The monfíes (Spanish pronunciation: [moɱˈ], sing. monfí; Arabic: منفي trans. munfī, "exiled, outlawed") were moriscos[1] who lived during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in the mountains around Granada.[2][3]

The first monfíes were people driven to the mountains as a result of the disorder and repression associated with the conquest of Granada by the Catholic Monarchs in 1492. Their numbers grew in subsequent decades as the new Castilian authorities put more pressure on the Muslims of Granada to convert to Christianity.[3] The monfíes, who were largely of rural origin, occasionally formed mountain communities in which they could practice their faith openly, in contrast to most moriscos, who were forced either to abandon their religion or practice it covertly. Their chief occupation was banditry against Christians.[4][5]

The monfíes figured prominently in the Morisco Revolt of Aben Humeya.[6]

See alsoEdit

  • Al-Andalus, the part of the Iberian Peninsula under Islamic rule.
  • Andalusian Arabic, the former language of Moriscoes.
  • Conversos, the baptized Jews and Muslims of the Iberian Peninsula and their descendants.
  • Moors, the Muslim inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa.
  • Morisco Revolt


  1. ^ Coleman, David W. (1996). Creating Christian Granada: Religion and community on the old-world frontier, 1492-1570 (Thesis).
  2. ^ Franco Llopis, Borja (January 2022). "The Rebellion of the Alpujarras, Virgil, and the Fall of the Giants by Petrus Firens Cover Art for Historia de las Guerras Civiles de Granada". IKON. 15: 195–204. doi:10.1484/J.IKON.5.132363. S2CID 252344290.
  3. ^ a b Hamdani, Abbas (October 1992). "The Expulsion of Muslims from Spain". Digest of Middle East Studies. 1 (4): 13–21. doi:10.1111/j.1949-3606.1992.tb00387.x.
  4. ^ Chejne, Anwar G. Islam and the West: The Moriscos. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-9887-3.
  5. ^ Ruiz, Ana (2007). Vibrant Andalusia: The Spice of Life in Southern Spain. Algora Publishing. ISBN 978-0-87586-541-6.
  6. ^ Drayson, Elizabeth (2013). "History, Religion, Culture: Contextualizing Sixteenth-Century Granada". The Lead Books of Granada. pp. 38–54. doi:10.1057/9781137358851_3. ISBN 978-1-349-47135-5.