Mount Awu (Indonesian: Gunung Awu) is the largest volcano in the Sangihe chain, located on Sangir Island in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Powerful eruptions occurred in 1711, 1812, 1856, 1822, 1892, and 1966 with devastating pyroclastic flows and lahars that have resulted in 11,048 fatalities.[2] A total of 18 eruptions are recorded from 1640, with two of VEI 4 (1814 and 1966) and 3 with VEI 3 (1711, 1856 and 1892), one eruption every ~ 20 years.[2] The hazardous nature of the volcano is determined from the continuos lava source driven by the geodynamic setting (a double subduction line that creates an arc to arc collision) and the presence of a crater lake, sustained by the consistent rainfall on the island, on top of a lava dome.[2] This setting create the condition for a water injection in the lava dome that can cause a water-magma explosion.[2]

Mount Awu
Mount Awu Crater.jpg
A shallow lake partially fills the summit crater in 1995
Highest point
Elevation1,320 m (4,330 ft)[1]
Prominence1,320 m (4,330 ft) Edit this on Wikidata
Coordinates3°40′N 125°30′E / 3.667°N 125.500°E / 3.667; 125.500Coordinates: 3°40′N 125°30′E / 3.667°N 125.500°E / 3.667; 125.500[1]
Mount Awu is located in Indonesia
Mount Awu
Mount Awu
Age of rock100,000
Mountain typeStratovolcano
Last eruptionJune to August 2004[1]

A 4.5 km wide crater is found at the summit and a deep valley forms a passageway for lahars, splitting the flanks from the crater. This is a volcano in the Ring of Fire.[1]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c d "Awu". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2006-12-31.
  2. ^ a b c d Bani, Philipson; Kristianto; Kunrat, Syegi; Syahbana, Devy Kamil (2020-08-07). "Insights into the recurrent energetic eruptions that drive Awu, among the deadliest volcanoes on Earth". Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. 20 (8): 2119–2132. doi:10.5194/nhess-20-2119-2020. ISSN 1561-8633.