New Democrats

  (Redirected from Moderate Democrats)

New Democrats, also known as centrist Democrats, Clinton Democrats, or moderate Democrats, are a centrist ideological faction within the Democratic Party in the United States. As the Third Way faction of the party, they support cultural liberalism but take moderate to conservative fiscal stances.[1] New Democrats dominated the party from the late-1980s through the mid-2010s.[2][3][4][5]

HistoryEdit

OriginsEdit

After the landslide defeats by the Republican Party led by Ronald Reagan in the 1980s, a group of prominent Democrats began to believe their party was out of touch and in need of a radical shift in economic policy and ideas of governance.[6][7] The Democratic Leadership Council (DLC) was founded in 1985 by Al From and a group of like-minded politicians and strategists.[8] They advocated a political Third Way as an antidote to the electoral successes of Reaganism.[6][7]

The landslide 1984 presidential election defeat spurred centrist Democrats to action and the DLC was formed. The DLC, an unofficial party organization, played a critical role in moving the Democratic Party's policies to the center of the American political spectrum. Prominent Democratic politicians such as Senators Al Gore and Joe Biden (both future Vice Presidents, and Biden a future President) participated in DLC affairs prior to their candidacies for the 1988 Democratic Party nomination.[9] However, the DLC did not want the Democratic Party to be "simply posturing in the middle". The DLC instead framed its ideas as "progressive" and as a "Third Way" to address the problems of its era. Examples of the DLC's policy initiatives can be found in The New American Choice Resolutions.[9][10]

Although the New Democrat label was briefly used by a progressive reformist group including Gary Hart and Eugene McCarthy in 1989,[11] the term became more widely associated with the New Orleans Declaration and policies of the DLC which in 1990 renamed its bi-monthly magazine from The Mainstream Democrat to The New Democrat.[12] When then-Governor Bill Clinton stepped down as DLC chairman to run for the presidency in the 1992 United States presidential election, he presented himself as a New Democrat.[13]

First waveEdit

The first wave New Democrats from the 1980s to 1990s were very similar to Southern Democrats and the Blue Dog Democrats. Al From, the founder of the DLC and its leader until 2009, had been a staffer for Louisiana Representative Gillis Long. Among the presidents of the DLC were Tennessee Senator Al Gore and Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton. The first wave New Democrats sought the votes of White working-class Reagan Democrats.[14]

In the 1990s, the New Democrat movement shifted away from the South and the West and moved to the Northeast. At the 1992 United States presidential election, Clinton was elected as the 42nd President of the United States, ending twelve years of Republican dominance.[14] However, the 1994 United States elections gave Republicans control of the House and Senate, effectively wiping out Democratic representation in the South and West.[14]

Second waveEdit

Presidency of Bill ClintonEdit

Bill Clinton is the Democratic politician most identified with the New Democrats due to his promise of welfare reform in the 1992 United States presidential campaign and its subsequent enactment, his 1992 promise of a middle-class tax cut and his 1993 expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit for the working poor.[7] New Democrat and Third Way successes under Clinton and the writings of Anthony Giddens are often regarded to have inspired Tony Blair in the United Kingdom and his policies within the Labour Party as New Labour.[15]

Clinton presented himself as a centrist candidate to draw White middle-class voters who had left the Democratic Party for the Republican Party. In 1990, Clinton became the DLC chair. Under his leadership, the DLC founded two-dozen chapters and created a base of support.[9] Running as a New Democrat, Clinton won the 1992 and 1996 presidential elections.[16]

Legislation signed into law with bipartisan support under President Clinton includes:

During the Clinton administration, New Democrats were responsible for passing the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993. It raised taxes on the wealthiest 1.2% of taxpayers,[18] while cutting taxes on 15 million low-income families and making tax cuts available to 90% of small businesses.[19] Additionally, it mandated that the budget be balanced over a number of years through the implementation of spending restraints. The top marginal tax rate was raised from 31% to 40% under the Clinton administration. Clinton's promise of welfare reform was passed in the form of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996.

Presidency of Barack ObamaEdit

In March 2009, Barack Obama, said in a meeting with the New Democrat Coalition that he was a "New Democrat" and a "pro-growth Democrat", that he "supports free and fair trade" and that he was "very concerned about a return to protectionism".[20]

Throughout the Obama administration, a "free and fair trade" attitude was espoused, including in a 2015 trade report entitled The Economic Benefits of U.S. Trade that noted that free trade "help[s] developing countries lift people out of poverty" and "expand[s] markets for U.S. exports".[21]

IdeologyEdit

According to Dylan Loewe, New Democrats tend to identify as fiscally conservative and socially liberal.[1]

Columnist Michael Lind argued that neoliberalism for New Democrats was the "highest stage" of left liberalism. The counterculture youth of the 1960s became more fiscally conservative in the 1970s and 1980s but retained their cultural liberalism. Many leading New Democrats, including Bill Clinton, started out in the George McGovern wing of the Democratic Party and gradually moved toward the right on economic and military policy.[22] According to historian Walter Scheidel, both major political parties shifted towards promoting free-market capitalism in the 1970s, with Republicans moving further to the political right than Democrats to the political left. He noted that Democrats played a significant role in the financial deregulation of the 1990s.[23] Anthropologist Jason Hickel contended that the neoliberal policies of the Reagan era were carried forward by the Clinton administration, forming a new economic consensus which crossed party lines.[24]

New Democrats have faced criticism from those further to the left. In a 2017 BBC interview, Noam Chomsky said that "the Democrats gave up on the working class forty years ago".[25] Political analyst Thomas Frank asserted that the Democratic Party began to represent the interests of the professional class rather than the working class.[26]

Elected to public officeEdit

PresidentsEdit

  1. Bill Clinton[27] (former)
  2. Barack Obama[28] (former)

Vice PresidentsEdit

  1. Al Gore[9] (former)
  2. Joe Biden[29] (former)

SenateEdit

  1. Evan Bayh[30] (former)
  2. Mark Begich[31] (former)
  3. Maria Cantwell[32]
  4. Tom Carper[32]
  5. Bob Casey Jr.[33]
  6. Max Cleland[34] (former)
  7. Hillary Clinton[32] (former)
  8. Chris Coons[35]
  9. Joe Donnelly[36] (former)
  10. Dianne Feinstein[32]
  11. Al Gore[9] (former)
  12. Maggie Hassan[37]
  13. Heidi Heitkamp[38] (former)
  14. John Hickenlooper[39]
  15. Tim Johnson[40] (former)
  16. Doug Jones[41] (former)
  17. Ted Kaufman[42] (former)
  18. Amy Klobuchar[32]
  19. Mary Landrieu[43] (former)
  20. Joe Lieberman[44] (former)
  21. Blanche Lincoln[45] (former)
  22. Joe Manchin[46]
  23. Claire McCaskill[47] (former)
  24. Bill Nelson[48][32] (former)
  25. Barack Obama[28] (former)
  26. Mark Pryor[49] (former)
  27. Kyrsten Sinema[50]
  28. Debbie Stabenow[32]
  29. Jon Tester[51]
  30. Mark Warner[52]

House of RepresentativesEdit

  1. Pete Aguilar[53]
  2. Colin Allred[54]
  3. Brad Ashford[53] (former)
  4. Ami Bera[53]
  5. Don Beyer[53]
  6. Lisa Blunt Rochester[54]
  7. Carolyn Bourdeaux[54]
  8. Brendan Boyle[54]
  9. Anthony Brindisi[54] (former)
  10. Anthony G. Brown[54]
  11. Julia Brownley[54]
  12. Cheri Bustos[54]
  13. Lois Capps[53]
  14. Salud Carbajal[54]
  15. Tony Cardenas[53]
  16. André Carson[53]
  17. Ed Case[54]
  18. Sean Casten[54]
  19. Joaquin Castro[53]
  20. Gerry Connolly[53]
  21. Jim Cooper[53]
  22. Lou Correa[54]
  23. Jim Costa[54]
  24. Joe Courtney[53]
  25. Angie Craig[54]
  26. Charlie Crist[54]
  27. Jason Crow[54]
  28. Henry Cuellar[54]
  29. Sharice Davids[54]
  30. Susan Davis[53]
  31. Madeleine Dean[54]
  32. John Delaney[53] (former)
  33. Suzan DelBene[53]
  34. Val Demings[54]
  35. Eliot L. Engel[53] (former)
  36. Veronica Escobar[54]
  37. Elizabeth Esty[53]
  38. Lizzie Fletcher[53]
  39. Bill Foster[53]
  40. Vicente Gonzalez[53]
  41. Josh Gottheimer[54]
  42. Gwen Graham[53]
  43. Josh Harder[54]
  44. Denny Heck[53]
  45. Jim Himes[53]
  46. Steven Horsford[54]
  47. Chrissy Houlahan[54]
  48. Sara Jacobs[54]
  49. Bill Keating[54]
  50. Derek Kilmer[53]
  51. Ron Kind[53]
  52. Ann Kirkpatrick[53]
  53. Raja Krishnamoorthi[54]
  54. Ann McLane Kuster[53]
  55. Rick Larsen[53]
  56. Brenda Lawrence[54]
  57. Al Lawson[54]
  58. Susie Lee[54]
  59. Elaine Luria[54]
  60. Tom Malinowski[54]
  61. Sean Patrick Maloney[53]
  62. Kathy Manning[54]
  63. Lucy McBath[54]
  64. Donald McEachin[54]
  65. Gregory Meeks[53]
  66. Joe Morelle[54]
  67. Seth Moulton[53]
  68. Patrick Murphy[53]
  69. Stephanie Murphy[54]
  70. Donald Norcross[54]
  71. Tom O'Halleran[54]
  72. Beto O'Rourke[53] (former)
  73. Jimmy Panetta[54]
  74. Chris Pappas[54]
  75. Scott Peters[53][54]
  76. Ed Perlmutter[53]
  77. Dean Phillips[54]
  78. Pedro Pierluisi[53]
  79. Mike Quigley[53][54]
  80. Kathleen Rice[53]
  81. Cedric Richmond[53] (former)
  82. Deborah K. Ross[54]
  83. Raul Ruiz[54]
  84. Loretta Sanchez[53] (former)
  85. Adam Schiff[53]
  86. Brad Schneider[54]
  87. Kurt Schrader[53]
  88. David Scott[53]
  89. Kim Schrier[54]
  90. Debbie Wasserman Schultz[53]
  91. Terri Sewell[53]
  92. Mikie Sherrill[54]
  93. Elissa Slotkin[54]
  94. Adam Smith[53]
  95. Darren Soto[54]
  96. Greg Stanton[54]
  97. Haley Stevens[54]
  98. Marilyn Strickland[54]
  99. Norma Torres[53]
  100. Lori Trahan[54]
  101. David Trone[54]
  102. Juan Vargas[53]
  103. Marc Veasey[54]
  104. Filemon Vela Jr.[53]
  105. Jennifer Wexton[54]
  106. Susan Wild[54]

GovernorsEdit

  1. Evan Bayh[30] (former)
  2. Mike Beebe[55] (former)
  3. Andy Beshear[56]
  4. Phil Bredesen[57] (former)
  5. Steve Bullock[58] (former)
  6. John Carney[53]
  7. Tom Carper[59] (former)
  8. Roy Cooper[60]
  9. Jim Doyle[61] (former)
  10. Mike Easley[62] (former)
  11. John Bel Edwards[63]
  12. Dave Freudenthal[64] (former)
  13. Christine Gregoire[65] (former)
  14. Maggie Hassan[37] (former)
  15. Brad Henry[66] (former)
  16. John Hickenlooper[39] (former)
  17. Laura Kelly[67]
  18. Ted Kulongoski[68] (former)
  19. Joe Manchin[46] (former)
  20. Ronnie Musgrove[69] (former)
  21. Janet Napolitano[70] (former)
  22. Jared Polis[71]
  23. Gina Raimondo[72] (former)
  24. Brian Schweitzer[73] (former)
  25. Kathleen Sebelius[74] (former)
  26. Don Siegelman[75] (former)
  27. Earl Ray Tomblin[76] (former)
  28. Mark Warner[52] (former)

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Loewe, Dylan (7 September 2010). Permanently Blue: How Democrats Can End the Republican Party and Rule the Next Generation. Crown/Archetype. ISBN 9780307718006 – via Google Books.
  2. ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer (October 8, 2012). "Weighing the Effect of an Exit of Centrists". The New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  3. ^ Graham, David A. (November 5, 2018). "How Far Have the Democrats Moved to the Left?". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  4. ^ Podkul, Alexander R.; Kamarck, Elaine (September 14, 2018). "What's happening to the Democratic Party?". Brookings Institution. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  5. ^ Marans, Daniel (November 27, 2018). "The Progressive Caucus Has A Chance To Be More Influential Than Ever". The Huffington Post. That would bring the caucus’ total to 96 members, or about 40 percent of the House Democratic Caucus ― by far the largest bloc in the party.
  6. ^ a b Wayne LeMieux, The Democrats' New Path, 2006, ISBN 978-1-4196-3872-5
  7. ^ a b c John F Harris, The Survivor:Bill Clinton in the White House, Random House, 2005, ISBN 978-0-375-50847-9
  8. ^ "ndol.org". Archived from the original on 2007-06-07. Retrieved 2007-05-13.
  9. ^ a b c d e Hale, Jon F. "The Making of the New Democrats." Political Science Quarterly 110, no. 2 (1995): 207-221.
  10. ^ "DLC: The New American Choice Resolutions". Democratic Leadership Council. Archived from the original on January 11, 2014. Retrieved February 25, 2013.
  11. ^ Herman, Steven L. (December 4, 1989). "The "New Democrats" are Liberals and Proud of It". Associated Press.
  12. ^ Rae, Nicol C. (1994). Southern Democrats. Oxford University Press. p. 117. ISBN 0-19-508709-7.
  13. ^ Kelly, Michael (September 28, 1992). "The 1992 Campaign: The Democrats; Clinton Uses Farm Speech to Begin New Offensive". New York Times.
  14. ^ a b c Lind, Michael. "Obama: Last of the "New Democrats"?".
  15. ^ Sidney Blumenthal The Clinton Wars, 2003, ISBN 0-374-12502-3
  16. ^ Alvarez, R. Michael, and Jonathan Nagler. "Economics, Entitlements, and Social Issues: Voter Choice in the 1996 Presidential Election." American Journal of Political Science 42, no. 4 (1998): 1361.
  17. ^ "HR 3355 - Omnibus Crime Bill - Key Vote". votesmart.org. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  18. ^ 1994 State of the Union Address Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ Presidential Press Conference - 08/03/1993 Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ "Obama: 'I am a New Democrat'".
  21. ^ "The Economic Benefits of U.S. Trade" (PDF). May 2015.
  22. ^ Lind, Michael (6 August 2013). Up from Conservatism. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9781476761152 – via Google Books.
  23. ^ Scheidel, Walter (2017). The Great Leveler: Violence and the History of Inequality from the Stone Age to the Twenty-First Century. Princeton University Press. p. 416. ISBN 978-0691165028.
  24. ^ Springer, Simon; Birch, Kean; MacLeavy, Julie, eds. (2016). The Handbook of Neoliberalism. Routledge. p. 144. ISBN 978-1138844001.
  25. ^ "Noam Chomsky: The Most Remarkable Thing About 2016 Election Was Bernie Sanders, Not Trump (Video)". Truthdig. May 15, 2017. 3:19 minutes in. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
  26. ^ Nicholas Lemann (October 13, 2016). "Can We Have a 'Party of the People'?". nybooks.com. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved October 4, 2016. review of Exit Right: The People Who Left the Left and Reshaped the American Century
  27. ^ Hale, Jon F. (1 January 1995). "The Making of the New Democrats". Political Science Quarterly. 110 (2): 207–232. doi:10.2307/2152360. JSTOR 2152360.
  28. ^ a b "Obama: 'I am a New Democrat'".
  29. ^ Washington, District of Columbia 1100 Connecticut Ave NW Suite 1300B; Dc 20036. "PolitiFact - Joe Biden claims he was a staunch liberal in the Senate. He wasn't". @politifact. Retrieved 2021-02-04.
  30. ^ a b Matthews, Dylan (2016-07-11). "Evan Bayh is running for Senate, significantly boosting Democrats' odds of retaking it". Vox. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  31. ^ "The quiet war on Social Security: Meet the dark side of MyRA". Salon. 2014-02-05. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g NDN: Senate New Democrat Coalition Members (August 2002)
  33. ^ "NEW DSCC AD: Senator Toomey Looks Out for Wall Street, Not Pennsylvania Seniors". DSCC: Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee. 2016-09-06. Retrieved 2021-02-12.
  34. ^ ""The president ought to be ashamed"". Salon. 2003-11-22. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  35. ^ The Editorial Board (2020-06-25). "Opinion | The Filibuster Is Going, Going . . ". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  36. ^ "Moderate Democrats like Joe Donnelly are a throwback". The Economist. 2018-08-18. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  37. ^ a b "Maggie Hassan on the Issues". ontheissues.org. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  38. ^ "Outgoing Sen. Heidi Heitkamp Discusses Tariffs And Their Impact On North Dakota". NPR.org. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  39. ^ a b Whitesides, John (2020-07-01). "Hickenlooper wins Democratic primary for key U.S. Senate seat in Colorado". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  40. ^ "Sen. Tim Johnson's Second Chance at Life and Work". ABC News. Retrieved 2021-02-12.
  41. ^ "Morning News Brief". NPR.org. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  42. ^ "Ted Kaufman on the Issues". www.ontheissues.org. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  43. ^ "Georgia runoffs crown new power brokers in Washington". WKTV News. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  44. ^ Safire, William (2000-09-10). "The Way We Live Now: 9-10-00: On Language; Old Guard (Published 2000)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  45. ^ "Arkansas Moderate Blanche Lincoln Is Taking Hits Left and Right". ABC News. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  46. ^ a b "U.S. Economy Seen Getting Boost With Democrats' Georgia Sweep". Bloomberg.com. 2021-01-06. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  47. ^ Stack, Liam (2018-10-30). "Claire McCaskill, a Democrat, Slams 'Crazy Democrats' on Fox News (Published 2018)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  48. ^ "As Florida recount ends, Sen. Nelson concedes race to Scott". AP NEWS. 2018-11-19. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  49. ^ "Mark Pryor on the Issues". www.ontheissues.org. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  50. ^ "Manchin voted to oust Trump. He could endorse his reelection". POLITICO. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  51. ^ Robillard, Kevin. "'I don't think they can beat who I am'". POLITICO. Retrieved 2021-01-27.
  52. ^ a b Beinart, Peter (2019-04-21). "China Isn't Cheating on Trade". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw "Membership | New Democrat Coalition". Newdemocratcoalition-kind.house.gov. Archived from the original on 2017-09-27. Retrieved 2014-04-15.
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh "Members". newdemocratcoalition.house.gov. Retrieved 2020-02-11.
  55. ^ "Most Rookie Governors Are Off to a Good Start". www.governing.com. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  56. ^ "Democrat challenging Mitch McConnell raises $10.7 million in third quarter". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  57. ^ "Facing a pro-Trump candidate in a red state, Tennessee's Bredesen thinks he knows how to win". NBC News. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  58. ^ Dan, Merica. "Steve Bullock ends presidential campaign, will not run for Senate". CNN. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  59. ^ Raju, Manu. "How Harry Reid kept his job". POLITICO. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  60. ^ Martin, Nick (2019-09-10). "Two Dans, Two Elections, and No Winners". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  61. ^ "Jim Doyle on the Issues". www.ontheissues.org. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  62. ^ Sack, Kevin (2000-05-04). "THE 2000 CAMPAIGN: THE PRIMARIES; North Carolina's Race For Governor Begins With Focus on Schools (Published 2000)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  63. ^ "Democrats hold on to Louisiana governor's seat despite Trump". CNBC. 2019-11-17. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  64. ^ "Dave Freudenthal on the Issues". www.ontheissues.org. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  65. ^ "Christine Gregoire on the Issues". ontheissues.org. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  66. ^ "Brad Henry on the Issues". www.ontheissues.org. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  67. ^ "'I've been there, done that': Laura Kelly navigates GOP skepticism to score early wins". Retrieved 30 January 2021.
  68. ^ "John Kitzhaber on the Issues". www.ontheissues.org. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  69. ^ "Ronnie Musgrove on the Issues". www.ontheissues.org. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  70. ^ "Arizona's drift to the left". The Economist. 2004-05-13. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  71. ^ "Polis Makes Another Bit of History With Governor Win - RollCall".
  72. ^ Nagourney, Adam; Ember, Sydney; Mazzei, Patricia (2018-11-07). "Democrats Oust Walker in Wisconsin and Kobach in Kansas but Fall Short in Florida and Ohio (Published 2018)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  73. ^ "Brian Schweitzer on the Issues". www.ontheissues.org. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  74. ^ Kilgore, Ed (2018-09-04). "Former GOP Governor of Kansas Endorses Kobach's Democratic Opponent". Intelligencer. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  75. ^ "A new breed". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  76. ^ "Earl Ray Tomblin on the Issues". www.ontheissues.org. Retrieved 2021-02-11.

External linksEdit