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Glywysing

  (Redirected from Morgannwg)

Glywysing was, from the sub-Roman period to the Early Middle Ages, a petty kingdom in south-east Wales. Its people were descended from the Iron Age tribe of the Silures, and frequently in union with Gwent, merging to form Morgannwg.

Kingdom of Glywysing

Teyrnas Glywysing
5th century–c. 1055
(intermittently in union with Gwent/in Morgannwg)
Medieval kingdoms of Wales, showing Glywysing in the south
Medieval kingdoms of Wales, showing Glywysing in the south
CapitalCardiff
Common languagesOld Welsh
Religion
Celtic Christianity
GovernmentMonarchy
Historical eraMiddle Ages
• Formed after Roman withdrawal from Britain
Late 5th century
• Various unions with Gwent
6th century–c. 745
• Union in Morgannwg
(under Morgan Hen ab Owain)
942–974
• Union as part of Wales
(under Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, King of Wales)
1055-1063
• Union in Morgannwg
1063-1074
• Becomes Morgannwg
(under Caradog ap Gruffydd)
1075
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Roman Britain
Morgannwg
Morgannwg
Kingdom of Morgannwg

Teyrnas Morgannwg
c. 7th/8th century-c. 745
942–974
1055/1063–1091
CapitalVarious[1]
Common languagesWelsh
GovernmentMonarchy
Historical eraMiddle Ages
• Morgannwyg formed from Gwent and Glywysing
(under Morgan the Generous)
c. 7th/8th century
• Union disestablished
c. 745
• Reunited
(under Morgan Hen ab Owain)
942
• Union disestablished
974
• Reunited in Wales
(under Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, King of Wales)
1055
• Independent
1063
• Conquered
(by the Norman lord, Robert Fitzhamon)
1091
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kingdom of Gwent
Kingdom of Glywysing
Kingdom of Gwent
Kingdom of Glywysing
Lord of Glamorgan
Welsh Marches

Name and Early HistoryEdit

Glywysing is said to be named after Glywys, a real or legendary early monarch, whose name may continue that of the Romano-British *Glevenses, the territory and citizens of Glevum (modern Gloucester).[2] According to 12th-century sources, after the death of Glywys, the kingdom was divided into seven cantrefs named for his sons:[3] Cydweli, Gwyr, Margam, Penychen, Gwynllwg, Gorfynydd, and another. These were typically ruled together by the head of the family and sometimes treated as appenage subkingdoms.

LocationEdit

The borders changed over time, but it is generally thought that its lands originally lay between the Afon Llwyd and the River Towy. At times they expanded eastwards in union with both Gwent and Ergyng. Some time before the early 8th century, Cydweli and Gwyr (Gower) were lost to Dyfed, although the Gower had returned to Glywysing by 928 prior to the reign of King Morgan the Old.[4] Today the area of Glywysing is known as Glamorgan.

MorgannwgEdit

First under King Morgan the Generous (fl. c. 630-730) until the end of the reign of his descendant Ithel (d. c. 745), and later again under King Morgan the Old (r. 942-74), the kingdom merged with Gwent and changed its name to Morgannwg or Gwlad Morgan in honour of the Morgan Kings.[4][5] During such unions Glywysing and Gwent seem to have been together or occasional sub-kingdoms or principalities of the Kingdom of Morgannwg[4].

After the death of Morgan the Old, Gwent and Glywysing were separated again from 974 to 1055, but Glywysing alone was often referred to as Morgannwg. Both areas were conquered by Gruffydd ap Llywelyn in about 1055, subsequently King of Wales, but on Gruffydd's death in 1063, Glywysing was regained by the native lineage under Caradog ap Gruffudd[4]. Morgannwg, the union between Gwent and Glywysing, was reconstituted. How this occurred is unclear; possibly the Kings of Glywysing were also Kings of Morgannwg and the Kings of Gwent were semi-independent under-Kings, or vice versa[4].

Norman conquestEdit

With Gwent increasingly overrun by the Norman conquest of Wales, the last native King of Morgannwyg & Glywysing was Iestyn ap Gwrgan (1081-1090), who was subsequently deposed by Robert Fitzhamon. Iestyn's sons became Lords of Afan, while Owain ap Caradog ap Gruffudd contented himself with Gwynllwg and founded the line of the Lords of Caerleon.[4]

The name Morgannwg is still used in Wales for the former Marcher Lordship and county of Glamorgan (itself a corruption of the term Gwlad Morgan) and its successor counties.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ The three cantrefs composing Glywysing were based at Allt Wynllyw on Stow Hill (modern Newport); Nant Pawl; and Llaniltud Fawr. These were sometimes independent and sometimes controlled one another. Cf. The History Files: "Celtic Kingdoms of the British Isles: Cernyw / Glywyssing" (Accessed 14 Feb 2013).
  2. ^ Koch, John T. Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia ABC-CLIO Ltd (15 Mar 2006) ISBN 978-1-85109-440-0 p.1312
  3. ^ Carver, Martin The cross goes north: processes of conversion in northern Europe, AD 300-1300 Boydell Press; New edition (26 Jan 2006) ISBN 978-1-84383-125-9 p.125
  4. ^ a b c d e f Ashley, Mike (1998) The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens (Carol & Graf)
  5. ^ Lloyd, John E. A History of Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest, Vol. 1, p. 274. Longmans, Green, & Co. (London), 1911. Accessed 22 Feb 2013.

Coordinates: 53°14′N 4°1′W / 53.233°N 4.017°W / 53.233; -4.017