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Moses (Moshe) Hess (January or June 21, 1812 – April 6, 1875) was a Jewish French philosopher, most well known for his being a founder of Labor Zionism and developing socialist theories of history predicated on racial struggle, which led to him coming into conflict with Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, leading to him being criticized in The German Ideology.
Hess was born in Bonn, which was under French rule at the time. In his French-language birth certificate, his name is given as "Moïse"; he was named after his maternal grandfather.[verification needed] His father was an ordained rabbi, but never practiced this profession. Hess received a Jewish religious education from his grandfather, and later studied philosophy at the University of Bonn, but never graduated.
He married a poor Catholic seamstress, Sibylle Pesch, "in order to redress the injustice perpetrated by society". Although they remained happily married until Hess' death, Sibylle seems to have had an affair with Friedrich Engels while he was smuggling her from Belgium to France to be reunited with her husband. The incident may have precipitated Hess' split from the Communist movement. Some of his contemporaries have described Sibylle as a former prostitute, but Hess' biographer Edmund Silberner found the evidence to support that claim to be inconclusive[verification needed]. In any case, his marriage to Sibylle has had a profound impact on Hess' intellectual development, as evidenced by the opening chapter of Rome and Jerusalem in which he attributes "a new turn in [his] life" to "an unhappy woman, who imparts to [him] daring and courage to travel the unknown road".
He was an early proponent of socialism, and a precursor to what would later be called Zionism. As correspondent for the Rheinische Zeitung, a radical newspaper founded by liberal Rhenish businessmen, he lived in Paris. He was a friend and collaborator of Karl Marx (who also worked on the Rheinische Zeitung) and Friedrich Engels. Hess introduced Engels, the future famous communist, to the communism of the early 1840s.
But Marx and Engels would become well known for their fickle and pugnacious approach to fellow socialists who showed insufficient agreement with their own form of socialism. By the late 1840s, they had fallen out with Hess. They mocked him, first behind his back and later openly. The work of Hess was also criticized in part of The German Ideology by Marx and Engels.
Hess became reluctant to base all history on economic causes and class struggle (as Marx and Engels did), and he came to see the struggle of races, or nationalities, as the prime factor of history.
According to George Litcheim, Hess, who differed from Marx on a number of issues, still testified in a letter to Alexander Herzen that what he and Herzen were writing about "resembles a neat sketch drawn on paper, whereas Marx's judgment upon these events [European upheavals] is as it were engraved with iron force in the rock of time" (Paraphrased by Litcheim, A Short History of Socialism, 1971 p. 80).
From 1861 to 1863 he lived in Germany, where he became acquainted with the rising tide of German antisemitism. It was then that he reverted to his Jewish name Moses (after apparently going by Moritz Hess) in protest against Jewish assimilation. He published Rome and Jerusalem in 1862. Hess interprets history as a circle of race and national struggles. He contemplated the rise of Italian nationalism and the German reaction to it, and from this he arrived at the idea of Jewish national revival, and at his prescient understanding that the Germans would not be tolerant of the national aspirations of others and would be particularly intolerant of the Jews. His book calls for the establishment of a Jewish socialist commonwealth in Palestine, in line with the emerging national movements in Europe and as the only way to respond to antisemitism and assert Jewish identity in the modern world.
Hess's Rome and Jerusalem: The Last National Question went unnoticed in his time, along with the rest of his writings. Most German Jews were bent on cultural assimilation and did not heed Hess's unfashionable warnings. His work did not stimulate any political activity or discussion. Hess's contribution, like Leon Pinsker's Autoemancipation, became important only in retrospect, as the Zionist movement began to crystallize and to generate an audience in the late nineteenth century. When Theodor Herzl first read Rome and Jerusalem he wrote about Hess that "since Spinoza Jewry had no bigger thinker than this forgotten Moses Hess" and that he would not have written Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State) if he had known Rome and Jerusalem beforehand. Vladimir Ze'ev Jabotinsky honored Hess in The Jewish Legion in the World War as one of those people that made the Balfour declaration possible, together with Herzl, Rothschild and Pinsker.
Hess died in Paris in 1875. As he requested, he was buried in the Jewish cemetery of Cologne. In 1961 he was re-interred in the Kinneret Cemetery in Israel along with other Socialist-Zionists such as Nachman Syrkin, Ber Borochov, and Berl Katznelson. The moshav Kfar Hess was named in his honour.
- Holy History of Mankind (1837)
- European Triarchy (1841)
- Socialism and Communism (1842)
- Die Philosophie der Tat (The Philosophy of Action, 1843)
- On the Monetary System, also translated as On the Essence of Money (Über das Geldwesen, 1845)
- Communist Confession of Faith (London, 1846)
- Consequences of a Revolution of the Proletariat (1847)
- Rome and Jerusalem Leipzig: Eduard Mengler (1862)
- Letters on the Mission of Israel (1864)
- High Finance and the Empire (1869)
- Les Collectivistes et les Communistes (1869)
- The Dynamic Theory of Matter (1877)
- Jüdische Schriften (anthology edited by Theodor Zlocisti; Berlin: Louis Lamm, 1905)
- Marx, Karl; Engels, Friedrich. "The German Ideology" (PDF). marxists.org. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- Shlomo Avineri, Moses Hess: Prophet of Communism and Zionism, p. 7
- Shlomo Avineri: Moses Hess: Prophet of Communism and Zionism. New York: New York University Press, 1985, s. 7. ISBN 0814705847
- "Rome and Jerusalem. The Last National Question (Moses Hess, "First Letter", 1862)
- Hunt, Tristram (2010), Marx's General: The Revolutionary Life of Friedrich Engels, Macmillan.
- The German Ideology,Tome II Part V
- Leon Pinsker, Autoemancipation
- Julius Kovesi, "Values and Evaluations", in American University Studies, series V, vol. 183, Peter Lang, New York, 1998. pp. 127-207
- Not to be confused with Draft of a Communist Confession of Faith (1847), authored mainly by Engels, with minor help of League of the Just/Communist League leaders Wilhelm Wolff and Karl Schapper; text and background notes available at MarxEngels.public-archive.net: .
- Edmund Silberner, Moses Hess. Geschichte seines Lebens (Leiden 1966), (in German)
- Shlomo Na'aman, Emanzipation und Messianismus. Leben und Werk des Moses Heß (Frankfurt a.M./New York,1982)(in German)
- Shlomo Avineri, Moses Hess: Prophet of Communism and Zionism (New York, 1985).
- Kay Schweigmann-Greve, Jüdische Nationalität aus verweigerter Assimilation. Biographische Parallelen bei Moses Hess und Chajm Zhitlowsky und ihre ideologische Verarbeitung. In: Trumah, Journal of the Hochschule for Jewish Studies Heidelberg, Vol 17, 2007 p. 91-116 (in German)
- Media related to Moses Hess at Wikimedia Commons
- Quotations related to Moses Hess at Wikiquote
- Works written by or about Moses Hess at Wikisource
- Hess: The Holy History of Mankind and Other Writings (Frontmater of the book), ed. & trans by Shlomo Avineri (2004)
- Moses Hess (1812-1875), from the Jewish Agency for Israel
- http://www.steinheim-institut.de/edocs/kalonymos/kalonymos_2002_3.pdf#page=1 Kalonymos, Gregor Pelger: About the restoration of the Jewish state. Moses Heß (1812-1875)] Kalonymos, Gregor Pelger: "Zur Restauration des jüdischen Staates. Moses Heß (1812-1875)"(ger.)
- Jabotinsky: „The Jewish Legion in World War” (ger.)