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The family divided in several branches, of which only the branch of d'Artagnan now remains.
In 1777 Louis XVI allowed the Montesquiou family to change its name as de Montesquiou-Fezensac.
In 2011 certain members of the d'Artagnan branch changed their name to de Montesquiou-Fezesensac d'Artagnan.
The titles of the Marsan line (extinct) were:
- baron of the Empire (1809)
- count of Montesquiou (1817)).
- duke of Fezensac in 1821 and 1832 (title extinct in 1913 with Philippe André, third duke of Fezensac).
The titles of the d'Artagnan line are:
The title of the Montluc family (now extinct) that maybe came from the Montesquiou family were:
- count of Montluc (1563)
- prince of Chabanais (1598)
- Bernard de Montesquiou (+1175) Bishop of Tarbes;
- Raymond V de Montesquiou (fl. 1190) lord of Montesquiou, participant of the Third Crusade and uncle of Gerard de La Barthe, Archbishop of Auch
- Pierre Cardinal de Montesquiou (+1262), Cardinal of Albi;
- Pictavin Cardinal de Montesquiou (+1355/6), Bishop of Albi;
- Jean de Lasseran de Massencome de Montluc (1502–1579), Archbishop of Bordeaux;
- Pierre de Montesquiou d'Artagnan, (1645–1725), musketeer and maréchal de France;
- Henri Jacques de Montesquiou de Puylobon (1710–1777), Bishop of Sarlat;
- Anne-Pierre de Montesquiou-Fézensac (1739–1798), general and politician, member of the French Academy, he joined the Third Estate during the French Revolution;
- François-Xavier-Marc-Antoine de Montesquiou-Fézensac (1756–1832), French politician;
- Raymond Aymeric Philippe Joseph de Montesquiou-Fezenzac, French soldier;
- Anatole de Montesquiou-Fezenzac (born in 1788), French soldier ;
- Bertrand de Montesquiou-Fézenzac (1837–1902), French admiral;
- Robert de Montesquiou (1855–1921), writer, poet, art collector;
- Léon de Montesquiou (1873–1915), essayist, French monarchist;
- Mathilde de Montesquiou-Fézenzac (1884–1960), wife of the composer Charles-Marie Widor;
- Aymeri de Montesquiou, contemporary French politician;
- Alfred de Montesquiou, contemporary French journalist;