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The Moth Class is the name for a small development class of sailing dinghy. Originally a cheap, home-built sailing boat designed to plane, now it is an expensive and largely commercially-produced boat designed to hydroplane on foils.
An International Moth Class sailing hydrofoil flying over the water.
|Construction||Carbon Fiber or Fiberglass|
|LOA||11 ft (3.4 m)|
The pre-hydrofoil design Moths are still sailed and raced, but are far slower than their foiled counterparts.
There have been several types of Moth since the first use of the class name in the 1920s:
- The International Moth, a fast sailing hydrofoil dinghy with liberal restrictions;
- The Classic Moth, a traditional dinghy with tighter restrictions
- The British Moth, a one design sailboat similar to those sailed in the 1930s
- The New Zealand Mark 2 scow moth which became abundant in the 1970s.
- The earlier Restricted Moth of the 1960s and 70s, which had fewer restrictions, allowing for class development. Confusingly, this nomenclature was sometimes used interchangeably with the term International Moth in Australia and NZ.
The current International Moth is a result of merging two separate but similar historical developments. The first occurred in Australia in 1928 when Len Morris built a cat rigged (single sail) flat bottomed scow (horizontal bow rather than the "normal" vertical bow) to sail on Andersons' Inlet at Inverloch, a seaside resort 130 kilometres (81 mi) from Melbourne. The scow was hard chined, 11 feet (3.4 m) long, with a single 80 square feet (7.4 m2) mainsail. The craft was named "Olive" after his wife. The construction was timber with an internal construction somewhat like Hargreave's box kite. "Olive's" performance was so outstanding, that a similar boat "Whoopee" was built. Len Morris then sold "Olive", and built another boat called "Flutterby", and with those three boats, the Inverloch Yacht Club was formed. Restrictions for the class known as the Inverloch Eleven Footer class were then drawn up, with the distinguishing characteristic that of being not a one-design boat but rather that of a boat permitting development within the set of design parameters.
At much the same time, 1929 in fact, halfway around the world another development class, the American Moth Boat was started by Captain Joel Van Sant of Elizabeth City, North Carolina with his boat “Jumping Juniper” built of Atlantic White Cedar from the Great Dismal Swamp. The major difference between the Australian and American boats early on was that the American boat used only 72 square feet (6.7 m2) of sail on a somewhat shorter mast. The US development class was formally organized in 1932 as the "National Moth Boat Association" and in 1935, due to increasing overseas interest, changed its name to the "International Moth Class Association" or IMCA.
In 1933, an American magazine, The Rudder, published an article dealing with the Moth Boat scene in the US. The Australians noted the similarities between the two groups of boats and intuitively realized that the name "Moth Boat" rolled more easily from the tongue than "Inverlock Eleven Footer Class", and changed the name of their class to Moth. The Australians also noted the differences, particularly in sail plan between the two boats, but since this was in the middle of the great depression, and the two groups were 13,000 miles apart, no attempt was made to reconcile these differences. Thus two large Moth classes developed separately for over 30 years.
Also, in the early 1930s a small group of sailors in Great Britain formed a British Moth Class. The British Moth class was restricted to a particular hull shape of a 1930s Vintage American Moth Boat, and is thus a one-design boat, not a development class which allows experimental development with shapes and materials. Meanwhile, in Australia, in 1936 the Victorian Moth Class Association was formed, but it was not until after WWII, that the NSW Moth Class Sailing Association was formed with foundation members coming from Seaforth Moth Club and Woolahra Sailing Club. During this time Australian Moths were using pre-bent and wing masts in the 1950s. From 1956 to 1961 all other states formed Moth Associations and in 1962 the Australian Yachting Federation (AYF) recognized the Australian Moth class as a national class, the FIRST small boat class in Australia to be granted national status.
After the second world war, more and more European interest in the Moth Boat was expressed. The European Moth clubs subscribed, more or less, to the US class rules. One European Moth design from the early 1960s, the "Europa Moth", broke away from the IMCA and formed the one-design Europe dinghy class and became the woman's single-hander used in the Olympic games from 1992-2004. Also in the 1960s, the Australian Moth sailors began campaigning for rules changes that would permit the Australian Moths to compete in the IMCA's "World Championships".
International Moth ClassEdit
In 1971 the US-based IMCA completed a phase-in of new rules which attempted a "marriage" of the IMCA and the Australian Moth. This amalgamation process had started at the annual IMCA meeting in 1965. New rules embraced the larger, more powerful high aspect, loose footed, fully battened rig of the Australian Moth. The new rules also permitted controversial hiking wings first seen on Moths from Switzerland. Finally, guided by the influential UK Moth sailor and WW2 war hero, Major Tony Hibbert, the rule change abolished the US centralized organization of the class in favor of an independent world body with equal-partner national associations. Each national association elected its own officers and world body representatives. The culmination of these changes was the recognition in 1972 of the IMCA by the International Yacht Racing Union (the forerunner of today’s ISAF) bound by the agreed upon new restrictions of the class (with metric measurement conversions) operating today. The moth class association that had originated in the US was now truly an international organization.
Being a development class, the Moth has evolved from a hull in the 1930s that could best be described as a heavy, narrow scow or a blunt nosed skiff, (weighing about 50 kg) to today’s remarkable foilers with hull weights of under 10 kg. Designs have run the gamut from wide skiffs without wings, to lightweight scows, to wedge-shaped hulls characterized with narrow waterlines and hiking wings out to the maximum permitted beam. Likewise, the sail plan has evolved from cotton sails on wooden spars, through the fully battened Dacron sails on aluminum spars, to the windsurfer inspired sleeved film sails on carbon masts seen today.
In New Zealand the class reached its maximum popularity in the late 1960s and early 70s. The NZ Moth was standardized as a 90 lb flat bottom scow type known as the Mk2 using an alloy spars and a Dacron sail. The measured sail area was nominally 80 square feet but the actual area grew to about 90 square feet by 1970. Many hundreds were home made by amateurs. In addition there were a smaller number of International Moths of both scow and skiff type. Hulls were noticeably lighter -down to 50 lbs for skiffs using plywood by 1970. The international yacht designer Bruce Farr built Moths to his own design in the 1967-1971 period when still a young school boy.
In the United States in the late 1970s participation in the International Moth class died and the class growth and interest moved to Europe and Australia. After ten years of little Moth activity in the US, several sailors started looking for old Moth Boats with the original US rig to restore and race. A newsletter was started to aid communication between like-minded Mothists. Racing of "Classic Moths" resumed in 1989 and in 1990 a new club was formed to govern racing and construction of Classic Moths. This club, the Classic Moth Boat Association or CMBA is the current governing body for the original US type of Moth Boat. The intent of the CMBA is to revive the original US version of the boat and update the rules so that development is permitted without allowing the boats to become too freakish. The IMCA rules from 1965, the final year prior to the phase-in of the Australian rig and wings were consulted as a starting point for reviving the US Moth. Those rules have been revised where necessary. Interest in Classic Moths has grown internationally, with new activity in Europe, primarily France.
The International Moth has fostered a number of achievements. In 1966-67, The King of Siam was involved in the building of three Moths and sailed them on the pond at Chitrlada Palace. The King raced for almost 20 years on his second moth called 'Super Mod' until his design and construction efforts were cut short by the 'press of royal duties'.    
Recent years have seen the International Moth literally take flight with the advent of lifting hydrofoils on daggerboard and rudder, which lift the entire hull and skipper above the water surface, dramatically reducing drag and increasing speed. Top speeds achieved are above 30 knots, the highest 10 second average of 35.9 knots (66.5 km/h) was recorded on 14 May 2016. This high speed is reflected in the International Moth's RYA Portsmouth Yardstick of 570, the fastest (As of 2016[update]) of any sailing dinghy or multihull.
Since the addition of hydrofoils to the boat, the International Moth Class has experienced worldwide growth, including a resurgence in the United States. The moth has become the standard of a successful hydrofoiling class, with 
In 201, there were several manufacturers supporting Moth fleet growth, including Mach 2 boats (Australia/China), Fastacraft (Australia), Aardvark Boats (UK), and Maguire Boats (UK). citation needed][
In 2017, in a response to the upcoming 90th Anniversary of the class in 2018, there was a movement by UK veterans within the class to create a “Low Riders Group” to promote the restoration and sailing of the older pre-foiler boats, with a separate celebratory 2018 UK championship event. This also brought a large number of older International Moth sailors together to fully collate available historical material, newsletters, yearbooks and photographs to catalogue the development history of this fascinating class of boat in the latter part of the 20th century.
Moths are sailed by agile and athletic sailors from the mid teens upwards. They are not regarded as a beginner's sailboat. They are not suited to sailors under 55kg and performance drops with heavy sailors. The class emphasizes light hull weight to promote quick planing or foiling. Older designs are extremely variable and because of the emphasis on light weight, need careful transportation and storage indoors when not in use. They are designed for one person. Because of their short length they are best suited to sheltered waters, light to moderate wind speeds, and smaller waves. They are primarily a fast racing boat not suited to load carrying.
National Moth Boat Association (NMBA) Championship 1933-1934Edit
International Moth Class Association (IMCA) International Championship 1935-1972Edit
Competing for the Antonia Trophy from 1933-1964 and the Carling Trophy from 1965-presentEdit
|1933 Elizabeth City, NC, USA||Harry Andrews (USA)|
|1934 Atlantic City, NJ, USA||Alfred Michael (USA)|
|1935 Melbourne, FL, USA||Alfred Michael (USA)|
|From 1936-1938 the international trophy
was sailed for twice in the same year. At the 1938 AGM this was changed to once per year.
|1936a Melbourne, FL, USA||Joel Van Sant (USA)|
|1936b Atlantic City, NJ, USA||Joe Michael (USA)|
|1937a Eau Gallie, FL, USA||Hanny Andrews (USA)|
|1937b Atlantic City, NJ, USA||Jimmy Van Sant (USA)|
|1938a Miami, FL, USA||Harry Andrews (USA)|
|1938b Norfolk, VA, USA||Bill Cox (USA)|
|1939 - the race was cancelled due to weather|
|1941 Elizabeth City, NC, USA||Merv Wescoat, Sr. (USA)|
|1942-45 No races due to the war|
|1946 Atlantic City, NJ, USA||Russell Post (USA)|
|1947 Atlantic City, NJ, USA||Lloyd Morey (USA)|
|1948 Atlantic City, NJ, USA||Roscoe Stevenson (USA)|
|1949 Elizabeth City, NC, USA||John White (USA)|
|1950 Old Greenwich, CT, USA||Gene Willey (USA)|
|1951 Norfolk, VA, USA||Claiborne Coupland (USA)|
|1952 Margate, NJ, USA||Claiborne Coupland (USA)|
|1953 Norfolk, VA, USA||Lewis Twitchell (USA)|
|1954 Miami, FL, USA||Warren Bailey (USA)|
|1955 West Palm Beach, FL, USA||Charles Phillips (USA)|
|1956 Miami, FL, USA||Donald Lapp (USA)|
|1957 West Palm Beach, FL, USA||Patricia Duane (USA)|
|1958 Brandt Beach, NJ, USA||Kenneth Klare (USA)|
|1959 Miami, FL, USA||Kenneth Klare (USA)|
|1960 Bandol, France||Jacques Fauroux (FRA)|
|1961 New Jersey, USA||Ron Patterson (USA)|
|1962 Ostend, Belgium||Serge Verneuil (FRA)|
|1963 New York, NY, USA||Bill Schill Jr. (USA)|
|1964 Bandol, France||Jean-Pierre Rogge (SUI)|
|1965 Cape May, NJ, USA||Jean-Pierre Rogge (SUI)|
|1966 Lausanne, Switzerland||Jean-Pierre Rogge (SUI)|
|1967 Miami, FL, USA||Blair Fletcher (USA)||Doug Halsey (USA)||Claud Barth (SUI)|
|1968 France||Marie-Claude Fauroux (FRA)|
|1969 Ocean City, NJ, USA||David McKay (AUS)|
|1970 Victoria, Australia||David McKay (AUS)|
|1971 France||Jacques Fauroux (FRA)|
|1972 Switzerland||Jacques Fauroux (FRA)|
International Moth Class Association (IMCA) World Championship 1973-presentEdit
|1973 Hawkes Bay, New Zealand||Ian Brown (AUS)|
|1974 Sweden||Robert O'Sullivan (AUS)||Ian Brown (AUS)||Tokos (TCH)|
|1975 Australia||Peter Moor (AUS)||Robert O'Sullivan (AUS)||Ian Brown (AUS)|
|1976 Ware River, VA, USA||Ted Causey (USA)||Peter Moor (AUS)||John Claridge (GBR)|
|1977 Hayling Island, England||Bill Short (GBR)||Cliff Burton (AUS)|
|1978 Brisbane, Australia||Robert O'Sullivan (AUS)|
|1979 Travemünde, Germany||David Izatt (GBR)|
|1980 New Zealand||David Izatt (GBR)|
|1981 Harderwijk, The Netherlands||David Izatt (GBR)|
|1982 Australia||Greg Hilton (AUS)|
|1983 Eastbourne, Great Britain||Robin Wood (GBR)||Roger Angell (GBR)||Chris Cottrill (GBR)|
|1984 Hamaniko, Japan||Robin Wood (GBR)||Andrew McDougall (AUS)|
|1985 ThunerSee, Switzerland||Roger Angell (GBR)||Andrew McDougall (AUS)||Tony Phillips (GBR)|
|1986 Adelaide, Australia||Steve Shimeld (AUS)||Andrew Cuddihy (AUS)||Greg Hilton (AUS)|
|1987 Göteborg, Sweden||Steve Shimeld (AUS)||Jason Belben (GBR)||John Pearce (GBR)|
|1989 Auckland, New Zealand||Andrew Landenberger (AUS)||Richard Reatti (AUS)||John Pearce (GBR)|
|1990 Ratzeburg, Germany||Roger Angell (GBR)||Clive Everest (GBR)||Andrew Landenberger (AUS)|
|1991 Miyazu City, Japan||Emmett Lazich (AUS)||Toby Collyer (GBR)||Tim Webster (AUS)|
|1993 Highcliffe, Great Britain||Toby Collyer (GBR)||Emmett Lazich (AUS)||Roger Angell (GBR)|
|1995 Lake Macquarie, Australia||Emmett Lazich (AUS)|
|1996 Ratzeburg, Germany||Nick Spence (GBR)||Mark Thorpe (AUS)||Phil Hebden (AUS)|
|1998 Torbay, Great Britain||Mark Thorpe (AUS)||Nick Spence (GBR)||Ian Forsdike (GBR)|
|2000 Perth, Australia||Chris Dey (AUS)||Andrew Coxall (AUS)||Mark Thorpe (AUS)|
|2001 Choshi, Japan||Mark Thorpe (AUS)||Chris Dey (AUS)||Andrew McDougall (AUS)|
|2003 Les Sables d'Olonne, France||Mark Thorpe (AUS)||Les Thorpe (AUS)||Rohan Veal (AUS)|
|2004 Melbourne, Australia||Rohan Veal (AUS)||Simon Payne (GBR)||Adam May (GBR)|
|2006 Horsens, Denmark||Simon Payne (GBR)||Rohan Veal (AUS)||Adam May (GBR)|
|2007 Torbole, Italy||Rohan Veal (AUS)||Scott Babbage (AUS)||Simon Payne (GBR)|
|2008 Weymouth, England||John Harris (AUS)||Andrew McDougall (AUS)||Mathew Belcher (AUS)|
|2009 Cascade Locks, OR, USA||Bora Gulari (USA)||Nathan Outteridge (AUS)||Arnaud Psarofaghis (SWI)|
|2010 Dubai, UAE||Simon Payne (GBR)||Andrew McDougall (AUS)||Brad Funk (USA)|
|2011 Belmont, Australia||Nathan Outteridge (AUS)||Joe Turner (AUS)||Scott Babbage (AUS)|
|2012 Campione, Italy||Josh McKnight (AUS)||Scott Babbage (AUS)||Rob Gough (AUS)|
|2013 Kaneohe, HI, USA||Bora Gulari (USA)||Nathan Outteridge (AUS)||Scott Babbage (AUS)|
|2014 Hayling Island, England||Nathan Outteridge (AUS)||Chris Rashley (GBR)||Josh Mcknight (AUS)|
|2015 Sorrento, Victoria, Australia||Peter Burling (NZL)||Nathan Outteridge (AUS)||Josh Mcknight (AUS)|
|2016 Hayama, Kanagawa, Japan||Paul Goodison (GBR)||Chris Rashley (GBR)||Robert Greenhalgh (GBR)|
|2017 Malcesine, Italy||Paul Goodison (GBR)||Peter Burling (NZL)||Iain Jensen (AUS)|
|2018 Bermuda||Paul Goodison (GBR)||Francesco Bruni (ITA)||Rome Kirby (USA)|
- "Classic Moth Boat Association". Classic Moth Boat Association. Retrieved 2014-04-29.
- "Olive -". www.moth-sailing.org.
- Goss, Ned (14 May 2014). "CONFIRMED: 36.6 KNOTS ACCORDING VELOCITEK PROSTART". Sail Anarchy. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
- "Portsmouth Number List 2018" (PDF). Royal Yachting Association. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
- "Foilborne: Wing Walking". foilborne.blogspot.com. 1 September 2010.
- Components, Composite (25 November 2009). "composite components: Finally sailing". compositecomponents.blogspot.com.
- "Results". 25 December 2016.