Montalegre (Portuguese pronunciation: [mõtɐˈlɛɣɾ(ɨ)] (listen)) is a municipality in northern Portugal, located in the district of Vila Real, along the border with Spain. The population in 2011 was 10,537, in an area of 805.46 km².
The hilltop Montalegre Castle
|Intermunic. comm.||Alto Tâmega|
|Parishes||27 (see text)|
|• President||Orlando Alves (PS)|
|• Total||805.46 km2 (310.99 sq mi)|
|Elevation||884 m (2,900 ft)|
|• Density||13/km2 (34/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC±00:00 (WET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+01:00 (WEST)|
|Patron||Nossa Senhora da Piedade|
Early construction in Montalegre date back 3500–4000 years when early inhabitants, around the villages of Mourela, Veiga and Vila da Ponte, buried their dead in funeral mounds. Vestiges of this culture predominate the region, and suggest that settlements have been ongoing since the Metal Ages.
Celt colonies began to appear afterward, constructing castros in many of the places that developed into formal settlements. With the arrival of the Romans, bridges and formal roads began to appear, while many of the castros began to be converted into Roman encampments, later the nuclei of formalized settlements. Remains of the Roman civitas are still common: Praesidium (in Vila da Ponte, popularly known as Sabaraz) and Caladunum (in Cervos).
Although there were no overt indications that the Moors settled in this region, although oral tradition inferred as much.
With the establishment of the Christian kingdom of Portugal, Afonso Henriques donated portions of the land for charitable hospices (Salto), hospitals (Vilar de Perdizes and Dornelas) or monasteries (Pitões). Owing to its location, on the border with Galiza, defense fortifications were constructed, including the Castles of Gerês and Piconha, and later in Portelo and the village of Montalegre. A lighthouse was also constructed in Tourém, likely by King Sancho in 1187, since he was the master of the Terras da Piconha region.
It was only in September 1273 that King Afonso III bestowed on the citizens a foral (charter), founding the town of Montalegre and making the local sheriff the master of the Terras de Barroso. The foral was later confirmed by King Denis in 1289, and renewed by Afonso IV (in 1340), John II (in 1491), and Manuel (in 1515).
On 6 November 1836, the municipality of Montalegre was divided, in order to create the municipality of Boticas. In course, the parishes of Vilar de Vacas was lost to the neighbouring municipality of Vieira do Minho, and later the parish of Couto Misto de Santiago de Rubiás, was also de-annexed.
Contemporary history of the municipality has been marked by growing emigration, the result of the lack of economic recourse and the abandonment of traditional activities. The institutionalization of local government permitted a revitalization in the municipality, after the Carnation Revolution, which saw a growth in tertiary activities.
Montalegre is one of the two municipalities that compose the region of Barroso. The Peneda-Gerês National Park comprises 26,26% of its area (211,74 km² out of a total 806,19 km² belonging to that park).
Administratively, the municipality is divided into 27 civil parishes that administer local area government and support the local populations:
- Cambeses do Rio, Donões e Mourilhe
- Covelo do Gerês
- Frades do Rio
- Meixedo e Padornelos
- Montalegre e Padroso
- Paradela, Contim e Fiães
- Pitões das Júnias
- Santo André
- Sezelhe e Covelães
- Venda Nova e Pondras
- Viade de Baixo e Fervidelas
- Vila da Ponte
- Vilar de Perdizes e Meixide
At an elevation of 950 m (3,117 ft) above sea level, Montalegre has a cool-summer Mediterranean climate (Csb, according to the Köppen climate classification). There is a short dry season in summer, but the city is quite humid. The average annual temperature in Montalegre is 10.5 °C, and the average annual rainfall is 1,348 mm. The driest month is July, with 24 mm. Most precipitation falls in January, with an average of 179 mm.
Summers are pleasant and dry, and winters are chilly and snowy.
|Climate data for Montalegre|
|Average high °C (°F)||7.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||4.1
|Average low °C (°F)||0.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||179
- Instituto Nacional de Estatística
- Gabinete de Informática (ed.). "Resenha Histórica" (in Portuguese). Montalegre, Portugal: Câmara Municipal de Montalegre.
- The 1515 foral, not only renewed the town charter, but also provided for the upgrade of the lighthouse.
- Diário da República. "Law nr. 11-A/2013, pages 552 76-77" (pdf) (in Portuguese). Retrieved 9 July 2014.
- "Climate: Montalegre". Climate-data.org.