"Monothalamea" is a grouping of foraminiferans, traditionally consisting of all foraminifera with single-chambered tests. Recent work has shown that the grouping is paraphyletic, and as such does not constitute a natural group; nonetheless, the name "monothalamea" continues to be used by foraminifera workers out of convenience.
|Image of a deep sea xenophyophore|
Haeckel, 1862, emend. Pawlowski et al., 2013
|Orders and subtaxa incertae sedis|
"Monothalamea" traditionally contains two groups, neither of which is currently considered to be monophyletic:
- "Allogromiida" traditionally consists of all foraminifera which lack a mineralised test, instead having a test of tectin. Recent work has shown that this grouping is paraphyletic.
- "Astrorhizida" traditionally consists of all foraminifera with single-chambered, agglutinated tests. Recent work has shown that this grouping is polyphyletic, as agglutinated tests have evolved from proteinaceous tests multiple times throughout foraminiferal evolution.
Recent molecular evidence has revealed that the deep-sea xenophyophores are in fact agglutinated, single-chambered foraminifera. Molecular evidence has also revealed that the freshwater protist Reticulomyxa is in fact a naked, testless foraminifera, and as such it has been included with "monothalameans" in scientific discussion.
A 2013 molecular study using small subunit rDNA concluded that known "monothalameans" made up at least 22 distinct living clades from marine environments with an additional four clades from freshwater eDNA.
- Ernst Haeckel: Die Radiolarien (Rhizopoda Radiaria). Berlin, 1862
- Pawlowski, Jan; Holzmann, Maria; Tyszka, Jarosław (March 2013). "New supraordinal classification of Foraminifera: Molecules meet morphology" (PDF). Marine Micropaleontology. 100: 1–10. Bibcode:2013MarMP.100....1P. doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2013.04.002. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
- Hayward, B.W.; Le Coze, F.; Gross, O. (2019). World Foraminifera Database. Monothalamea. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=744106 on 2019-01-07
- Pawlowski, Jan; Holzmann, Maria; Tyszka, Jarosław (2013-04-01). "New supraordinal classification of Foraminifera: Molecules meet morphology". Marine Micropaleontology. 100: 1–10. Bibcode:2013MarMP.100....1P. doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2013.04.002. ISSN 0377-8398.
- Pawlowski, Jan; Holzmann, Maria; Fahrni, Jose; Richardson, Susan L. (2003). "Small Subunit Ribosomal DNA Suggests that the Xenophyophorean Syringammina corbicula1 is a Foraminiferan". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 50 (6): 483–487. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2003.tb00275.x. ISSN 1550-7408. PMID 14733441.
- Pawlowski, Jan; Bolivar, Ignacio; Fahrni, Jose F.; Vargas, Colomban De; Bowser, Samuel S. (1999). "Molecular Evidence That Reticulomyxa Filosa Is A Freshwater Naked Foraminifer". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 46 (6): 612–617. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.1999.tb05137.x. ISSN 1550-7408.
- Gubbay, S., Baker, M., Bettn, B., Konnecker, G. (2002). "The offshore directory: Review of a selection of habitats, communities and species of the north-east Atlantic", pp. 74–77.
- NOAA Ocean Explorer. "Windows to the deep exploration: Giants of the protozoa", p. 2.