Vin Hoemann and Will Harrison, starting at the "HubSew" ridge over the main summit. Team members Alexander Bittenbinder, David Shaw, and Edward Ward joined them via the East Ridge. [36]
  • 1967, August, the first ski descent of the mountain was made in two stages by Daniel C. Taylor main summit to the Kluane glacier [37]
  • 1977 Warbler Ridge. Dave Jones, Frank Baumann, Fred Thiessen, Jay Page (all from Canada) and Rene Bucher (Swiss) in 22 days.[38]
  • 1978 West Ridge. Steve Davis (WA), Jon Waterman, George Sievewright, Roger Hurt (NH). Climbed ridge in 27 days "capsule-style".[39]
  • 1979 Northwest Ridge Michael Down (CA), Paul Kindree, John Howe, Reid Carter and John Wittmayer climbed to the summit over 22 days, topping out on June 19.[40]
  • 1979 South-Southwest Ridge. Raymond Jotterand (CA), Alan Burgess, Jim Elzinga and John Lauchlan reached the summit after 15 days of climbing on June 30 and July 1.[41]
  • 1986 First winter ascent by Todd Frankiewicz, Willy Hersman, Steve Koslow, George Rooney, Vernon Tejas and John Bauman via the King’s Trench Route on March 16.[42][43]
  • 1987 David Cheesmond and Catherine Freer disappeared while attempting to repeat the Hummingbird Ridge.[44]
  • 1992 June 6, an expedition sponsored by the Royal Canadian Geographic Society confirmed the height of Mount Logan using GPS. The leader was Michael Schmidt, with Lisel Currie, Leo Nadeay, Charlie Roots, J-C. Lavergne, Roger Laurilla, Patrick Morrow, Karl Nagy, Sue Gould, Alan Björn, Lloyd Freese, Kevin McLaughlin and Rick Staley.[11]
  • 2005 late May. Three climbers from the Vancouver-based North Shore Rescue team became stranded on the mountain. A joint operation by Canadian and American forces rescued the three climbers and took them to Anchorage, Alaska for treatment of frostbite.[45]
  • 2017 May 23. 15-year-old Naomi Prohaska reached the summit, the youngest person to do so. She was part of a team led by her father.[46]
  • 2018 June 14. The first all US veteran team reached the summit. The six-person team was unguided and part of the US non-profit organization Veterans Expeditions.[47]
Mount Logan 3D view

Climbing rules edit

In January 2020, due to the cost of search and rescue operations in recent years, Parks Canada announced new rules for climbing Mount Logan:

  • No solo expeditions
  • No winter expeditions (which also includes all of Kluane National Park)
  • Climbers must have insurance to cover the cost of search and rescue.[48]

There have been eight rescue missions in the past seven years in Kluane National Park. Each mission typically costs between $60,000 to $100,000 CAD which is paid for by Canadian taxpayers. A Parks Canada spokesperson said the new rules are to help reduce the financial burden to taxpayers.[48]

Proposed renaming edit

Following the death of Pierre Trudeau, former Prime Minister of Canada, in 2000, then Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, a close friend of Trudeau, proposed renaming the mountain Mount Trudeau.[49][50] However opposition from Yukoners, mountaineers, geologists, Trudeau's political critics, and many other Canadians forced the plan to be dropped.[51] A mountain in the Premier Range of British Columbia was named Mount Pierre Elliott Trudeau instead.[52]

In popular culture edit

X-Men writer Chris Claremont was inspired by Mount Logan for the adopted name of the superhero Wolverine; Claremont said in an interview that "the idea was the tallest mountain being the name of the shortest character".[53]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut Ultra-Prominences". Retrieved March 25, 2015.
  2. ^ "Topographic map of Mount Logan". Retrieved November 7, 2021.
  3. ^ a b "Mount Logan". Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  4. ^ "Mount Logan". Retrieved August 27, 2010.
  5. ^ a b "Mount Logan". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
  6. ^ "Kluane National Park and Reserve of Canada". Parks Canada. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
  7. ^ Brown, Michael (June 11, 2021). "Researchers summit Mount Logan to document 30,000 years of climate history". University of Alberta. Retrieved June 5, 2022.
  8. ^ a b "Mount Logan". Geological Survey of Canada. Archived from the original on September 21, 2012. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
  9. ^ a b c "Mount Logan: Canadian Titan". Virtual Museum of Canada. Retrieved September 18, 2008.
  10. ^ Roots, Charlie F.; Currie, Lisel D. (1993). "Geodetic and geological observations from the 1992 Mount Logan expedition, Yukon Territory". Paper 93-1A: Current Research, Part a Cordillera and Pacific Margin. Geological Survey of Canada: 22. doi:10.4095/134186.
  11. ^ a b "How scientists solved the mystery of Mount Logan's true height". Canadian Geographic. May 4, 2017 [1992]. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
  12. ^ Tukker, Paul (June 5, 2022). "High tech: How mountaineers used early GPS on Canada's tallest peak". CBC News. Retrieved June 5, 2022.
  13. ^ "Philippe Peak". Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  14. ^ "Logan East Peak (Stuart Peak)". Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  15. ^ "Houston's Peak". Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  16. ^ "Prospector Peak". Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  17. ^ "AINA Peak". Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  18. ^ "Russell Peak". Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  19. ^ "Tudor Peak (Logan North Peak)". Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  20. ^ "Saxon Peak". Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  21. ^ "Queen Peak". Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  22. ^ "Capet Peak (Northwest Peak)". Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  23. ^ "Catenary Peak". Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  24. ^ "Teddy Peak". Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  25. ^ Lambart, H.F. (1926). "The Conquest of Mount Logan". Geographical Journal. LXVIII (1): 1–23. doi:10.2307/1783111. JSTOR 1783111.
  26. ^ Holdsworth, Gerald. "Mount Logan". The Canadian Encyclopedia.
  27. ^ Russell, Israel C. (1891). "An Expedition to Mt. Saint Elias, Alaska". National Geographic Magazine. III: 141.
  28. ^ "Washington Letter". Bulletin of the American Geographical Society of New York. 26: 102–103. 1894.
  29. ^ Stuck, Hudson (1918). The Ascent of Denali (Mount McKinley). Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 159.
  30. ^ "Conquering Mount Logan". Parks Canada. Archived from the original on December 12, 2017. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
  31. ^ Sherman pp. 1–38
  32. ^ Selters pp. 170–171
  33. ^ Collins, D.; Roberts, G. (1958). "Mount Logan – East Peak". American Alpine Journal. American Alpine Club. Retrieved June 5, 2022.
  34. ^ Gmoser, Hans (1960). "Canadian Mount Logan Expedition". American Alpine Journal. American Alpine Club. Retrieved June 5, 2022.
  35. ^ Selters pp. 179-182
  36. ^ "A Logan Traverse". Retrieved April 1, 2024.
  37. ^ Arctic Institute of North America Newsletter, November 1967
  38. ^ Scott pp. 319–320
  39. ^ Hirt, Roger (1979). "Mount Logan's West Ridge". American Alpine Journal. American Alpine Club. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
  40. ^ Down, Michael (1980). "Mount Logan: First Ascent of Northwest Ridge". Climbs and Expeditions. American Alpine Journal. 22 (53). New York, NY, USA: American Alpine Club: 559. ISSN 0065-6925.
  41. ^ Jotterand, Raymond (1980). "Mount Logan: South-Southwest Ridge". Climbs and Expeditions. American Alpine Journal. 22 (53). New York, NY, USA: American Alpine Club: 557–559. ISSN 0065-6925.
  42. ^ Bauman, John (1987). "North America, Canada, Yukon Territory, Mount Logan, First Winter Ascent". American Alpine Journal. American Alpine Club. Retrieved April 13, 2022.
  43. ^ Medred, Craig (December 8, 1988). "Skier Took One Risk Too Many, Friends Say" (PDF). Chugach National Forest Avalanche Information Center. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  44. ^ Lowe, George H. (1988). "David Cheesmond, 1952-1987". American Alpine Journal. American Alpine Club. Retrieved June 5, 2022.
  45. ^ "ACC Accident report for May 2005". Alpine Club of Canada - Edmonton section. Archived from the original on October 16, 2007. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
  46. ^ "B.C. teen becomes youngest climber to reach Canada's highest peak". CBC News. June 4, 2017. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
  47. ^ "US Veterans Summit Logan 2018". Mountain Project. January 10, 2019. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
  48. ^ a b "As rescue costs soar, Parks Canada sets new rules for climbing Canada's highest peak". CBC News. January 16, 2020. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  49. ^ "Mount Logan to become Mount Trudeau". CBC News. October 5, 2000. Archived from the original on October 16, 2007. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
  50. ^ "Highest peak to be Trudeau Mountain". Globe and Mail. October 5, 2000. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
  51. ^ "Government backtracks on renaming Mount Logan". Globe and Mail. October 17, 2000. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
  52. ^ "Former PM honoured". The Robson Valley Times. June 15, 2006. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
  53. ^ Meenan, Devin (May 11, 2024). "Here's Why Wolverine Is Called Logan". Slashfilm. Retrieved May 14, 2024.

Bibliography edit

External links edit