Open main menu

Montsoreau (French pronunciation: ​[mɔ̃sɔʁo]) is a commune of the Loire Valley in the Maine-et-Loire department in western France on the Loire, 160 km (99 mi) from the Atlantic coast and 250 km (160 mi) from Paris. The village is listed among the most beautiful villages of France and part of the Loire Valley UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Montsoreau
© Dominique Drouet-Montsoreau .jpg
Più bei borghi del mondo montsoreau 1.jpg
Most beautiful villages montsoreau 2.jpg
Most beautiful villages of the world montsoreau 2.jpg
Top to bottom, left to right: Panoramic view of the village from the Loire; Château de Montsoreau-Museum of Contemporary Art; Typical street of Monstoreau listed among the most beautiful villages of France; Sunset in Montsoreau from the Château de Montsoreau-Museum of Contemporary Art
Coat of arms of Montsoreau
Coat of arms
Location of Montsoreau
Montsoreau is located in France
Montsoreau
Montsoreau
Montsoreau is located in Pays de la Loire
Montsoreau
Montsoreau
Coordinates: 47°13′02″N 0°03′28″E / 47.2172°N 0.0578°E / 47.2172; 0.0578Coordinates: 47°13′02″N 0°03′28″E / 47.2172°N 0.0578°E / 47.2172; 0.0578
CountryFrance
RegionPays de la Loire
DepartmentMaine-et-Loire
ArrondissementSaumur
CantonSaumur-Sud
IntercommunalityCA Saumur Val de Loire
Government
 • MayorGérard Persin
Area
1
5.19 km2 (2.00 sq mi)
Population
 (2016-01-01)[1]
449
 • Density87/km2 (220/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
49219 /49730
Elevation27–88 m (89–289 ft)
(avg. 36 m or 118 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

In 2015, the French contemporary art collector Philippe Méaille associated with Christian Gillet, president of the French department of the Maine-et-Loire signed an agreement to turn the Château de Montsoreau into a museum of international contemporary art for the next 25 years.[2][3][4][5] The Château de Montsoreau became home for Méaille extraordinary collection of radical conceptualists Art & Language and has been renamed Château de Montsoreau-Museum of Contemporary Art.[6][7][8][9]

Montsoreau was identified under the name Restis (rope or fish net) at the end of classical antiquity as a port on the Loire at the confluence of the Loire and the Vienne. It has taken its name Montsoreau (Mount Soreau) from a rocky promontory situated in the riverbed of the Loire and surrounded by water.[10] There has been three major buildings on this promontory, a Gallo-Roman temple or administrative building, a fortified castle, and a Renaissance palace.[11][12]

Montsoreau was, until the seventeenth century, a center of jurisdiction and the seigneury of Montsoreau stretched from the Loire river to Seuilly-l'Abbaye and Coudray castle in the south. After the French Revolution, the exploitation of a building stone, the Tuffeau stone, brutally passed its population of 600 inhabitants to more than 1000, maintained during the first half of the nineteenth century.[13] This stone, easy to work, was gradually exhausted, and the population decreased to stabilize again around 600 people. Montsoreau then, concentrated its activities on agriculture, wine and river trade until the end of nineteenth century. During the Twentieth century, Montsoreau has seen river trade replaced by terrestrial trade and the raise of a tourism economy.

Contents

EtymologyEdit

The name Mount Soreau (Castrum Monte Sorello, Mons Sorello, Mountsorrell, Monte-Sorel, Monsorel, Munsorel, Muntesorel or Montsorel),[14] appears in its Latin form, for the first time, in 1086 in a cartulary.[15] Mons or Monte (mount) refers to the rocky promontory, located in the river bed of the Loire, and on which was built the fortress of Montsoreau. No interpretation has been given of the name Sorello, which is found in several Latinized forms: Sorello, Sorel, Sorelli.

Its first recorded name at the end of the Roman period was the Domaine de Rest or Restis, Restis (rope or fish net) referring to its port.

Variations of the nameEdit

  • Montsoreau
  • Monsoreau

HistoryEdit

Prehistory and AntiquityEdit

Traces of first settlements and the oldest remains are set back from the river, on the plateau in high areas. The main witness of this occupation is the dolmen of the Pierrelée, which probably dates from the 3rd millennium BC and is made up of six imposing slabs of hard sandstone coming from deposits in the neighborhood. Montsoreau is located on the borders of the territories of the Gallic tribes of Pictones, Turones and Andecavi. Coins, shards and fragments of Gallo-Roman tiles, were found in Montsoreau, especially on the edge of the plateau, above the town. The shaft of a fluted column, discovered during excavations of the castle, could attest to the presence of a notable public building on the top of the rock of Montsoreau.[16]

Middle AgesEdit

 
Henry II of England Besieges and takes Montsoreau in 1152.

The first texts mentioning the domain of Restis dates back to the sixth century.[17] An act of Charles the Bald indicates the presence, in 850, of houses, a fishery and a port in Rest. In the middle of the tenth century, according to the hagiographic narratives, it is made mention of caves in which the monk Absalon, coming from Tournus, was first considering to shelter the relics of Saint-Florent before bringing them further downstream and settle in Saumur.[18] In 990 the Count of Blois Odo I built a fortress on the rock of Montsoreau and transformed the village into a stronghold. The Count of Anjou, Fulk Nerra, took the fortress in 1001 and incorporated it to Anjou.[19] Fulk, who was one of the first great builders of Medieval castles, modified it, and the fortress remained under the control of Anjou, never taken, during more than 150 years. In 1101, during the installation of the Fontevraud community, the abbey of Fontevraud depended on Gautier I of Montsoreau, direct vassal of the count of Anjou. Gautier's mother-in-law, Hersende de Champagne, will be the first grand-prioress during the life of Robert d'Arbrissel.[20] In 1156, Guillaume IV de Montsoreau sided with Geoffroy Plantagenet against his brother Henry II Plantagenet, future king of England and husband of Eleanor of Aquitaine. The latter besieged the castrum and took it at the end of August 1152 despite the care taken at its fortification.[21] This was the one and only storming of the medieval fortress of Montsoreau between Fulk and Jean II de Chambes in 1450.[22]

RenaissanceEdit

The history of the small city of Montsoreau is highly intricated with the History of the Renaissance in Europe and more specifically with the history of the Renaissance in France. At the end of the Hundred Years War, Charles vii and Louis xi installed royal power in Chinon, and encouraged or ordered their lords to build new buildings or redevelop old fortresses. Thus began the construction of buildings in a new style in France, giving birth to Renaissance architecture, with châteaux that will be called later "the Châteaux of the Loire Valley".[23] In 1450, Jean II de Chambes, First counselor of Charles VII and ambassador in Venice, bought the fortress of Fulk III to his brother in law and destroyed it in order to build a residential palace on the top of the rock of Montsoreau (the mount Soreau).[24][25] In an unprecedented move, he built the Château de Montsoreau in a residential style following Italian architecture of the time which makes it the first Renaissance building in France. The Château de Montsoreau was directly on the river bank and still today, it remains the only château of the Loire Valley to have been built in the river bed of the Loire.[26]

Saint-Bartolomew's Day MassacreEdit

Jean IV de Chambes inherited the Castle of Montsoreau and saw his lands erected in barony in 1560.[27] Montsoreau is looted by Protestants in 1568; the collegiate Sainte Croix and the fortifications of the city are destroyed. Four years later, on 26 August 1572, Puygaillard sent Jean IV de Chambes the order to eliminate the Huguenots from Saumur, then to do the same in Angers.[28] Four days after Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre (24 August 1572), he arrived in Saumur and killed François Bourneau, lieutenant-general of the city. De Chambes fought at the siege of Lusignan and the capture of Fontenay-le-Comte, he has the most cruel reputation. Ruthless, Jean de Chambes was reigning terror in the region. The Reformed Church of Saumur was almost eliminated.[29] He then went to Angers, closed the doors of the fortifications and began the gathering of Huguenot personalities he killed himself.[30] Warned of the abuses and violence of his governor, Charles IX finally sent him a call to order on 14 September 1572. In 1573, his Barony was raised to the rank of County.[31][32]

French Revolution and industrializationEdit

On 14 July 1789, during the storming of the Bastille, Yves Marie du Bouchet de Sourches was Count of Montsoreau and owner of the château de Montsoreau. On 11 November 1789, the National constituent assembly decreed that "there will be one municipality in every city, town, parish or community of countryside".[33] Although the French revolution had an important impact on him as the Count of Montsoreau, this impact was far more limited on his property of the château de Montsoreau which remained in his hands until it sold in 1804.[34] The revolution gave way to a period of prosperity for the small town, which was famous since the seventeenth century for the quality of its tuffeau, wines and fruits.[35] The industrialization of stone quarrying was the direct consequence of the extraordinary urban growth, consuming volumes unknown until then. It was made possible, as well as facilitated, by the river, which allowed the intensification of trade and river transport. The tuffeau stone was exported regionally, to cities all along the banks of rivers, Angers, Rennes, Nantes and Le Mans, but also surprisingly as far as the Caribbean. The Ship mills were replaced by Windmills as the population of the small city had almost doubled.[36] The industrialization of the means of production in Montsoreau and at the same time the transformation of the abbey of Fontevraud in a prison, on order of Napoleon, transformed the physionomy of the city.[37] At first, the construction of the road from Chinon to Saumur around 1830, which allowed the village to gain land on the Loire, and in a second time in 1896, with the construction of the tram line Saumur-Montsoreau-Fontevraud.[38]

World War II: The Cadets of SaumurEdit

 
First act of resistance of World War II in France, the night of 18 June 1940, The Cadets de Saumur blow up the bridges at Montsoreau, Saumur and Gennes.

In Montsoreau, Saumur and Gennes, in June 1940, teenage students of the school of cavalry, still under training and with derisory weapons (including an artillery gun from the school museum), heroically engaged an entire German panzer division for nearly three days. And in doing so became a legend in France. – For Honour Alone, Roy Macnab, January 1989.[39]

The battle of Saumur, is considered as the first act of resistance of World War II in France, the next days following the order of Maréchal Petain to cease fire on 17 June 1940.[40][41] Following the German offensive of May 1940, the enemy progressing towards the Seine, the General Weygand, ordered to defend all the rivers likely to block the South the route of the invasion. Thus the principle of the Defense of the Loire was decided. The National School of Cavalry, commanded by Colonel Michon, was given the area from the confluence of the Vienne and Loire rivers at Montsoreau, to Gennes, a front of 40 km . Although Marshal Petain gave the order to cease the fighting on 17 June, Colonel Michon considered that the prestige and the honor of the National School of Cavalry obliged him, despite this order, to fight in Saumur and avoid ( even with weak means), Germans to cross the Loire.[42] 790 Vacant Aspirants of the Cavalry Reserve, trained in Saumur since May 1940 were deployed in 27 brigades on various strategic points.[43] The night of 18 June, their first action of war was to explode the four strategic bridges on the Loire river, one in Montsoreau, two in Saumur and one in Gennes. For three days, about 2,000 men held three German Panzer divisions, with 40,000 men, in failure, with training material, without air support, without hope, but not without panache.[44][45] To these inexperienced young fighters whom they themselves called "Kadetten" (the Cadets), the German horsemen, soldiers of tradition, did not take them prisoner and released them paying tribute to their courage.[46] This name remained thereafter.[47]

GeographyEdit

LocationEdit

Montsoreau is at the center of the Loire Valley, in north-western France, 160 km (99 mi) from the Atlantic Ocean, and approximately 12 km (7.5 mi) from Saumur, Chinon and Bourgueil.[48] It is situated in southeastern Maine-et-Loire department, approximately halfway between Paris and Bordeaux.[49] The village is at the crossroad of the three main administrative regions of, Pays de la Loire, Centre-Val de Loire, and Nouvelle Aquitaine, and of the three departments of, Maine-et-Loire Indre-et-Loire, and Vienne.

Montsoreau is part of the Metropolitan Area of Saumur Val de Loire and share borders with municipalities both in the Maine-et-Loire and Indre-et-Loire departments. These municipalities are: Candes-Saint-Martin, Chouzé-sur-Loire, Fontevraud-l'Abbaye, and Turquant.

2-mile Montsoreau Skyline Panorama from Quai Alexandre Dumas to Than Island, taken in October 2018 from Than Island, Loire Valley.

HydrologyEdit

The Loire River, nicknamed the last wild river in Europe, is the longest river in France (1,006 kilometres (625 mi)).[50] It is one of the main tourist attraction in Montsoreau, it reaches here, at the confluence of Vienne River and Loire River, its full width.[51] Downstream, it has already been inflated waters of the Indre River and Cher River.[52] The river bed has considerably changed over centuries, and it worth noticing that the confluence with the Vienne River was in Saumur before the great flood of January 1496.[53]

ClimateEdit

The climate of Montsoreau, is characterized by the high sunshine of the Loire Valley, a favorable region for wine and cultivation of fruits. In addition to this, there are important oceanic influences, and the proximity of the Loire, giving the village a climate locally called "sweet". Summer is hot and dry and winter is mild and wet. Precipitation is low to medium during inter-season. The wind is characteristic of the Loire corridor, medium and relatively constant.

Climate data for Montsoreau
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.9
(62.4)
20.8
(69.4)
23.7
(74.7)
29.2
(84.6)
31.8
(89.2)
36.7
(98.1)
37.5
(99.5)
39.8
(103.6)
34.5
(94.1)
29.0
(84.2)
22.3
(72.1)
18.5
(65.3)
39.8
(103.6)
Average high °C (°F) 11.1
(52.0)
12.1
(53.8)
15.1
(59.2)
17.4
(63.3)
22.5
(72.5)
27
(81)
26.4
(79.5)
27.2
(81.0)
21.6
(70.9)
19.9
(67.8)
12.7
(54.9)
9.2
(48.6)
19.2
(66.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.2
(43.2)
8.2
(46.8)
10.8
(51.4)
10.9
(51.6)
16.5
(61.7)
20.6
(69.1)
20.8
(69.4)
21.4
(70.5)
16.5
(61.7)
15
(59)
8.5
(47.3)
5.9
(42.6)
14.1
(57.4)
Average low °C (°F) 8.8
(47.8)
4
(39)
6.5
(43.7)
4.5
(40.1)
10.6
(51.1)
14.2
(57.6)
15.3
(59.5)
15.3
(59.5)
11.2
(52.2)
10.2
(50.4)
4.4
(39.9)
2.6
(36.7)
9.0
(48.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 66
(2.6)
35
(1.4)
50
(2.0)
3.5
(0.14)
45
(1.8)
51
(2.0)
27
(1.1)
15.5
(0.61)
34
(1.3)
11.5
(0.45)
29
(1.1)
40
(1.6)
411
(16.2)
Average snowy days 1.7 1.9 1.4 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 1.3 7.0
Average relative humidity (%) 88 84 80 77 77 75 74 76 80 86 89 89 81.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 69.9 90.3 144.2 178.5 205.6 228 239.4 236.4 184.7 120.6 67.7 59.2 1,824.5
Source #1: Climatologie mensuelle à la station de Montreuil-Bellay.[54]
Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity, snowy days 1961–1990)[55]

Protected areasEdit

Montsoreau has a remarkable and listed heritage with historical, urban, natural and architectural dimensions. The small city is part of the Loire Valley UNESCO World Heritage Site and listed among the most beautiful villages of France.[56][57][58] Montsoreau has some architecturally noteworthy buildings in a very wide range of style over a long period of time. From underground living to the château de Montsoreau one of the most famous châteaux of the Loire Valley and the only one entirely dedicated to International Contemporary art.[59][60][61] Although the construction of the Montsoreau bridge at the beginning of the 20th century completely altered the link the village had with the river, it is nonetheless a technical challenge and a major architectural project that has modernized Montsoreau. It remains nowadays one of the longest bridges in France.

Natural areasEdit

Sensitive natural area of the Loire ValleyEdit

The ENS Loire Valley (Espace Naturel Sensible) encompasses the Loire and its right bank, as well as part of the village of Monsoreau and vineyards of the left bank.[62] This ENS is characterized by the presence of many species and habitats of species of interest and/or protected at national or regional level. It is represented by the banks, the islands, the alluvial woods and the bed of the Loire river. It is threatened by the increase in the area of poplar plantations and crops, the lowering of the riverbed, the abandonment of the hydraulic annexes and the invasive species.[63][64]

Natura 2000 area of the Loire Valley from Montsoreau to Ponts-de-CéEdit

The Natura 2000 Loire Valley includes two areas at Montsoreau,[65] one dedicated to the Loire river itself, and another one dedicated to the valley:

  • The ZSC (Special Conservation Area) Loire Valley Ponts-de-Cé Montsoreau (FR 5200629) site includes the wild part of the Loire river and part of its valley alluvial. The major interest of the site resides in the peripheral areas of the river, including the burrows and other aquatic environments rich in hydrophilic vegetation, mesophilic grasslands with hygrophilous, riparian woodland and ash Grove oxyphile.
  • The ZPS (Special Protection Area) Loire Valley Ponts-de-Cé Loire Valley (FR 5212003): the site encompasses the alluvial valley of the Loire and its main annexes (valleys, marshes, hillsides and cliffs). The mosaic of environments that are very favorable to birds (strikes, natural meadows, hedgerows, marsh and aquatic environments, wooded lawns ...) is characterized by the geographical and climatic context which induces strong and irregular variations of flow, from the low water level pronounced to very large floods.[66][67]
Loire-Anjou-Touraine Regional Natural ParkEdit

The headquarters of the Loire-Anjou-Touraine Regional Natural Park is located in Montsoreau.[68] It was created in 1996 and brings together 141 municipalities located in the Center region and in the Pays-de-la-Loire region.[69] The missions of the Park are the protection and management of the natural and cultural heritage, development of the territory, economic and social development, reception, education and training, and experimentation and research.[70]

Architectural HeritageEdit

UNESCOEdit

Montsoreau and the Château de Montsoreau are part of the UNESCO listed World Heritage site of the Loire Valley between Sully-sur-Loire and Chalonnes.[71][72][73] It has been listed under three criteria:

Criterion (i): The Loire Valley is noteworthy for the quality of its architectural heritage, in its historic towns such as Blois, Chinon, Orléans, Saumur, and Tours, but in particular in its world-famous castles, such as the Château de Chambord.

Criterion (ii): The Loire Valley is an outstanding cultural landscape along a major river which bears witness to an interchange of human values and to a harmonious development of interactions between human beings and their environment over two millennia.

Criterion (iv): The landscape of the Loire Valley, and more particularly its many cultural monuments, illustrate to an exceptional degree the ideals of the Renaissance and the Age of the Enlightenment on western European thought and design. – UNESCO.[74]

Monuments HistoriquesEdit

Monument Historique is a classification given to some National Heritage Sites in France. This classification is also a protection, which is of two levels, a Monument Historique can be Classified or Inscribed, Classified means the building is of National importance and Inscribed means it is of Regional importance. In Montsoreau, seven buildings are Inscribed, including the church. The Château is the only Classified building.[1] There is a protected area of 500m perimeter all around a monument historique, in this area new buildings and modifications of the old building must be authorized by the Architect of the Buildings of France.[75][76]

The seven listed buildings are:

  • House fifteenth century (Quai de la Loire): Inscribed in 1952, the staircase tower and the north facade have been listed.
  • House seventeenth century (Quai de la Loire): Inscribed in 1952, the exterior staircase and the south facade have been listed.
  • House sixteenth century (Rue Joan of Arc): Inscribed in 1926, the fireplace of the sixteenth century has been listed.
  • Windmill of the Trench: Inscribed in 1978, is a polygonal eighteenth century windmill.

Urban AreasEdit

Petites Cités de CaractèreEdit

Montsoreau is listed Petite cité de caractère de France (Small cities of character), it is a distinction given to villages or towns of less than 6,000 inhabitants, whose agglomeration must be protected by historical monuments and have a structure dense enough to give it the appearance of a city, hold an architectural heritage of quality and homogeneity, and exercise or have exercised urban functions of centrality or have a concentration of buildings resulting from an activity present or passed strong identity.[77][78][79][80] The municipality must have a multi-year program for the rehabilitation and enhancement of heritage.[81]

The Most Beautiful Villages of FranceEdit

The most beautiful villages of France is an association, which groups 154 villages considered as the most beautiful among the 32,000 villages of France.[82][83][84] A selection committee studies the applications for membership submitted by the mayors of the municipalities concerned. The village must have less than 2000 inhabitants, have at least two historic monuments, and have a policy of preservation of the landscape which must be materialized in urban planning documents.[85] Since July 2012, the association is part of the association of the most beautiful villages of the World.[86]

DemographicsEdit

Chart of population development in Montsoreau[87][88][89]
 

The official figures of the population of montsoreau are 449 inhabitants according to the INSEE, the city thus losing 1.8% of its population between 2010 and 2015. The demography of Montsoreau depends a lot on the activity of the town, second homes and retirees. The town economy being centered on tourism, and agriculture, the number of its inhabitants is limited by the geographical constraints, the density of its habitat, and the fact that one part of the land of the city is devoted to the cultivation of Vines, and the agricultural facilities of winemakers (warehouses, winery, Wine cellars).[90] However, the real estate pressure is relatively important in Montsoreau, it results from the high levels of protection of urban planning rules due to the different territorial classifications (UNESCO, National, Regional and Departmental), and leads naturally to an increase of the real estate prices.[91][92]

EconomyEdit

Montsoreau's economy is divided between tourism, agriculture, and commerce. It is also worth noting the presence in the small city of the headquarters of a public administration, the Regional Natural Park Loire-Anjou-Touraine, which is the largest employer of Montsoreau. With a museum of contemporary art, 14 restaurants, a campsite and two hotels, tourism is the largest employer of the municipality and helps the development of commercial jobs.

City economic overviewEdit

QuickfactsEdit

Montsoreau, Nantes, Angers, Lyon, Marseille and Paris compared to France 
2015 Census[93] Montsoreau Nantes Angers Lyon Marseille Paris France
Total population 2015 439 303,382 151,520 513,275 861,635 2,206,488 66,190,280
Population change, 2010 to 2015 −1.8% +1.3% +0.5% +1.2% +0.3% −0.3% +0.5%
Population density (people/sqmi) 219.1 12,053.3 9,188.3 10,722.3 9,274.5 20,934.4 270.9
Median household income (2015) €19,846 €21,263 €19,194 €22,501 €18,131 €26,431 €20,566
Unemployment rate 12.7% 17.0% 20.7% 13.9% 18.5% 12.2% 14.2%
Primary residence rate 60.5% 90.2% 90.2% 87.8% 89.5% 83.6% 82.5%
Second home rate 22.7% 3.5% 2.2% 3.8% 2.9% 8.2% 9.5%
Enterprises (units) 71 33,943 13,064 73,767 88,059 546,320 6,561,692
Business density (business/1000 people) 161.7 111.9 86.2 143.7 102.2 247.6 99.1

Business densityEdit

Montsoreau is economically linked to tourism, and geographically limited in its development, there is a proliferation of small businesses, which create a very favorable environment for the development of these companies. The Business density, is a figure that measures the economic environment, and is, particularly in France, linked to the number of small businesses present in a territory. The higher this figure is, the better the environment is for business. Montsoreau is well above the French average with a density almost twice the French average business density, ahead of almost all the largest French cities except Paris.[94]

TourismEdit

The identity of the village is borne by the château of Montsoreau, which gave its name to the village. The installation of a museum of contemporary art in this castle, the first Renaissance palace in France, combining "radical Renaissance architecture with a dramatic presence in the natural landscape" according to Philippe Méaille, has further strengthened the atypical identity of Montsoreau.[95] Tourism in Montsoreau drains a large number of small businesses, linked to catering and tourist reception.[96] The traditional hotel industry is represented by traditional hotels and an outdoor camping offer. However, in recent years, a multiplicity of rental accommodations offers through websites such as Airbnb has developed in Montsoreau and surrounding cities.[97] It allows the village to adapt during the organization of major events gathering a large crowd like Montsoreau Flea Market, Fireworks display on 14 July or Château de Montsoreau-Museum of Contemporary Art events.[98][99]

Wine and agricultureEdit

 
Bulco, a Sparkling Natural Wine from Gérard Marula, Loire Valley

Montsoreau is in the heart of the Loire valley wine region which stretches, from Nantes to Orleans; from Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé to the vineyards of Muscadet. While the region is mainly dedicated to White wines production, Montsoreau is part of the appellation Coteaux de Saumur and surrounded by five appélation d'origine controlée, Chinon, Saumur-Champigny, Saint-Nicolas de Bourgueil, Bourgueil, Anjou and Touraine, which are mainly producing Red wines and crémant sparkling wines.

Enotourism and Anjou Vélo Vintage FestivalEdit

Enotourism or Oenotourism is a relatively new, fully growing, tourism in Montsoreau. From the beginning of the 2010s, the Grand Saumurois, which includes Montsoreau, began to build offers of sports tourism combining hiking, cycling and Wine tastings,[100] and more specifically a winemaker from Montsoreau (Denis Rétiveau) became also a Loire sailor to combine wine tastings and sailing.[101][102] At the same time, a vintage festival, Anjou Vélo Vintage, of bike rides disguised throughout the territory and wine tasting is an immediate success. Its 2018 edition attracted more than 50,000 participants.[103][104]

Culture and contemporary lifeEdit

ArtsEdit

La Dame de Monsoreau, Emile Chautard, 1913.
 
J.M.W. Turner, Rietz near Saumur 1826, engraved by Brandard, Château de Montsoreau-Museum of Contemporary Art. Showing a sunset on the Loire river with the vieux-port of Montsoreau, the new road and the château.

Montsoreau is one of the few cities in France to have experienced the Renaissance as early as 1450 through architecture with the construction of its château at first, and then of civilian buildings. These buildings are still visible in the city. In the mid fifteenth century, as the kings of France are settling their power in Chinon and then Langeais and Tours, many artists such as Pierre de Ronsard, François Rabelais and Jean Fouquet, among the most famous, establish at that time their residence in the heart of what will be called later the Loire Valley and the Châteaux de la Loire. François Rabelais, who sees the castle of Montsoreau as it is today, quotes Montsoreau several times in his masterpiece telling the life of Gargantua and Pantagruel. But it is really only with romantic artists that Montsoreau becomes famous internationally. First, J. M. W. Turner during his trip in the Loire Valley immortalize the confluence of the Vienne and Loire with the Castle and the village (The Port of Rest, watercolor on paper, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford which has been engraved by R. Brandard in 1832),[105][106] followed by Auguste Rodin and Alexandre Dumas. Alexandre Dumas' Dame de Monsoreau, part of a trilogy, is one of his most famous novel, published in 1846 (serialized), translated in more than six languages and distributed worldwide.[107] This novel has been adapted three times for cinema, as early as 1909 by Mario Caserini, three times for television in the form of a series, and also adapted for a comics book series. One opera and one play have also been written and played, and a variety of roses named after La Dame de Montsoreau has been hybridized by Christopher H. Warner in 2000.[108][109][110][111]

More recently, a news item in July 1966, an observation of a UFO in Montsoreau, in a field for long minutes, and the discovery five days later of traces of the device in question, attracted the attention and the journalists from all over France.[112][113][114] This even to the point of attracting the attention of national and international experts such as Jacques Vallée, Montsoreau becomes the case 783 in his novel Passport to Magonia.[115] Jacques Vallée and American filmmaker Steven Spielberg, during the writing of Close Encounters of the Third Kind screenplay in 1977, pay homage to the Montsoreau case introducing Lacombe in the very first scene of the film (character of Jacques Vallée played by François Truffaut), as an international French expert having been one of the key speakers at the Montsoreau Conference.[116]

Contemporary artEdit

The Château de Montsoreau-Museum of contemporary art project begins in November 2014. In June 2015, Philippe Méaille and Christian Gillet create a surprise in France, jointly announcing the signing of an emphyteutic lease (between the Maine-et-Loire department and Philippe Méaille) on the Château de Montsoreau property.[117][118] The Château de Montsoreau-Museum of Contemporary Art becoming the first Château of the Loire Valley to be transformed into a museum of contemporary art.[119][120][121] Despite the desire of both parties to create an international museum of contemporary art, and the ability from Méaille to endowing it with the world's largest collection of works by the radical conceptualists of Art & Language, and to seize the opportunity to develop the international tourist audience of the Loire Valley, the announcement creates controversy.[122] Frédéric Béatse, former Mayor of Angers, and socialist political leader, protests against what he calls « a sale of a jewel of the department to a private foreign player ».[123] The two municipal elected officials, Gérard Persin, and Christian Gillet both react very quickly to these protests during a press conference, Gérard Persin stating: « It is a pride to have been chosen to host a center of contemporary art of international stature ». Christian Gillet for his part, by putting the project in its international ambition and potential development for the territory: « The idea of Philippe Méaille, connoisseur and lover of the site, is to install a center of contemporary art featuring his collection, already world famous and renowned, we have considered an interesting challenge », and Méaille to clarify his intentions: « This public-private partnership appeared to us as an innovative solution that will be integrated into the Saumur territory in its entirety: Saumur and its agglomeration but also the nearby Fontevraud Abbey ».[124]

After a phase of work over a period of eight months, the Château de Montsoreau-Museum of Contemporary Art opens on April 8, 2016, the city of Montsoreau becoming one of the smallest urban units in France having a private museum of contemporary art.[125][126][127] The development and urban planning of the château de la loire, the history of the Loire Valley and a collection of contemporary art were a case study for the 58 students of the École Camondo during the 2015-2016 academic year.[128] This phase of work was also accompanied by a phase of building a new identity, from the metamorphosis of a historical heritage site into a cultural place entirely dedicated to contemporary art.[129] This new visual identity was partly built through the creation of a logo, iconic signal of this one, this phase was carried out thanks to a process of co-creation engaging at the same time the team of the Château de Montsoreau-Museum of Contemporary Art and students from TALM School of Arts and Design to « rethink a cultural site as a space for social interaction ».[130]

This change of identity of the château operated in parallel with an urban vision of the project, had a strong impact on the presence of the château de Montsoreau-Museum of Contemporary Art in the city of Montsoreau. First of all, during the Loire Valley Biennale, access to the château gardens was redesigned, giving way to a wild garden in honor of Miriam Rothschild, they became free and integrated into the urban route.[131][132][133] And then, the Château de Montsoreau-Museum of Contemporary Art has reopened its historic port and set up an offer of cruises between Saumur and Montsoreau, to highlight the Loire river as an obvious tourist connection between the different cities of the Saumur agglomeration.[134][135][136] This port is also a communication lever for the Château de Montsoreau-Museum of Contemporary Art for the production of promotional films when loaning works to other institutions, giving birth for example to a short action film in the style of Mission: Impossible during its collaboration with the Contemporary Art center in Tours.[137][138][139]

It should be noted that Montsoreau benefited from international media coverage after the declaration of independence of Catalonia in October 2017.[140][141][142] One part of the Philippe Méaille collection was, since 2010, under a long-term loan agreement at MACBA (Museum of Contemporary Art of Barcelona).[143][144][145][146] Two days after the declaration of independence by Carles Puigdemont, Méaille released a statement from the château de Montsoreau-Museum of contemporary art not to renew his loan to the Catalan institution.[147][148] There followed a controversy, despite his statements about a lack of political position of his gesture.[149][150][151][152]

 
Les puces de Montsoreau is bringing in the Loire Valley some 10,000 visitors every second Sundays of the month.

Performing arts and eventsEdit

Performing arts are essentially events in Montsoreau, centered on three places, which are the vieux-port, the Saint-Peter church and the Château de Montsoreau-Museum of Contemporary Art. This event activity is seasonal and also related to calendar holidays. The Musical Season of Montsoreau was created by the famous harpsichordist Mario Raskin in 1996.[153][154] It takes place from late July to mid-August and is a festival of European classical music covering music from the Renaissance to the present day.[155][156] August 15 is the day of the traditional Picnic Castle Montsoreau-Museum of Contemporary Art for which all residents are invited, it is followed by a concert and a public release of sky lanterns at night that brings together more than 2000 participants.[157][158]

The most successful event taking place in Montsoreau is undoubtedly the flea market of Montsoreau listed amongst the best flea markets,[159] which in a few years has become the largest flea market in the Loire Valley.[160] It takes place every second Sunday of every month and attracts more than 10,000 visitors per event.[161]

Wine and cuisineEdit

 
Russian edition of Gargantua

Historically, the vines and the culture of the wine were brought on site, in Nantes, by the Romans in the 1st century.[162] Montsoreau is in the heart of the so-called Rabelaisie, Rabelaisian part of the Loire Valley, that is to say, along the Loire river between Saumur and Chinon.[163][164] Locally, the image which predominates is that of Rabelais and its giant Gargantua. This image makes reference to Gargantua, with his plethoric meals, the quantities of wines ingested and even to Rabelais who is said to have written his main books by dictation during his meals.[165] But according to Pierre Beaudry, to be Rabelaisian means also:[166]

to be totally outrageous, raunchy, crude in every way, absolutely stubborn in matters of truth, relentless against hypocrisy, and against all forms of popular opinion; but, also, in a more profound way, it means AXIOM BUSTING.

— Pierre Beaudry, Fidelio Magazine, Vol. IX Nr. 4, Winter 2000

WineEdit

Montsoreau is located on the south bank of the Loire river, and is surrounded to the south, east and west by the vineyards of Saumur, Bourgueil and Chinon. Traditionally, the Loire represents the northern limit of red wine production in Europe, the river providing the few additional degrees necessary for the maturity of the grapes during the grape harvest.[167] Nowadays these wines are very famous for their quality winemakers having made, from the end of the 90's, enormous efforts to minimize the use of chemicals in their vineyards and wines, the Maine-et-Loire becoming the France's capital of what today is called natural wines.[168]

CuisineEdit

Montsoreau is a city whose composition has evolved, and the opening to tourism in the late nineteenth century, first created blends with national culinary traditions. From Angevine tradition, its cuisine has gradually become French, evidenced by the presence in the territory of Saumur Val de Loire three Michelin star restaurants and a large concentration of gastronomic restaurants.[169] Val de loire is known as "the garden of France", and the cuisine takes advantage of local products that are many, whether fruit or vegetables, with Montsoreau mushroom specialties (soups, mushrooms farçis), asparagus or the traditional Montsorelian beef which is served during the Saint-John's Eve.[170][171] 15 restaurants and a truck-food are located in the town of Montsoreau, around the château and on the banks of the Loire river, their influencies are from Brittany, India, Italy, United States, France or Anjou.

SportsEdit

There is no tradition of professional sports in Montsoreau, but the village is very well known for soft sports or sports tourism. The soft sports allow to associate two contradictory states, sport and idleness, and there too, Montsoreau has become a privileged route for the amateurs of the Loire by bike,[172] of excursions in canoë, kayak[173] or backpacking.[174] Another sport, or game, perfectly illustrates this idea, the Bowl of Big (French: Boule de fort), recently listed Intangible cultural heritage by the Ministry of Culture of France.[175]

Loire by BikeEdit

The Loire by Bike (French: Loire à Vélo) is a 900 kilometres (560 mi) bicycle route that follows the banks of the Loire river, crossing the 280 kilometres (170 mi) of the UNESCO listed Loire valley. Montsoreau is a major stage of the Loire à Vélo, being located just at the confluence of the Vienne and the Loire rivers, and after the Cher and the Indre rivers have thrown into the Loire, it is the village from which the Loire river reaches its full width. It is also from Montsoreau that tourists can choose to follow the banks of the Loire, the vineyard road, or the troglodytes road.[176]

Boule de FortEdit

The Bowl of Big (French: Boule de Fort) is a traditional sport or game of historical Anjou.[177] First played outdoors in the fifteenth century, it is modernized in the 60s, and practiced nowadays indoors on synthetic resin tracks. Long maintained as private clubs, Bowl of Big clubs are now open to all participants.[178] The Bowl of Big field of Montsoreau is located in a building that replaced the old marketplace located next to the château.

TransportationEdit

River CrossingsEdit

Montsoreau is located downstream from the confluences with the main tributaries of the Loire. These tributaries having inflated the river bed, the Loire reaches its full width at Montsoreau, which has implications for the crossing from one bank to another and explains the exceptional length of the bridge of Montsoreau, which is the 174st longer bridge of France.[179] It connects the South Shore on which Montsoreau is built to the North Shore, cities like Saumur and Loudun, to cities like Tours, Langeais, Chinon, Rigny-Ussé and Azay-le-Rideau.[180] Inaugurated in 1917, it witnessed the first act of resistance of World War II and was partially destroyed. Being an important crossing point, it was rebuilt identically immediately after.[181]

Upstream of Montsoreau, i.e. upstream from the confluence of the Vienne and Loire rivers, access to Montsoreau is made by crossing two bridges, that of Bourgueil to cross the Loire, and that of Candes-Saint-Martin to cross the Vienne.

Administration and governanceEdit

Montsoreau is a commune of the Loire Valley in the Maine-et-Loire département, Pays de la Loire région. The commune is part of the agglomeration community Saumur Loire Valley (in French: communauté d'agglomération Saumur Val de Loire) which is gathering 47 communes and 100,000 inhabitants.

The city is administered by a mayor and 10 councillors, elected every six years. The current mayor of Montsoreau is Gerard Persin, who was elected on 25 March 2014.[182][183] The current president of Saumur Val de Loire is Jean-Michel Marchand, Who was elected by the agglomeration councillors on 12 January 2017.[184]

Saumur Val de Loire administers urban planning, transport, public areas, waste disposal, energy, water, housing, higher education, economic development, employment and European topics,[185][186] and Montsoreau city council administers security, primary and secondary education, early childhood, social aid, culture, sport and health. These mandates have been stated by the law NOTRE (Loi portant Nouvelle Organisation Territoriale de la République).[187]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Populations légales 2016". INSEE. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  2. ^ "Ettore Sottsass ou la liberté guidant l'artiste". Le Monde.fr (in French). Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  3. ^ "Chateau de Montsoreau – FIAC". fiac.com (in French). 23 September 2017. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  4. ^ "chateau-de-montsoreau-copie". artpress.com (in French). Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  5. ^ "Everybody Talks About Collecting with Their Eyes, Not Their Ears; Few Do It Like Philippe Meaille". Art Market Monitor. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  6. ^ "Largest Art & Language Collection Finds Home – artnet News". artnet News. 23 June 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  7. ^ "Everybody Talks About Collecting with Their Eyes, Not Their Ears; Few Do It Like Philippe Meaille". Art Market Monitor. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  8. ^ "Ettore Sottsass, rebelle et poète au pays du design". Marie Claire (in French). Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  9. ^ "French Collector Pulls Loans from MACBA After Catalonia Referendum". Artforum. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  10. ^ Stalder, Florient (2013). "Diagnostic en vue de l'établissement d'une Aire de Valorisation de l'Architecture et du Patrimoine" (PDF). Ville de Montsoreau.
  11. ^ Manasse, V. (1999). Le Château de Montsoreau. Itinéraires du patrimoine.
  12. ^ Hardion, R. (1928). Une visite au Château de Montsoreau. Tours.
  13. ^ Stalder, F. (2013). Fontevraud-L’Abbaye et Montsoreau, un regard sur le Saumurois. Nantes: 303.
  14. ^ Abbey, Athelney (1899). Two Cartularies of the Benedictine Abbeys of Muchelney and Athelney in the County of Somerset. subscribers only.
  15. ^ Boussard, J. (1938). Le comté d'Anjou sous Henri Plantagenêt et ses fils. Paris. p. 11.
  16. ^ Prigent, D. (2003). Congrès archéologique de France. Paris: Société française d'archéologie. p. 255.
  17. ^ Prigent, Dominique (2003). Congrès Archéologique de France. Paris: Société française d'archéologie. p. 255.
  18. ^ Stalder, Florient (2013). Fontevraud L'abbaye et Montsoreau, une regard sur le Saumurois. Nantes: 303.
  19. ^ Guillot, O. (1972). Le comte d'Anjou et son entourage au XIe siècle. Paris. p. 310.
  20. ^ Raimbault (1965). Notice historique sur le château et la commune de Montsoreau. Angers: Archives départementales du Maine-et-Loire. pp. 304–314.
  21. ^ Desme de Chavigny, O. (1888). Les anciens seigneurs de Montsoreau. Tours. p. 18.
  22. ^ "CHATEAU DE MONTSOREAU: Castles France, Pays de la Loire". paysdelaloire.co.uk. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  23. ^ Loire, Mission Val de. "Charles VII et Louis XI Val de Loire patrimoine mondial". valdeloire.org (in French). Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  24. ^ Prigent, Dominique (2013). Pierres du patrimoine européen. Bruxelles: Editions du Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques.
  25. ^ "Château de Montsoreau-Musée d'Art Contemporain". Les Châteaux de la Loire (in French). Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  26. ^ "Château de Montsoreau, l'art contemporain à portée de fleuve". parangone.fr (in French). Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  27. ^ Aubert de la Chenay Des Bois, François-Xavier Alexandre (1772). Dictionnaire de la noblesse. Paris. p. 158.
  28. ^ Bourquin, Laurent (2001). Les nobles, la ville et le roi : l'autorité nobiliaire en Anjou pendant les Guerres de religion, 1560–1598. Belin. p. 46.
  29. ^ Bourquin, Laurent (2001). Les nobles, la ville et le roi : l'autorité nobiliaire en Anjou pendant les Guerres de religion, 1560–1598. Paris: belin. ISBN 2-7011-2976-1.
  30. ^ Guilbert, Aristide Matthieu (1845). Histoire des villes de France, avec une introduction générale pour chaque province (in French). Furne et Cie.
  31. ^ Desmé de Chavigny, Octave (1888). Notice historique sur les anciens seigneurs de Montsoreau, du Xe au XVIIe siècle. Paris. p. 46.
  32. ^ Joubert, A. Louis De Clermont Sieur De Bussy D'amboise (in French). Рипол Классик. ISBN 9785874520366.
  33. ^ Archives parlementaires de 1787 à 1860, first serie : 1787–1799, tome X,p. 7 Decree of 12 november 1789 (municipality)
  34. ^ Prigent, Dominique (2013). Pierres du patrimoine européen. Bruxelles: Editions du Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques.
  35. ^ Loire, Région Pays de la. "Les fours à pruneaux de Montsoreau". Patrimoine des Pays de la Loire (in French). Retrieved 7 October 2018.
  36. ^ Stalder, Florient (2013). Fontevraud L'abbaye et Montsoreau, une regard sur le Saumurois. Nantes: 303.
  37. ^ "Loire River Valley". Bob Cromwell: Travel, Linux, Cybersecurity. Retrieved 7 October 2018.
  38. ^ "Histoire du parc naturel régional" (PDF). Parc Naturel Loire Anjou Touraine. 2017.
  39. ^ Macnab, Roy (January 1989). "History Today: For Honour Alone".
  40. ^ "Ceux qui se battaient le 18 juin 40 : les cadets de Saumur". Boulevard Voltaire (in French). 18 June 2018. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  41. ^ "99 – Combat des Cadets de Saumur sur la Loire". anac-fr.com. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  42. ^ "Les combats de la Loire Juin 1940 | Chemins de Mémoire – Ministère de la Défense". www.cheminsdememoire.gouv.fr. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  43. ^ "99 – Combat des Cadets de Saumur sur la Loire". anac-fr.com. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  44. ^ Match, Paris. "J'ai vu mourir les cadets de Saumur. Par Jean Ferniot" (in French). Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  45. ^ Loire, Mission Val de. "Les Cadets de Saumur – Connaître – Val de Loire patrimoine mondial". valdeloire.org (in French). Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  46. ^ "Les Cadets de Saumur juin 1940". museedesblindes.fr (in French). Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  47. ^ "Les Ecrivains combattants – Les Cadets de Saumur, Juin 1940". lesecrivainscombattants.fr (in French). Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  48. ^ Distance Calculator
  49. ^ Paris is 155 miles (249 km) air distance from Montsoreau, and Bordeaux is 167 miles (269 km) air distance from Montsoreau. – Distance Calculator
  50. ^ Tockner, Klement; Uehlinger, Urs; Robinson, Christopher T. (31 January 2009). Rivers of Europe. Academic Press. ISBN 9780080919089.
  51. ^ "Cinq beaux villages de France à découvrir cette année". Le Monde.fr (in French). Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  52. ^ Cher (river) meeting point with Loire River is in Villandry 23 miles (37 km) air distance from Montsoreau, and Indre (River) meeting point with Loire River is in Avoine 6 miles (9.7 km) air distance from Montsoreau. – Distance Calculator
  53. ^ Bodin, Jean-François (1845). Recherches historiques sur la ville de Saumur, ses monumens et ceux de son arrondissement. With plates (in French).
  54. ^ "Climatologie de l'année 2017 à Montreuil-Bellay – Grande-Champagne". infoclimat.fr (in French).
  55. ^ "Normes et records 1961–1990: Angers-Beaucouzé (49) – altitude 50m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
  56. ^ Flamer, Keith. "Marquis De Lafayette's Castle Lists For $2.89 Million in France's Loire Valley". Forbes. Retrieved 5 October 2018.
  57. ^ "Cinq beaux villages de France à découvrir cette année". Le Monde.fr (in French). Retrieved 5 October 2018.
  58. ^ "Top 10 des plus beaux villages de France". Seloger (in French). Retrieved 5 October 2018.
  59. ^ "Château de Montsoreau-Contemporary Art Museum – Les Châteaux de la Loire". Les Châteaux de la Loire. Retrieved 5 October 2018.
  60. ^ "The Met celebrates Ettore Sottsass: the designer who put the fun into function". Financial Review. 14 August 2017. Retrieved 5 October 2018.
  61. ^ Ferraioli, Mariacristina (18 October 2017). "Troppo caos in Catalogna. E il collezionista toglie le donazioni al museo di Barcellona". Artribune (in Italian). Retrieved 5 October 2018.
  62. ^ Parc Naturel Régional. "Diagnostic environnemental du Saumurois" (PDF). Saumur val de Loire.
  63. ^ Berger-Wagon, Isabelle (2017). Commune de Montsoreau – Site patrimonial remarquable. Nantes: Ecogée. p. 86.
  64. ^ "Valorisation et protection sites naturels - mission - Maine-et-Loire (49)". maine-et-loire.fr (in French). Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  65. ^ naturelle, Museum national d'Histoire. "INPN – FSD Natura 2000 – FR5200629 – Vallée de la Loire des Ponts-de-Cé à Montsoreau – Description". inpn.mnhn.fr (in French). Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  66. ^ Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle (July 2018). "Zone Natura 2000 vallée de la Loire" (PDF). Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle.
  67. ^ Berger-Wagon, Isabelle (November 2017). "Montsoreau Site Patrimonial Remarquable" (PDF). Ville de Montsoreau.
  68. ^ "Loire-Anjou-Touraine Regional Nature Park". Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  69. ^ "Le Parc Naturel Régional Loire Anjou Touraine Val de Loire une balade en France". loirevalley.uk (in French). Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  70. ^ "Loire Anjou Touraine Regional Natural Park The Loire Valley a journey through France". loirevalley.uk. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  71. ^ "The Loire Valley, a UNESCO world heritage site, The Loire Valley, a journey through France". Val de Loire, une balade en France. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  72. ^ tourisme, Anjou. "The Loire Valley river, a UNESCO World Heritage treasure". anjou-loire-valley.co.uk. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  73. ^ "Les châteaux de la Loire, un itinéraire au fil de l'eau". Geo.fr (in French). 19 August 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  74. ^ UNESCO (2000). "The Loire Valley between Sully-sur-Loire and Chalonnes Justification for Inscription".
  75. ^ "Code du patrimoine | Legifrance". www.legifrance.gouv.fr. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  76. ^ Code de l'urbanisme – Article R*425-1, retrieved 9 October 2018
  77. ^ "Montsoreau". Anjou Tourisme (in French). Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  78. ^ "Petites Cités de Caractère". pcc-paysdelaloire.fr. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  79. ^ Easyvoyage. "Quels sont les plus beaux villages de France". Press From.
  80. ^ France, D&A Private Tours Winelands of. "Heritage & Cultural Sightseeing - D&A Private Tours Winelands of France". 268.tls3.connectours.org. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  81. ^ "Montsoreau". villagesweb.com. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  82. ^ "Montsoreau, France: travel and tourism, attractions and sightseeing and Montsoreau reviews". francethisway.com. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  83. ^ "Montsoreau, Loire Valley; a beautiful village on the banks of the Loire river". loirevalleyfrance.net. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  84. ^ "Come to visit the most beautiful village in France in Montsoreau". Val de Loire Travel. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  85. ^ "How one becomes one of the most beautiful Villages of France | Les plus beaux villages de France – Site officiel". www.france-beautiful-villages.org. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  86. ^ "lpbvt". lpbvt.org. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  87. ^ "Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui". École des hautes études en sciences sociales.
  88. ^ "Recensement de la population au 1er janvier 2006". Insee.
  89. ^ "Recensement de la population". Insee.
  90. ^ Berger-Wagon, Isabelle (November 2016). "Mise en place de l'AVAP" (PDF). Pays de la Loire.
  91. ^ "Immobilier à Montsoreau". meilleursagents.com.
  92. ^ Natural regional park (2007). "Charte Natura 2000". Parc Naturel Regional.
  93. ^ QuickFacts for Montsoreau, Nantes, Angers, Lyon, Marseille, Paris, and France, INSEE. Retrieved 10 October 2018
  94. ^ Lowrey, Ying (2005). Business Density, Entrepreneurship and Economic Well-Being. American Economic Association. p. 8.
  95. ^ Bechtler, cristina (2018). The Private Museum of the Future. Zurich: JRP Ringier. p. 100. ISBN 978-3-03764-520-8.
  96. ^ "Montsoreau 2018 (avec photos): Top 20 des logements à Montsoreau, locations de vacances et locations saisonnières – Airbnb Montsoreau, Pays de la Loire, France". Airbnb (in French). Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  97. ^ Airbnb, citizens (2016). "La communauté Airbnb en Pays de la Loire" (PDF). Airbnb Citizens.
  98. ^ "Brocantes : attention aux contrefaçons". Franceinfo (in French). 6 August 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  99. ^ "Pays de la Loire : les feux d'artifice du 14 juillet". France 3 Pays de la Loire (in French). Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  100. ^ "Un week-end pour découvrir Saumur-Champigny". Le Figaro – Le Figaro Vin (in French). Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  101. ^ "LOIRE VINS AVENTURE". La Loire à Vélo (in French). Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  102. ^ "8 activités insolites autour du vin". Le Figaro – Le Figaro Vin (in French). Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  103. ^ ignis. "Saumur. Anjou Vélo Vintage 2018, une année record ! Les vidéos". saumur-kiosque.com. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  104. ^ AnjouVeloVintage (2 July 2018), Anjou Vélo Vintage 2018, retrieved 12 October 2018
  105. ^ Tate. "'Rietz, near Saumur, engraved by R. Brandard', after Joseph Mallord William Turner, 1832 | Tate". Tate Etc. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  106. ^ Tate. "'Rietz, near Saumur', Joseph Mallord William Turner, c.1826–30 | Tate". Tate Etc. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  107. ^ Virtual International authority File. "Work: Dame de Monsoreau". V. I. A. F.
  108. ^ "Rose (Rosa 'Alfresco') in the Roses Database - Garden.org". garden.org. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  109. ^ La dame de Monsoreau (TV Mini-Series 1971– ), retrieved 14 October 2018
  110. ^ Kingdom of Felony (TV Movie 2008), retrieved 14 October 2018
  111. ^ "Wikiwix's cache". archive.wikiwix.com. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  112. ^ "MUFORG Bulletin, December 1966 | MAGONIA". magonia.haaan.com. Retrieved 15 October 2018.
  113. ^ "Faits divers". Le Figaro. 3 August 1966.
  114. ^ "Base Ovni France". baseovnifrance.free.fr. Retrieved 15 October 2018.
  115. ^ Vallée, Jacques (1969). Passport To Magonia: from Folklore to Flying Saucers. Henry Regnery, Chicago. pp. 32–34.
  116. ^ Spielberg, Steven. "Script Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977)". Film Site.
  117. ^ "Largest Art & Language Collection Finds Home - artnet News". artnet News. 23 June 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  118. ^ Dejean, Caroline. "Art Contemporain au Château de Montsoreau". Ouest France.
  119. ^ "Château de Montsoreau-Contemporary Art Museum - Les Châteaux de la Loire". Les Châteaux de la Loire. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  120. ^ "momondo". www.momondo.fr (in French). Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  121. ^ "Château de Montsoreau (Contemporary Art Daily)". www.contemporaryartdaily.com. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  122. ^ ignis. "Le château de Montsoreau devient un centre culturel d'art contemporain. (Les détails)". www.saumur-kiosque.com. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  123. ^ "Montsoreau Polémique, Faut-il confier le château à un collectionneur privé ?". Le Courrier de l'Ouest. 18 June 2015.
  124. ^ ignis. "Le château de Montsoreau devient un centre culturel d'art contemporain. (Les détails)". www.saumur-kiosque.com. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  125. ^ "Chateau de Montsoreau - FIAC". www.fiac.com. 23 September 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  126. ^ Dejean, Caroline (10 April 2016). "L'Art Contemporain réinvente Montsoreau". Ouest France.
  127. ^ "Montsoreau : de l'art contemporain au château". France 3 Pays de la Loire (in French). Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  128. ^ ignis. "Le château de Montsoreau sujet étude pour des étudiants designers". www.saumur-kiosque.com. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  129. ^ "Philippe Méaille installe sa collection au château de Montsoreau | Connaissance des Arts". Connaissance des Arts (in French). 25 June 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  130. ^ Kerret, Gwenaelle De. "Château de Montsoreau: birth of a museum, augmented by co-creation | semiotips". semiotips.com. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  131. ^ "Château de Montsoreau (47)". Balades en France, le nez au vent... (in French). 12 August 2017. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  132. ^ "Montsoreau le château ouvrira ses jardins en mai". Courrier de l'Ouest.
  133. ^ "Miriam Rothschild Château de Montsoreau-Musée d'art contemporain". Château de Montsoreau-Musée d'Art Contemporain (in French). Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  134. ^ "Château de Montsoreau, l'art contemporain à portée de fleuve". parangone.fr (in French). Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  135. ^ "Navette Coche d'eau Saumur / Candes-Saint-Martin - Groupes". www.croisieressaumurloire.fr (in French). Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  136. ^ ignis. "Château de Montsoreau : Retour sur l'inauguration du port historique". www.saumur-kiosque.com. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  137. ^ "Montsoreau. Le château musée s'offre un teaser façon James Bond" (in French). Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  138. ^ Zarini, Laurent. "Montsoreau le château s'offre un teaser façon James Bond". Courrier de l'Ouest.
  139. ^ Direction Régionale des Affaires Culturelles. "Exposition Ten Posters Illustration for Art-Language". Ministère de la Culture.
  140. ^ "Fearing Political Instability After the Catalonia Referendum, a Collector Withdraws Loans From MACBA". artnet News. 12 October 2017. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  141. ^ "French Collector Pulls Loans from MACBA After Catalonia Referendum". www.artforum.com. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  142. ^ "artforum.com / news". artforum.com. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  143. ^ Press, Europa (29 March 2011). "Philippe Méaille deposita en el Macba un fondo de 800 obras del grupo Art & Language". europapress.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  144. ^ 324cat. "El col·leccionista francès Philippe Méaille cedeix per cinc anys al MACBA 800 obres d'Art & Language". CCMA (in Catalan). Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  145. ^ "Art and language uncompleted - Philippe Méaille collection | British Council". www.britishcouncil.es. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  146. ^ "Art & Language Uncompleted. The Philippe Méaille Collection". www.macba.cat. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  147. ^ Loire, Mission Val de. "Le château de Montsoreau s'enrichit de 800 œuvres d'art contemporain -Actualités - Val de Loire patrimoine mondial". www.valdeloire.org (in French). Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  148. ^ L'ART, LE QUOTIDIEN DE. "Le collectionneur Philippe Méaille retire ses œuvres du musée d'Art contemporain de Barcelone par Le Quotidien de l'Art". LE QUOTIDIEN DE L'ART (in French). Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  149. ^ "La crise catalane fait fuir les collectionneurs". Le Monde.fr (in French). Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  150. ^ "MACBA lamenta la decisión de Philippe Méaille de no renovar depósito de obras". La Vanguardia. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  151. ^ Montañés, José Ángel (13 October 2017). "El Macba afirma que la seguridad de sus obras está garantizada". El País (in Spanish). ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  152. ^ Barcellona, Elisabetta Rosaspina, inviata a. "Catalogna, via anche le opere d'arte: un collezionista le riporta in Francia". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  153. ^ "Mario Raskin (Harpsichord, Arranger) - Short Biography". www.bach-cantatas.com. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  154. ^ "Biography - Mario Raskin". Mario Raskin (in French). Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  155. ^ Dutac, Emmanuel. "Les Musicales de Montsoreau". www.ville-montsoreau.fr (in French). Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  156. ^ Lecerf, Sophie. "23ème Saison Musicale de Montsoreau". Office de tourisme Saumur Val de Loire (in French). Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  157. ^ "LÂCHER DE LANTERNES CÉLESTES, MONTSOREAU, Le 15 août 2018". Agence départementale du tourisme de l'Anjou (in French). Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  158. ^ "Lâcher de lanternes volantes Montsoreau". Ouest France.
  159. ^ "Puces de Montsoreau - fleamapket: the best flea markets". fleamapket. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  160. ^ "SNAPSHOTS OF THE LOIRE - The Montsoreau flea market". TV5MONDE. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  161. ^ "5 unmissable bric-a-brac spots! - Hidden gems and other things to see and do - France, Pays de la Loire". www.paysdelaloire.co.uk. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  162. ^ "2,000 years of history". Loire Valley Wines. 29 July 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  163. ^ "Visit the Loire Valley vineyards - wine tourism". www.visitfrenchwine.com. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  164. ^ "Vagabondage en Rabelaisie". Youtube France 24. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  165. ^ "What is a Rabelaisian?". archive.schillerinstitute.com. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  166. ^ "What is a Rabelaisian?". archive.schillerinstitute.com. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  167. ^ "Into the Loire Valley | NUVO". nuvomagazine.com. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  168. ^ Punch. "PUNCH | The Top Producers in France's Capital of Natural Wine". punchdrink.com. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  169. ^ "Saumur Michelin Restaurants - the Michelin Guide - ViaMichelin". www.viamichelin.com. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  170. ^ Lecerf, Sophie. "22/06 Fête de la St-Jean à Montsoreau". Office de tourisme Saumur Val de Loire (in French). Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  171. ^ "FÊTE DE LA SAINT JEAN À MONTSOREAU, MONTSOREAU, Le 22 juin 2018". Agence départementale du tourisme de l'Anjou (in French). Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  172. ^ "Caroline and Paul: La Loire à Vélo from Montsoreau to Chenonceau - La Loire à Vélo". La Loire à Vélo. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  173. ^ Kayak, Loire. "Itinerant treks - Trips - Loire Kayak". www.loirekayak.com. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  174. ^ "Montsoreau". www.trekearth.com. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  175. ^ "Jeu : La boule de fort (de Mazé – Maine et Loire)". Restituer l'inventaire du PCI (in French). Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  176. ^ "From Candes to Saumur - Loire Valley cycle routes — France Vélo Tourisme". en.francevelotourisme.com. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  177. ^ Guillemet, Virginie. "Initiation au jeu de boule de fort à Saumur (49)". Office de tourisme Saumur Val de Loire (in French). Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  178. ^ "Jeu : La boule de fort (de Mazé – Maine et Loire)". Restituer l'inventaire du PCI (in French). Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  179. ^ "Varennes-Montsoreau Bridge (Varennes-sur-Loire/Montsoreau, 1901) | Structurae". Structurae. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  180. ^ Loire, Région Pays de la. "Le pont de Montsoreau ou de Varennes-Montsoreau". Patrimoine des Pays de la Loire (in French). Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  181. ^ "Montsoreau le pont-cage de Montsoreau fête ses 100 ans". Courrier de l'Ouest. 2017.
  182. ^ "Résultats Montsoreau – Municipales 2014 – 1er et 2nd tour". Le Monde.fr (in French). Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  183. ^ "Résultat des municipales à Montsoreau". linternaute.com (in French). Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  184. ^ "Jean-Michel Marchand est le nouveau president de la nouvelle agglomération Saumur Val de Loire". Courrier de l'Ouest.
  185. ^ "Statuts et compétences". saumurvaldeloire.fr (in French). Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  186. ^ Abollivier, Béatrice (2017). "Statuts Saumur Val de Loire" (PDF). Saumur Val de Loire.
  187. ^ "Quelles sont les compétences exercées par les communes ? – Quelles sont les compétences des collectivités territoriales ? Découverte des institutions – Repères – Vie-publique.fr". vie-publique.fr (in French). 14 January 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.