Morris Chang (Chinese: 張忠謀; pinyin: Zhāng Zhōngmóu; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tiuⁿ Tiong-bô͘; born 10 July 1931), is a Taiwanese-American businessman who built his career in the United States and subsequently in Taiwan. He is the founder, as well as former chairman and CEO, of Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC), the world's first and largest silicon foundry. He is known as the semiconductor industry founder of Taiwan. As of October 2021, his net worth was estimated at US$2.8 billion.
10 July 1931
|Alma mater||Massachusetts Institute of Technology (BS, MS) |
Stanford University (PhD)
|Known for||Founder, chairman and CEO, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC)|
Early life in ChinaEdit
Chang was born in the city Ningbo, situated within Chekiang in China, today known as Zhejiang, in 1931. When he was young, he wanted to become a novelist or journalist, though his father persuaded him otherwise. However, the elder Chang was an official in charge of finance for the Yin county government and later a bank manager. Due to his father's career change and also the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Chang family lived in Nanjing, Guangzhou, Chongqing and Shanghai.
Chang spent most of his primary school years in British Hong Kong between the ages of six and eleven. In 1941, the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began and Chang's family went back to Shanghai and Ningbo to live for a few months, eventually making their way to the Nationalist government temporary capital in Chongqing. In 1948, as China was in the height of the restarted Chinese Civil War, a year before People’s Republic of China (PRC) established and the Republic of China (ROC)'s retreat to Taiwan, Chang again moved to Hong Kong.
Moving to the United StatesEdit
In 1949, Chang moved to the United States to attend Harvard University. He transferred to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in sophomore year and received his bachelor's and master's degrees in mechanical engineering from MIT in 1952 and 1953, respectively. Chang failed two consecutive doctoral qualification examinations and eventually left MIT without obtaining a PhD. In 1955 he was hired by Sylvania Semiconductor, then just known as a small semiconductor division of Sylvania Electric Products.
Three years later, he moved to Texas Instruments in 1958, which was then rapidly rising in its field. After three years at TI, he rose to manager of the engineering section of the company. It was then, in 1961, that TI decided to invest in him by giving him the opportunity to obtain his PhD degree, which he received in electrical engineering from Stanford University in 1964.
During his 25-year career (1958–1983) at Texas Instruments, he rose up in the ranks to become the group vice president responsible for TI's worldwide semiconductor business. He left TI and later became president and chief operating officer of General Instrument Corporation (1984–1985).
Chang worked on a four-transistor project for TI where the manufacturing was done by IBM. This was one of the early semiconductor foundry relationships. Also at TI, Morris pioneered the then controversial idea of pricing semiconductors ahead of the cost curve, or sacrificing early profits to gain market share and achieve manufacturing yields that would result in greater long-term profits.
After he left General Instrument Corporation, Sun Yun-suan, Premier of the Republic of China, recruited him to become chairman and president of the Industrial Technology Research Institute in Taiwan, where the ROC is now based having lost the mainland. This marked his return to the ROC, about three decades after he left during the chaotic Chinese Civil War mainly between the PRC and the ROC.
As head of a government-sponsored non-profit, he was in charge of promoting industrial and technological development in Taiwan. Chang founded TSMC in 1987, the beginning of the period where firms increasingly saw value in outsourcing their manufacturing capabilities to Asia. Soon, TSMC became one of the world's most profitable chip makers. Chang left ITRI in 1994 and became chairman of Vanguard International Semiconductor Corporation from 1994 to 2003 while continuing to serve as chairman of TSMC. In 2005, he handed TSMC's CEO position to Rick Tsai.
In June 2009, Chang returned to the position of TSMC's CEO once again. On June 5, 2018, Chang announced his retirement, succeeded by C.C. Wei as CEO and Mark Liu as chairman. Chang was awarded the Order of Propitious Clouds, First Class in September 2018.
Chang has served as Presidential Envoy of the Republic of China (Taiwan) to APEC several times. He represented Chen Shui-bian in 2006. Tsai Ing-wen appointed Chang to the same role in 2018, 2019, and 2020.
Awards and recognitionsEdit
- 1999, Exemplary Leadership Award from the Fabless Semiconductor Association (now Global Semiconductor Alliance), the first recipient of the award; now the award bears his name, "Dr. Morris Chang Exemplary Leadership Award"
- 2000, IEEE Robert N. Noyce Medal for Exceptional Contributions to Microelectronics Industry.
- 2002 National Academy of Engineering Member
- 2005, Nikkei Asia Prize for Regional Growth
- 2007, Computer History Museum Fellow Award, for dramatically accelerating the production of semiconductor-based devices and systems by developing an independent semiconductor manufacturing foundry.
- 2008 Robert N. Noyce Award from the Semiconductor Industry Association (US) 
- 2011, IEEE Medal of Honor.
- 2011, Order of Brilliant Star with Grand Cordon from the Republic of China.
- 2014 SPIE Visionary Award
- 2018, Order of Propitious Clouds with Special Grand Cordon from the Republic of China.
- School of Engineering (4 May 2015). "Morris Chang — founding chairman of Taiwan Semiconductor". California: Stanford University.
- "Forbes profile: Morris Chang". Forbes. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
- "Morris Chang: Foundry Father". IEEE Spectrum. 19 April 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- "台灣半導體產業教父——張忠謀". Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- Stanford Engineering Hero Lecture: Morris Chang in conversation with President John L. Hennessy, retrieved 8 August 2019
- Perry, supra n. 1
- Zhang, Wenxian; Alon, IIan (2009). Biographical Dictionary of New Chinese Entrepreneurs and Business Leaders. Edward Elgar Publishing. doi:10.4337/9781848449510. ISBN 978-1-84844-951-0.
- BUS, FRANCOIS FRANCIS (2020). L'EPOQUE OU LES PUCES FONT LEURS LOIS : histoire des semiconducteurs vecue de chez Texas Instruments. [S.l.]: BOOKS ON DEMAND. ISBN 978-2-322-25685-3.
- "Oral History Interview: Morris Chang". SEMI. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
- University, © Stanford; Stanford; California 94305 (9 June 2016). "Stanford Engineering Hero Morris Chang honored for revolutionizing chip making". Stanford School of Engineering. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
- BUS, FRANCOIS FRANCIS (2020). L'EPOQUE OU LES PUCES FONT LEURS LOIS : histoire des semiconducteurs vecue de chez texas... instruments. [S.l.]: BOOKS ON DEMAND. ISBN 978-2-322-25685-3. OCLC 1225066813.
- Tsai, Terence; Cheng, Borshiuan (2006). The Silicon Dragon: High-tech Industry in Taiwan. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 92. ISBN 9781847203137.
- Wang, Lisa (13 November 2013). "TSMC says Morris Chang is retiring as CEO — again". www.taipeitimes.com. The Taipei Times. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- "Back to the future for TSMC's new CEO". Taiwan Today. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China (Taiwan). 12 June 2009. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- Horwitz, Josh (5 June 2018). "After spawning a $100 billion industry, Taiwan's "godfather" of computer chips is retiring". Quartz. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- Chang, Chien-chung; Huang, Frances (5 June 2018). "It's official: TSMC's Chang retires after board reshuffle".
- "TSMC founder receives Order of Propitious Clouds". Taipei Times. 14 September 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
- "'Father of semiconductor industry' represents President Chen in Hanoi". Taiwan Today. 10 November 2006. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
- Chen, Rodney (31 October 2006). "TSMC chairman Morris Chang to represent Taiwan at APEC summit". Digitimes. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
- Li, Lauly (3 October 2018). "Taiwan appoints TSMC founder Morris Chang as APEC envoy". Nikkei. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
- "Tsai taps Morris Chang as APEC envoy". Taipei Times. 15 October 2019. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
- Wen, Kuei-hsiang; Yu, Hsiang; Huang, Frances (10 November 2020). "Tsai names TSMC founder as Taiwan's envoy to APEC summit (update)". Central News Agency.
- "GSA's Prestigious Dr. Morris Chang Exemplary Leadership Award Honors Stanford University President, Dr. John Hennessy". www.businesswire.com. 19 October 2010. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
- "Morris Chang '52 Life Member Emeritus". MIT. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- "Goldman Sachs | Press Releases - Morris Chang to Join Goldman Sachs' Board of Directors". Goldman Sachs. 14 November 2001. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
- "Taiwan Semi CEO Exits Goldman Board". Wall Street Journal. 27 December 2002. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
- "Presidential Office names advisors". Taipei Times. 21 May 2001. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
- "Members". Committee of 100. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
- "Kung fu novelist Jin Yong to receive honorary degree". Taipei City: Taipei Times. Central News Agency. 8 May 2007.
Jin Yong will be one of three people to be awarded honorary doctorates in an event marking NCCU's 80th anniversary. The other two are Cloud Gate Dance Theater founder Lin Hwai-min (林懷民) and Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co chairman Morris Chang (張忠謀).
- "Asia University, Taiwan 歡迎光臨亞洲大學全球資訊網". www.asia.edu.tw. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
- "Dr. Morris Chang Exemplary Leadership Award Nomination Form".
- "IEEE Robert N. Noyce Medal Recipients" (PDF). IEEE. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- "Directory of NAE Members".
- "Nikkei Asia Prize, List of Winners". Archived from the original on 10 November 2014.
- "Computer History Museum Names Morris Chang, John Hennessy, David Patterson and Charles Thacker to List of Fellow Award Honorees; Celebrates Twentieth Anniversary of Fellow Award Program". Computer History Museum. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
- "TSMC's Chang receives SIA award | EE Times".
- "IEEE Medal of Honor Recipients" (PDF). IEEE. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- "Morris Chang Calls on Government to Cherish Local Industries". Kuomintang. 27 November 2011.
President Ma Ying-jeou awarded the Order of Brilliant Star with Grand Cordon to 12 figures who had made long-term contributions to the country and society, including Morris Chang (張忠謀)
- "Visionary Award - SPIE". spie.org. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
- "Decorations of the Republic of China (Taiwan)". Office of the President of the Republic of China (Taiwan). Retrieved 4 April 2020.
2018-9-14 Republic of China Order of Propitious Clouds with Special Grand Cordon Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) Founder Morris Chang
- on YouTube • stanfordonline • 1:13:58 • Apr 25, 2014