Monster High is an American multimedia-supported fashion doll franchise created by toy designer Garrett Sander and launched by Mattel in 2010.[1][2] The show is aimed at children ages 7-14, the franchise features characters inspired by monster movies, sci-fi horror, thriller fiction, folklore, myths and popular culture, centering around the adventures of the teenage children of monsters and other mythical creatures attending a high school of the same name.

Monster High
Logo introduced in 2016
Created byGarrett Sander
Original workToys
Print publications
Book(s)See list of books
Films and television
Film(s)17 (list of films)
Television seriesMonster High
Web seriesMonster High
Official website

Though the fashion dolls were the main focus of the franchise, a 2D-animated web series and 15 animated TV specials/films were released to accompany them, as well as video games, a series of young adult novels written by Lisi Harrison and other forms of merchandise. The franchise quickly became very popular among children and was extremely successful in terms of earnings for Mattel; it was worth $1 billion in its 3rd year of existence with more than $500 million in sales annually, and was the second best-selling doll brand in North America. Two spin-off toy lines were launched as companions to Monster High: Ever After High in July 2013 based on fairy tales and fables and Enchantimals in 2017 featuring human-animal hybrids. However, sales declined in 2016, prompting Mattel to reboot the franchise with a revamped aesthetic and a new fictional universe. The reboot was a commercial failure, eventually leading to the discontinuation of the franchise in 2018.

Monster High relaunched a second time in 2020 with the release of new dolls representing horror/goth film cults, culminating with the 2021 announcement of an animated TV series and a live-action musical film, both produced by Mattel Television and premiered on Nickelodeon in October 2022.[3][4][5][6][7]

Premise edit

In the fictional American town of New Salem, the teenage children of famous monsters (and other mythical creatures) attend a high school called Monster High. The school is renowned for allowing all species of monsters to enroll in it: this is in contrast with other schools that exist in the franchise's fantasy world, which are reserved for one type of monster only (for example, a vampire-exclusive school). The characters' stories were told through the TV series, web series, films, the official website, as well as through diaries (booklets) included with the dolls. Since the franchise's beginnings in the late 2000s and early 2010s, Monster High has valued diversity among its characters and their visual appearance, personalities, abilities, and cultural backgrounds.[8]

Characters edit

Monster High features a variety of fictional characters, many of them being students at the titular high school. The female characters are called "ghouls", and the male characters are called "mansters". When the franchise was first introduced, the characters were generally the sons and daughters of monsters that have been popularized in fiction; in later years, it expanded to also feature characters inspired by other various types of mythical creatures, such as figures from folklore, mythology, and pop culture.

The franchise's official website at the time listed characters in four categories: "original" – the main characters who were introduced the earliest, "ghouls" – the female characters, "mansters" – the male characters, and "Frightmares" – characters who are half-centaur and half-monster.[9] The original characters are:

A group of people cosplaying as Monster High characters at San Diego Comic-Con 2011
  • Frankie Stein (voiced by Kate Higgins from 2010 to 2016, Cassandra Lee Morris from 2016 to 2018 and Iris Menas from 2022 onward)[10] is the daughter of Frankenstein's monster and his bride. She is the central character of the franchise. She has white hair with black streaks and light, mint-green skin. Frankie is a simulacrum, meaning that her body is made of many different parts. She is clumsy, sweet, and always kind to others. She has a crush on Neighthan Rot. In the series, she used to date Jackson Jekyll and Holt Hyde, but this is different in the diaries, where both characters are in a relationship with Draculaura instead. In the first two incarnations of the franchise, Frankie uses she/her pronouns, while in the 2022 reboot they are non-binary and use they/them pronouns.
  • Draculaura (voiced by Debi Derryberry from 2010 to 2018[11] and Courtney Lin from 2022 onward) is a vampire who is the daughter of Dracula. She is in a relationship with Clawdeen's older brother, Clawd Wolf. She is a vegetarian who faints at the sight of blood.[12] The diaries show that she used to date Jackson Jekyll and Holt Hyde. She has fangs and typically dresses in pink, black and white.
  • Cleo de Nile (voiced by Salli Saffioti[13] from 2010 to 2018 and Kausar Mohammed from 2022 onwards) is the daughter of the mummy pharaoh Ramses de Nile, and is 5842 years old at the start of the series. She is the captain of the "fearleading" squad. Cleo prefers to accessorize with light-gold bandages or mummy wrappings. She is based on Cleopatra, while her older sister, Nefera de Nile, is based on Nefertiti. She is the queen of the social scene and has a boyfriend named Deuce Gorgon.
  • Clawdeen Wolf (voiced by Salli Saffioti from 2010 to 2018 and Gabrielle Nevaeh Green from 2022 onward[11]) is the daughter of a werewolf. She is described as outgoing and sweet. She likes fashion. She has a bit of a temper at times when messed with, but can easily control it when coaxed properly. Her wolf ears are pierced in multiple places. In the 2016 reboot of Monster High, she develops mutual feelings for Raythe.
  • Lagoona Blue (voiced by Laura Bailey from 2010 to 2015,[11] Larissa Gallagher from 2016 to 2018 and Valeria Rodriguez from 2022 onwards) is the daughter of a sea monster. Lagoona is from "Down Under" and speaks with an Australian accent. She can talk with water animals. She is in a relationship with Gillington "Gil" Webber.

Conception and development edit

Mattel began conceptualizing the Monster High franchise in 2007; the company filed for a trademark of the name "Monster High" in October of that year.[14] Garrett Sander — then a packaging designer at Mattel — and his twin brother Darren went shopping with young girls one day, where they noticed that the young girls were into goth fashion. This served as inspiration for creating a toy brand with a dark aesthetic. Darren was involved with the early concepts for the brand; he came up with the slogan "(Where) Freaky Just Got Fabulous!". He also remarked that because the characters were monsters, they had more freedom to do things that ordinary kids could not do.[15] Other inspirations for the brand include children's interests in Tim Burton and Lady Gaga.[16]

Merchandise edit

Dolls edit

Monster High dolls
The original line of Monster High dolls released in 2010. From left to right: Clawdeen Wolf, Lagoona Blue, Cleo de Nile, Deuce Gorgon, Frankie Stein, and Draculaura.[note 1]
TypeFashion doll
Inventor(s)Garrett Sander
CountryUnited States
Availability2010–2018, 2020–present
  • "(Where) Freaky Just Got Fabulous!" (2010–2011)
  • "Be yourself, be unique, be a monster!" (2011–2016, 2022—present)
  • "How Do You Boo (Be Out Of The Ordinary)?" (2016–2019)
  • "Everyone Is Welcome!" (2017–2020)

Fashion dolls were the first franchise product to be released, with the media and other merchandise following soon after.[17] The first line, which included the original six characters, was released in 2010.[18][19][20] Mattel was experimenting with a new business strategy which consisted of launching a new franchise by releasing the toy first—without a "traditional entertainment property first"—and then following up with the media and entertainment.[17] The original packaging boxes were designed by Garrett Sander himself.[21] According to a social media post made by Sander in 2020, the very first prototypes of the dolls during its development were made using head molds from another Mattel doll line that was never officially released, bodies from Barbie collector dolls, and with some accessories from My Scene dolls. A good amount of the initial design remained unchanged, but the actual dolls ended up looking drastically different.[22]

Over 750 different dolls have been released since its 2010 launch.[23] They vary in size, features, materials used, type of packaging, types of accessories they come with, country of manufacture, etc. Most of them are about 10.5 in (270 mm) tall. Some dolls, particularly the ones which were released a long time ago or in limited quantity, are rare, collectible, and therefore expensive.[20] Most Monster High dolls were marketed to children as toys to play with, but some "collector's edition" dolls, priced higher and aimed at an older audience, were also made.[24]

In 2016, Monster High underwent a reboot, which was likely an attempt to make the brand appeal to a younger age category.[25] The sales were low that year,[26] and the line was eventually quietly discontinued in 2018.[27] In 2020, however, the franchise made its comeback when two new premium-priced collector dolls—dubbed "Skullector" and inspired by characters from the horror movies It and The Shining—were made available for purchase just in time for that year's Halloween.[28] In 2021, a new set of two Skullector dolls inspired by characters from the movie Beetlejuice was launched exclusively through the "Mattel Creations" section of Mattel's website[29] alongside a doll inspired by the film Gremlins 2: The New Batch.[30] In 2022, Mattel presented a new Monster High line called "Haunt Couture" (wordplay on "haute couture") which consisted of five new collector dolls: the five main characters of Frankie Stein, Clawdeen Wolf, Draculaura, Cleo de Nile and Lagoona Blue. They featured details such as rooted eyelashes and were priced at $75, and similarly were only available through the website.[31] On Friday, May 13, 2022, Mattel released a new "Booriginal Creeproductions" line of Monster High dolls which were a tribute to the original 2010 line. It featured four of the main characters dressed in their original outfits and packaged in boxes that took heavy inspiration from the original packaging. They were priced at $25 each and at first available exclusively at Walmart outlets in the United States, and then also worldwide through the "Mattel Creations" section of the Mattel website.[32] They were aimed at older consumers who grew up with the original dolls prior to their 2018 discontinuation.[33][34]

Other merchandise edit

Various other Monster-High-branded products have been released: they include collectible vinyl figurines, Halloween costumes, plushies,[35] stationery, children's clothing, accessories, and makeup, perfume, and more. In February 2022, American fashion designer Maisie Wilen collaborated with Mattel to create a pair of earrings inspired by one of the main Monster High characters' style; they were available for $50 exclusively through the "Mattel Creations" section of the Mattel website.[36][37] In April 2022, Mattel collaborated with Hot Topic on a clothing collection inspired by the aesthetics of the franchise.[38]

Media edit

Launched in the digital media era, Monster High began adaptation into a web series which had its debut on YouTube on 5 May 2010, followed by a 23-minute TV special, New Ghoul @ School on October 30 that same year which premiered on Nickelodeon in the United States. The aforementioned New Ghoul @ School and the next TV special, Fright On! were 2D-animated, with the following films animated in CGI or computer animation: "Why Do Ghouls Fall in Love", "Escape from Skull Shores", "Friday Night Frights", "Scaris: City of Frights", "Ghouls Rule", "13 Wishes", "Freaky Fusion", "Haunted", "Boo York, Boo York", Great Scarrier Reef, Welcome to Monster High and Electrified. Other films were reported to be in development until the first franchise reboot and the discontinuation of Ever After High in 2016. Starting with Fright On! in 2011, the specials and films were released in direct-to-video home video formats by Universal Pictures Home Entertainment. The films ranked Monster High as the second in the list of children's direct-to-video franchises that year, according to online magazines and publications.[39] The films and specials have also appeared on streaming services/platforms like Netflix and Amazon Prime Video.[40]

In the 2015 film "Boo York, Boo York", a character known as Astranova makes contact with Apple White and Raven Queen from Ever After High suggesting a crossover in the future.[41] However, the first franchise reboot and the discontinuation of Ever After High derailed and cancelled those plans (which also included more based-on films than the 16 indicated); brief storyboard animatics were instead released on the official Monster High YouTube channel under the title The Lost Movie[42] and early designs for the EAH characters intended for the crossover have been released online.[43]

In 2021, it was announced that Mattel Television would produce a live-action musical film and an animated TV series for Nickelodeon, which premiered in October 2022. Both projects feature more gender diversity and LGBT characters.[44][45]

Monster High: Kowa Ike Girls edit

Monster High: Kowa Ike Girls (Japanese: モンスター・ハイ こわイケガールズ, romanizedMonsutā Hai Kowa Ike Gāruzu; Monsutā Hai and Gāruzu being transliteration of "Monster High" and "Girls", respectively) is an 8-episode series of 3-minute Japanese animated shorts produced by Shougakukan Music & Digital Entertainment [ja],[46] and animated at Picona Creative Studio.[46][47] The shorts were broadcast as a part of TXN's morning children's television programming block Oha Suta beginning on October 22, 2014.[48] Mattel Japan's official YouTube account later released the shorts online.

The theme song, simply titled "Monster High" (Japanese: モンスター・ハイ, romanizedMonsutā Hai), was sung by Japanese teen idol girl band Amorecarina, featuring Kaede (from another idol girl band, Chu-Z [ja]) as a rapper. It was included in Amorecarina's debut single of the same name, along with an instrumental version.[49]

The Kowa Ike Girls shorts were released in Japanese only.

Video games edit

Video games based on the franchise were released to accompany the audiovisual media.

Monster High: Ghoul Spirit edit

The first game released was Monster High: Ghoul Spirit, available for the Nintendo DS and the Wii consoles on 25 October 2011. This release featured a special "Ghoulify" function for the Nintendo DSi. The game revolves around the player being the new 'ghoul' in school and must work their way through activities and social situations to finally be crowned 'Scream Queen'.

Monster High: Skultimate Roller Maze edit

Another video game for Nintendo DS and Wii titled Monster High: Skultimate Roller Maze was released in November 2012. This game allowed players to experience the Monster High sport - Skultimate Roller Maze. Teams compete their way through a hazardous maze of obstacles.

Monster High: 13 Wishes edit

The third video game for the Wii, Wii U, Nintendo DS, and Nintendo 3DS named after Monster High: 13 Wishes was released in October 2013. In this game, players take on the role of Frankie Stein who must free her friends from a magical lantern by collecting thirteen shards of a magic mirror.

Other games edit

Mobile apps Ghoul Box and Sweet 1600 are available on iTunes for the iPad and iPhone devices. The Monster High website has also released a series of catacomb-themed web games: "trick or trance", "phantom roller" and "scary sweet memories". In November 2015, Monster High: New Ghoul in School was released for the Xbox 360, PC, PlayStation 3, Wii, 3DS, and Wii U.[50] The PC version was de-listed on Steam in 2017.

Book series edit

Monster High Book series edit

Lisi Harrison, a Canadian author known for writing popular book series; The Clique and The Alphas, wrote some young adult novels based on the franchise using a different fictional universe than the web series and deal with the Regular-Attribute Dodgers (RADs) and their struggles with love, social life, school and not to be outed as monsters to humans.

Mattel released Harrison's first Monster High novel on 26 September 2010. The book revolves around Frankie Stein and Melody Carver. The second book in the series, The Ghoul Next Door, was released at the end of March 2011[51] and features chapters on Cleo de Nile.

The third book featuring Clawdeen Wolf is titled Where There's a Wolf, There's a Way and was released on 29 September 2011. The fourth novel titled Back And Deader Than Ever was released on May 1, 2012[52] and features Draculaura. Another Monster High book called Drop Dead Diary was released on January 19, 2011; it was written by a pseudonymous author Abaghoul Harris.[53]

Monster High by Lisi Harrison
No. Title Date ISBN
1Monster High[54]September 1, 2010978-0316099189
Melody Carver and her family have just moved to New Salem, Oregon. She begins her school year at Merston High, where she meets other girls, Frankie Stein, Clawdeen Wolf, Cleo de Nile, Draculaura, and Lagoona Blue. As each day moves forward, a mystery begins to unravel. Are these girls actually who they say they are or is there more to them?
2The Ghoul Next Door[55]April 5, 2011978-0316099110
After the events of the September Semi, the ghouls try to fix their errors of possibly exposing monsters to the normies at Merston High. They try to make a documentary with the hopes of showing a softer side to their Monsters; however, Becca and Haylee have other plans. Will Cleo, Melody, and the ghouls be able to put a wrench in their plans or will they make more problems for monsters?
3Where There's a Wolf, There's a Way[56]September 20, 2011978-0316099196
4Back and Deader Than Ever[57]May 1, 2012978-0316099172

Ghoulfriends book series edit

Author Gitty Daneshvari has written a Ghoulfriends series focusing on Monster High characters Venus McFlytrap, Robecca Steam, and Rochelle Goyle. The four books include: Ghoulfriends Forever, Ghoulfriends Just Want To Have Fun, Who's That Ghoulfriend? and Ghoulfriends 'Til the End .

Monster High Ghoulfriends by Gitty Daneshvari
No. Title Date ISBN
1Ghoulfriends Forever[58]September 5, 2012978-0316222495
Rochelle Goyle, Venus McFlytrap, and Rebecca Steam meet at Monster High for their first year, which ends up being one to remember. New teacher, Ms. Flapper, from Bitealy, has a secret that the three ghouls much uncover. Will they figure it out in time or will they be too late?
2Ghoulfriends Just Want to Have Fun[59]April 2, 2013978-0316222532
3Who's That Ghoulfriend?[60]September 10, 2013978-0316222549
4Ghoulfriends 'til the End[61]April 8, 2014978-0316222518
N–AThe Ghoul-It-Yourself Book[62]September 2, 2014978-0316282222
This is an activity book featuring the Ghoulfriends; and, also includes a short story by Daneshvari.

Monster High Diaries book series edit

A book series by Nessi Monstrata was released covering five of the main franchise characters.

Monster High Diaries by Nessi Monstrata
No. Title Date ISBN
1Draculaura and the New Stepmomster[63]August 4, 2015978-0316300841
2Frankie Stein and the New Ghoul at School[64]November 3, 2015978-0316300940
Frankie shows new student Isi Dawndancer around.
3Lagoona Blue and the Big Sea Scarecation[65]February 1, 2016978-0316300803
4Clawdeen Wolf and the Freaky-Fabulous Fashion Show[66]May 3, 2016978-0316300780
5Cleo and the Creeperific Mummy Makeover[67]August 2, 2016978-0316266369

Monster Rescue book Series edit

A book series by Misty Von Spooks was released that featured the Generation 2 franchise characters.

Monster Rescue by Misty Von Spooks
No. Title Date ISBN
1Operation Find Cleo![68]December 6, 2016978-0316315692
Connected to Generation 2 characters, this story details out how Draculaura, Frankie Stein, and Clawdeen Wolf rescue Cleo de Nile and bring her to Monster High.
2Go Get Lagoona![69]April 11, 2017978-0316315777
The ghouls are ready to bring their next student to Monster High. This time, they go to the Great Scarrier Beach to rescue Lagoona Blue and bring her back to Monster High.
3Track Down Twyla![70]August 8, 2017978-0316431606
After two adventures, the ghouls are officially the Monster High Rescue Squad. This time, they travel to Boogey Mansion to meet up with Twyla Boogeyman and ask her if she wants to attend Monster High.
4I Spy Deuce Gorgon![71]December 5, 2017978-0316557917
The Monster High Rescue Squad is out on another adventure and this time the ghouls are headed to Greece, where they meet up with Deuce Gorgon to get him to attend Monster High.

Music edit

Two songs titled "Fright Song" (2010), by Windy Wagner, and "We Are Monster High" (2013), by Madison Beer, were released digitally along with live-action music videos on YouTube.[72][73][74]

Spin-offs edit

With the popularity of Monster High, companion doll lines were launched. Ever After High (abbreviated EAH) launched in July 2013 and features the children of characters of well-known fairy tales and fables. The franchise mainly focuses on Apple White, daughter of Snow White, and Raven Queen, daughter of the Evil Queen, also from Snow White in lead roles. Both represent the main conflict of its associated web series originally released on YouTube: the Royals, which is composed of students like Apple White who "want to follow their predetermined fairy tale story", versus the Rebels, which composed of students like Raven Queen who "wish to “rewrite” their story/tale". The C. A. Cupid character from Monster High began featuring in its corresponding series from the 4th webisode onward where she is an exchange student there.

The second companion line was launched on 18 July 2017 as Enchantimals, featuring animal-inspired humanoid characters with a corresponding animal companion each as their pets. This was in response to the growth of the My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic fandom.[citation needed] It was originally tied to Ever After High, but fully branched off with EAH's declining sales.

Reception edit

Monster High was a massive financial success for Mattel,[75][76][77][78] becoming a billion-dollar brand in just three years and surpassing executives' expectations.[79] During the first few years, the dolls' quickly rising popularity caused the sales of Mattel's own Barbie dolls to decline;[80] in 2013, while Barbie remained the best-selling doll brand, Monster High became the second best-selling doll brand, with more than $500 million in annual sales.[81] In 2010, shortly after the dolls launched for the first time, they were so popular it was sometimes hard to find them in stores due to scarcity, and they were selling out quickly.[82] The line's success was partially thanks to its appeal to younger children who were choosing to play with toys which were "a little bit edgier" than traditional fashion dolls like Barbie,[83][84] its "anti-bullying message" which encouraged children to be themselves and embrace their own flaws and differences,[85] and the "deep engagement" of fans with the franchise which was maintained through media and merchandise.[77] It was built on a "trans-media storytelling [business] model, since it did not start with a traditional entertainment property first", which also contributed to its success.[82] Even though the franchise experienced a lot of growth in its first few years, especially during 2012 and 2013, sales started declining in 2014.[86] In 2016, the sales were weak.[26] Ultimately, the line was discontinued in 2018,[27] then brought back 2 years later.[28] On 16 May 2022, when a new doll line featuring reproductions of the original 2010 dolls was made available online through the "Mattel Creations" section of the Mattel website.[33] demand was high: the dolls sold out in less than one day.[87]

The franchise has received positive recognition for its promotion of diversity among the characters, especially in comparison with other toy brands with similar levels of popularity.[88][89][90][91] This diversity continues to be a major selling point in Mattel's marketing of the franchise.[8] In 2022, during the rollout of a new doll line, Lisa McKnight — Executive Vice President of Barbie & Dolls at Mattel —said: "We've been waiting for the right moment to reignite the Monster High brand to connect with [...] issues that are core to our purpose, like inclusion, diversity and community [...] with the updated franchise focused on being authentic, true to yourself and celebrating differences."[33]

Controversy edit

Monster High has some controversy and criticism, citing that the dolls' unrealistic bodies, often revealing outfits, and characters' focus on romantic relationships were a bad influence on young children.[92][93] They were criticized for being "hyper-sexualized" and reinforcing gender stereotypes about women; it was even implied that children could develop low self-esteem and eating disorders due to the presentation of unattainable body types.[91] Peggy Orenstein similarly criticized Monster High in her Cinderella Ate My Daughter.

Competition edit

Inspired by the commercial success of Monster High, other toy manufacturers — namely some of the biggest competitors in the toy industry which is the field of franchise owner Mattel[94] — launched their own toy lines with a similar premise and/or aesthetic. In 2012, MGA Entertainment launched Bratzillaz (House of Witchez), a spin-off of the Bratz brand;[95] it featured a similar theme centered around the paranormal, and was seen as MGA's attempt at capitalizing off of the success of Monster High.[96] The same year, MGA also launched Novi Stars, a sci-fi-themed line of fashion dolls that featured extraterrestrial humanoids.[95][97] In 2013, The Bridge Direct launched Pinkie Cooper, which featured a humanoid Cocker Spaniel of the same name; in an interview with CNN Money, analyst Gerrick Johnson named both Monster High and Novi Stars as "competitors that come closest" to the dog-headed fashion doll.[98] Also in 2013, Hasbro launched My Little Pony: Equestria Girls as an anthropomorphized spin-off of the 2010 incarnation of the main My Little Pony franchise;[99][100] it featured the counterparts of My Little Pony characters in human-like silhouettes with non-human skin colors; it was regarded as Hasbro's take on Monster High.[101]

Notes edit

  1. ^ This is a promotional image featuring prototypes; the actual dolls released in 2010 looked slightly different than they do in this image.

Bibliography edit

References edit

  1. ^ Tse, Andrea (June 4, 2010). "'Monster High': Mattel's Big, Bold Move". TheStreet. Retrieved December 27, 2010.
  2. ^ Nicholasi, Paul (June 11, 2010). "Mattel Launches Monster High". Dread Central. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
  3. ^ "Mattel Television and Nickelodeon Announce Plans to Produce an Animated Series and Live-Action Television Movie Musical Based on Iconic Monster High Franchise" (Press release). Nickelodeon. February 23, 2021. Retrieved February 23, 2021 – via The Futon Critic.
  4. ^ White, Peter (February 23, 2021). "'Monster High' Live-Action TV Movie & Animated Series Reboot Set By Nickelodeon & Mattel". Deadline. Retrieved March 1, 2021.
  5. ^ Whyte, Alexandra (February 24, 2021). "Nickelodeon & Mattel reboot Monster High". Kidscreen. Retrieved March 1, 2021.
  6. ^ Zahn, James (February 23, 2021). "Mattel, Nickelodeon Team Up to Reboot 'Monster High' for a New Generation". The Toy Book. Retrieved March 1, 2021.
  7. ^ "Monster High reboot in the works". Toy World Magazine | The business magazine with a passion for toys. February 24, 2021. Retrieved March 1, 2021.
  8. ^ a b Austin, Sara Mariel (2016). "Valuing queer identity in Monster High doll fandom". Transformative Works and Cultures. 22. doi:10.3983/twc.2016.0693. Archived from the original on February 21, 2022. Retrieved May 18, 2022.
  9. ^ "Characters". Monster High. Mattel. Archived from the original on February 21, 2022. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  10. ^ "Frankie Stein Voice - Monster High franchise". Behind The Voice Actors.
  11. ^ a b c Terrace 2014, p. 144
  12. ^ "Draculaura". Monster High. Mattel. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  13. ^ "Voice Of Cleo de Nile - Monster High". Behind The Voice Actors. Retrieved September 5, 2017Check-marks indicate the role has been confirmed using screenshots of closing credits and other reliable sources.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  14. ^ "Trademark Status & Document Retrieval". United States Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved May 21, 2022.
  15. ^ "Behind the Design of Monster High". Mattel Shop. Mattel. November 5, 2010. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021. Retrieved May 12, 2022 – via YouTube.
  16. ^ Vultaggio, Maria (July 17, 2013). "Goth Barbie Dolls Are Best Sellers: Mattel's Monster High Line Includes 'Draculaura,' 'Frankie Stein' And 'Clawdeen Wolf' [PHOTO]". International Business Times. Retrieved May 12, 2022.
  17. ^ a b Zimmerman, Ann (June 3, 2010). "Mattel's New Playbook: Toy First, Franchise Next". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 1, 2022.
  18. ^ Hyland, Alexa (May 31, 2010). "Mattel Bets on Creature Features". Los Angeles Business Journal. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
  19. ^ Chang, Andrea (August 13, 2010). "Watch out, Barbie: Mattel's edgy Monster High is in session". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
  20. ^ a b Britten, Ashley (October 13, 2021). "The best Monster High doll". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
  21. ^ Garrett Sander [@garrett_sander] (January 13, 2020). "Day 13: Frankie Stein from the 2010 line Monster High by @mattel ! [...]". Retrieved March 24, 2022 – via Instagram.
  22. ^ Garrett Sander [@garrett_sander] (November 13, 2020). "#HappyFridayThe13th every Monster! Unearthed from the depths of the Catacombs - Check out the very first prototypes that were made to pitch the idea of Monster High! [...]". Retrieved March 24, 2022 – via Instagram.
  23. ^ "MH All Dolls". MH Merch. Retrieved March 24, 2022. Here, you'll find an overview of all Monster High Dolls, with a total of 756 releases.
  24. ^ "MH Collectors Edition Dolls". MH Merch. Retrieved March 24, 2022.
  25. ^ Aasland, Laura (January 12, 2016). "Monster High Reboot – A Collector's Thoughts". Culture Honey. Retrieved March 24, 2022.
  26. ^ a b Patnaik, Subrat (April 20, 2016). "Mattel struggles as Barbie sales slip again". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  27. ^ a b Hopkins, Charlotte; HowExpert (2022). HowExpert Guide to Doll Collecting: 101+ Tips to Learn How to Find, Buy, Sell, and Collect Collectible Dolls for Doll Collectors. HowExpert. p. 60. ISBN 9781648918032. Monster High dolls debuted in July 2010 and were made by Mattel until 2018.
  28. ^ a b Goncalves, Deb (October 22, 2020). "Mattel Releasing New Monster High Dolls For 'The Shining' & 'It'". Moms. Retrieved March 24, 2022.
  29. ^ Roberts, Tyler (August 10, 2021). "Mattel Creations Unveils Exclusive Beetlejuice Monster High Dolls". Bleeding Cool. Retrieved March 24, 2022.
  30. ^ "Mattel Creations Reveals 'Gremlins 2' Monster High Doll". License Global. Informa. October 29, 2021. Retrieved March 24, 2022.
  31. ^ Aune, Sean P. (February 17, 2022). "Mattel launches Monster High "Haunt Couture" dolls". The Nerdy. Retrieved March 24, 2022.
  32. ^ "Monster High". Mattel Creations. Mattel. May 16, 2022. Archived from the original on May 16, 2022. Retrieved May 16, 2022.
  33. ^ a b c Watson, Cole (May 13, 2022). "Mattel targets collectors with resurrected Monster High toy line". Kidscreen. Brunico Communications. Archived from the original on May 14, 2022. Retrieved May 14, 2022.
  34. ^ Zahn, James (May 13, 2022). "Monster High Boo-riginal Creeproductions Emerge for Friday the 13th". The Toy Insider. Archived from the original on May 14, 2022. Retrieved May 14, 2022.
  35. ^ "MH Merch Databases". MH Merch. Retrieved May 14, 2022.
  36. ^ Monster High [@MonsterHigh] (February 12, 2022). "Toy-inspired accessories, for the human world. 💙 Shop the limited edition #MonsterHigh Skullette earrings by Maisie Wilen, now on presale exclusively on Mattel Creations" (Tweet). Archived from the original on May 17, 2022. Retrieved May 17, 2022 – via Twitter.
  37. ^ "MC Drop - Maisie Wilen Drop". Mattel Creations. Mattel. Retrieved May 17, 2022.
  38. ^ Buckley, Madeleine (April 13, 2022). "Monster High Gets a Scary Cute Collection at Hot Topic". The Pop Insider. Retrieved May 17, 2022.
  39. ^ "Monster High Reboot How Do You Boo?". NataliezWorld. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
  40. ^ "Monster High Adventures of the Ghoul Squad". Prime Video. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  41. ^ "Escena De Astranova". DC Super Hero Girls, Monster High y Ever After High. September 18, 2015. Retrieved November 13, 2016 – via YouTube.[dead YouTube link]
  42. ^ "The Lost Movie". Monster High. Mattel. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021. Retrieved November 26, 2016 – via YouTube.
  43. ^ "Ever After High Dolls". Ever After High. Mattel. Retrieved November 26, 2016 – via Facebook.
  44. ^ Milligan, Maercedes (July 13, 2022). "Nickelodeon & Mattel Unveil Voices for New 'Monster High' Animated Series". Animation Magazine. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  45. ^ Oddo, Marco Vito (July 13, 2022). "Monster High Animated Series Adds Tony Revolori to Voice Cast". Collider. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  46. ^ a b "Monsutā Hai" モンスター・ハイ [Monster High]. Oha Suta (in Japanese). Shogakukan-Shueisha Productions. Archived from the original on October 28, 2014. Retrieved May 18, 2022.
  47. ^ 尾形美幸 (March 11, 2015). 残業時間を月平均20~25時間へ抑制/インプットを増やしより良い作品づくりを目指すピコナ. CGWorld + Digital Video (in Japanese). Retrieved May 18, 2022.
  48. ^ "Ibento" イベント [Events]. Amorecarina (in Japanese). Good Choice Entertainment. Archived from the original on October 9, 2014. Retrieved May 18, 2022.
  49. ^ 「学校の中で1番かわいい」ガールズユニットがデビュー. Natalie (in Japanese). Natasha, Inc. March 6, 2015. Retrieved May 18, 2022.
  50. ^ Whitehead, Thomas (November 12, 2015). "Nintendo Download: 12th November (North America)". Nintendo Life. Gamer Network. Retrieved December 31, 2015.
  51. ^ Harrisson, Lisi. "Lisi Harrison". Fantastic Fiction. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
  52. ^ "Back and Deader Than Ever (Monster High Series #4)". Lisi Harrison. Barnes & Noble. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
  53. ^ "Monster High Drop Dead Diary". Abigail Harris (as Abaghoul Harris). Barnes & Noble. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
  54. ^ Harrison, Lisi (September 1, 2010). Monster High. Poppy. ISBN 978-0316099189.
  55. ^ Harrison, Lisi (April 5, 2011). The Ghoul Next Door. Poppy. ISBN 978-0316099110.
  56. ^ Harrison, Lisi (September 20, 2011). Where There's a Wolf, There's a Way. Poppy. ISBN 978-0316099196.
  57. ^ Harrison, Lisi (May 1, 2012). Monster High: Back and Deader Than Ever. Poppy. ISBN 978-0316099172.
  58. ^ Daneshvari, Gitty (September 5, 2012). Monster High: Ghoulfriends Forever. Little, Brown Books for Young Readers. ISBN 978-0316222495.
  59. ^ Daneshvari, Gitty (April 2, 2013). Monster High: Ghoulfriends Just Want to Have Fun. Little, Brown Books for Young Readers. ISBN 978-0316222532.
  60. ^ Daneshvari, Gitty (September 10, 2013). Monster High: Who's That Ghoulfriend?. Little, Brown Books for Young Readers. ISBN 978-0316222549.
  61. ^ Daneshvari, Gitty (April 8, 2014). Monster High: Ghoulfriends 'til the End. ISBN 978-0316222518.
  62. ^ Daneshvari, Gitty (September 2, 2014). Monster High: Ghoulfriends The Ghoul-It-Yourself Book. Little, Brown Books for Young Readers. ISBN 978-0316282222.
  63. ^ Monstrata, Nessi (August 4, 2015). Monster High Diaries: Draculaura and the New Stepmomster. Little, Brown Books for Young Readers. ISBN 978-0316300841.
  64. ^ Monstrata, Nessi (November 3, 2015). Monster High Diaries: Frankie Stein and the New Ghoul at School. Little, Brown Books for Young Readers. ISBN 978-0316300940.
  65. ^ Monstrata, Nessi (February 2, 2016). Monster High Diaries: Lagoona Blue and the Big Sea Scarecation. Little, Brown Books for Young Readers. ISBN 978-0316300803.
  66. ^ Monstrata, Nessi (May 3, 2016). Monster High Diaries: Clawdeen Wolf and the Freaky-Fabulous Fashion Show. Little, Brown Books for Young Readers. ISBN 978-0316300780.
  67. ^ Monstrata, Nessi (August 2, 2016). Monster High Diaries: Cleo and the Creeperific Mummy Makeover. Little, Brown Books for Young Readers. ISBN 978-0316266369.
  68. ^ Von Spooks, Misty (December 6, 2016). Monster Rescue. Little, Brown Books for Young Readers. ISBN 978-0316315692.
  69. ^ Von Spooks, Misty (April 11, 2017). Monster Rescue. Little, Brown Books for Young Readers. ISBN 978-0316315777.
  70. ^ Von Spooks, Misty (August 8, 2017). Monster Rescue. Little, Brown Books for Young Readers. ISBN 978-0316431606.
  71. ^ Von Spooks, Misty (December 5, 2017). Monster Rescue. Little, Brown Books for Young Readers. ISBN 978-0316557917.
  72. ^ "Fright Song". Monster High. Mattel. August 9, 2010. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021. Retrieved November 13, 2016 – via YouTube.
  73. ^ "Fright Song - Behind The Scenes". Monster High. Mattel. August 8, 2010. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021. Retrieved November 13, 2016 – via YouTube.
  74. ^ ""We Are Monster High"™ - Madison Beer Music Video". Monster High. Mattel. January 16, 2014. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021. Retrieved November 13, 2016 – via YouTube.
  75. ^ Fleming, Mike Jr. (October 21, 2015). "'Monster High' Franchise Launch Film To Be Helmed By Ari Sandel". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved March 21, 2022. This film is tied directly to the Mattel toyline that exploded in 2010 and became a billion dollar franchise.
  76. ^ Vincent, Roger (April 17, 2013). "Mattel profits quadruple on sales of Monster High dolls". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  77. ^ a b "Mattel, Inc. (MAT) CEO Discusses Q2 2013 Results - Earnings Call Transcript". Seeking Alpha. July 17, 2013. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  78. ^ Levy, Gabrielle (July 17, 2013). "Goth Barbie next best seller to the original". United Press International. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  79. ^ Ulaby, Neda (July 17, 2013). "Fangs And Fishnets For The Win: 'Goth Barbie' Is Monstrously Successful". National Public Radio. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  80. ^ Lutz, Ashley (July 17, 2013). "Meet The Creepy Dolls That Are Burying Barbie". Business Insider. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  81. ^ Anderson, Mae. "In competitive world of dolls, Barbie fights for her life". Lubbock Avalanche-Journal. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  82. ^ a b Snyder Bulik, Beth (December 6, 2010). "Mattel's Got a Monster Holiday Hit, but Will Franchise Have Staying Power?". Ad Age. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  83. ^ "Barbie's dream life turns to nightmare, thanks to Monster High". The Mercury News. July 18, 2013. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  84. ^ Lutz, Ashley (October 16, 2014). "Barbie Dolls Are Quickly Becoming Obsolete". Business Insider. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  85. ^ Manders, Hayden (July 17, 2013). "Goth Barbies Are Mattel's "It" Girls Now". Refinery29. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  86. ^ Bias, William (July 28, 2014). "Here's Why Mattel Hit a Bump in the Road". The Motley Fool. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  87. ^ "Monster High". Mattel Creations. Mattel. May 17, 2022. Archived from the original on May 17, 2022. Retrieved May 17, 2022.
  88. ^ Diaz, Alex (February 10, 2021). "A look into "Monster High": Why diversity in kids' media is important". Summit News. Retrieved May 18, 2022.
  89. ^ "Dolls and feminism". The Diamondback. January 1, 2014. Retrieved May 18, 2022. The author of this article incorrectly put out the date as "31 December 099", however in reading through the article's main body, look out for "Friday Night Frights movie"(2012) and "Ever After High" (which released in 2013); hence the source date indicated is in assumption that the body itself depicts enough justification.
  90. ^ Browne, Wendy (June 1, 2015). "Sorry Barbie But Ghouls Really Do Rule". Women Write About Comics. Retrieved May 18, 2022.
  91. ^ a b Woods, Danianese (2019). ""Goth Barbies": A Postmodern Multiperspective Analysis of Mattel's Monster High Media". University of Southern Mississippi. p. 136. Retrieved May 18, 2022.
  92. ^ McKay, Hollie (April 8, 2016). "Mattel's Waxing and Shaving Monster High Doll Sparks Outrage". Fox News. Retrieved March 22, 2022.
  93. ^ Mosbergen, Dominique (July 18, 2013). "'Goth Barbies' Are The New 'It' Toy, But Are Monster High Dolls A Bad Influence?". HuffPost. Retrieved March 22, 2022.
  94. ^ "Mattel's Competitors, Revenue, Number of Employees, Funding, Acquisitions & News - Owler Company Profile". Owler. Retrieved May 18, 2022.
  95. ^ a b Bamford, Vince (July 14, 2012). "Fashion dolls rivalry takes a ghoulish turn". The Grocer. Retrieved May 19, 2022.
  96. ^ Taylor, Alice (September 15, 2013). "Toy choice gets wider as internet inspires playtime revolution". The Guardian. Retrieved May 19, 2022. A recent visit to Hamleys' new dolls area turned up [...] glow-in-the-dark Bratzillaz (a brazen MGA fast-follow of the huge Mattel Monster High) [...]
  97. ^ "MGA unveils doll lines". Toy World. Alakat Publishing. July 4, 2012. Archived from the original on November 3, 2014. Retrieved May 21, 2022.
  98. ^ Kavilanz, Parija (February 4, 2013). "After Bratz, will this be the next 'it' doll?". CNN Money. Cable News Network. Retrieved May 21, 2022.
  99. ^ Christie, Brendan (February–March 2013). "Hasbro Hits its Stride" (PDF). Kidscreen. Brunico Communications. pp. 33–34. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 24, 2013. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
  100. ^ Schmidt, Gregory (May 12, 2013). "A New Direction for a Hasbro Stalwart". New York Times. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
  101. ^ Connelly, Sherilyn (March 14, 2017). Ponyville Confidential: The History and Culture of My Little Pony, 1981-2016. McFarland & Company. p. 190. ISBN 978-1476662091 – via Google Books.

External links edit