Mitchell Marner (born May 5, 1997) is a Canadian professional ice hockey right winger and alternate captain for the Toronto Maple Leafs of the National Hockey League (NHL). He was selected fourth overall by the Maple Leafs in the 2015 NHL Entry Draft.
May 5, 1997|
Markham, Ontario, Canada
|Height||6 ft 0 in (183 cm)|
|Weight||181 lb (82 kg; 12 st 13 lb)|
|NHL team||Toronto Maple Leafs|
4th overall, 2015|
Toronto Maple Leafs
For the 2012–13 season, Marner transitioned to the Don Mills Flyers of the GTHL, where he played his minor midget year, registering 86 points in 55 games. He finished second in scoring in the GTHL behind Dylan Strome (who was then playing with the Toronto Marlboros). At the end of his season with the Flyers, Marner was immediately invited to join the St. Michael's Buzzers of the Ontario Junior A Hockey League, where he went on to win a championship.
During his minor midget season, Marner was initially unsure of his plans for the following season. He received a scholarship offer from the University of Michigan to play for the Wolverines ice hockey team, while also being drafted by the London Knights in the first round of the 2013 OHL Priority Selection, 19th overall.
Despite receiving a scholarship offer from the University of Michigan, Marner elected to sign with the London Knights, who selected him with their first round pick in the 2013 Priority Selection.
During the 2014–15 season, Marner played superbly alongside linemate Max Domi. As the season progressed, Marner was consistently included as one of the top prospects in the 2015 NHL Entry Draft, being listed as a definite top ten pick, if not top five. He would lead the league in scoring for most of the season until Dylan Strome of the Erie Otters recorded six points in the final game of the season, bumping Marner to second. As reward for his outstanding sophomore season, Marner was named to the OHL First All-Star team and awarded the Jim Mahon Memorial Trophy as the OHL's highest scoring right wing player. Marner was selected fourth overall by the hometown Toronto Maple Leafs in the 2015 Draft.
On July 28, 2015, the Leafs signed Marner to a three-year, entry-level contract.
On October 1, 2015, Marner was named as co-captain of the Knights along with teammate Christian Dvorak. Marner played most of the season at right wing on a line with Dvorak and Matthew Tkachuk. The trio was a dominant force and the Knights ended the regular season as the highest scoring team in the OHL. Marner himself finished the regular season second in OHL scoring with 116 points in 57 games and was awarded the Red Tilson Trophy as the OHL's most outstanding player of the year.
Marner played an important role during the Knights' 2016 playoff run, resulting in the team winning the OHL Championship. He led the playoffs in scoring and with 44 points in 18 games and was awarded the Wayne Gretzky 99 Award as playoff MVP.
Marner was the second player (after Brad Richards in 2000) ever to win a Memorial Cup, a Stafford Smythe Memorial Trophy, CHL Player of the Year, a league MVP trophy (Red Tilson Trophy) and a league playoff MVP trophy (Wayne Gretzky 99 Award) in the same season.
Toronto Maple LeafsEdit
After an impressive training camp and pre-season (in which he led the team with four assists), it was announced that Marner would remain on the Toronto Maple Leafs roster for the upcoming 2016–17 season. He made his NHL debut in the team's season opener on October 12. Despite an effective first game with six shots on goal, he was overshadowed by a historic four-goal debut from teammate Auston Matthews. The next game on his first night playing in Hockey Night in Canada, Marner would score his first NHL goal after receiving a pass between his legs. He would record his first career assist four days later.
On October 27, 2016, in a game against the Florida Panthers, Marner had his first multi-point game, accumulating three assists to lead the Leafs to a 4–2 win. Marner would then have his first multi-goal game against the Buffalo Sabres on November 3, 2016, as the Leafs won 2–1. On November 15, 2016, Marner had three points in a 6–2 win over the Nashville Predators, which at the time tied him in the lead for Leafs' leading scorer (with James van Riemsdyk) for the first time of his career.
Marner was named the NHL's Rookie of the Month for January 2017 after leading all rookies with 11 assists and 15 points in 13 games. He also led all rookies with eight power-play points and matched a career-high three point game. Marner was the third Leaf to be named Rookie of the Month during the 2016–17 season, making the Maple Leafs the first NHL team with three different Rookie of the Month honorees in one campaign.
Marner also set the Maple Leafs record for most assists in a season by a rookie with 42 on the year. This broke the previous record which was held for 73 years by Gus Bodnar, who had 40 assists in the 1943–44 season. Marner spent the entire season on a line with Van Riemsdyk and Tyler Bozak, finding offensive chemistry with the two veterans, and managed to finish the year with 61 points. The trio of Marner, William Nylander, and Auston Matthews became only the second team since the 1981 Quebec Nordiques to have three rookies finish with at least 60 points. His play assisted the team in qualifying for the 2017 Stanley Cup playoffs, where he scored his first playoff goal on his first shift of Game 1. Marner recorded four points in the series but it was not enough as the team lost in six games against the top-seeded Washington Capitals.
On December 19, 2017, during the Maple Leafs' Next Century Game, Marner broke a 15-game goal drought and recorded a four-point game, the first time in his career. He scored one goal and three assists to help defeat the Carolina Hurricanes 8–1. On February 10, 2018, Marner scored his first five-point game (two goals and three assists), becoming the first Leafs player to record five points in a game since Tomáš Kaberle in 2009. Marner ended the regular season leading the Leafs in assists and points, and setting career highs in goals, assists and points. His offensive play helped the Leafs to their second consecutive Stanley Cup playoffs appearance. During the 2018 Stanley Cup playoffs, Marner became the first Maple Leafs player since Brian Leetch to have a five-game point streak in the Stanley Cup playoffs. He led the Leafs in playoff scoring with nine points but the Maple Leafs were eliminated by the Boston Bruins in seven games during the first round.
On October 9, 2018, Marner recorded a four-point game (one goal and three assists) in a 7–4 win over the Dallas Stars. On October 27, Marner recorded his 100th career assist on a game-tying goal by Jake Gardiner against the Winnipeg Jets to help the Leafs win 3–2. In the last 20 years, only Mario Lemieux recorded more primary assists in his first 24 games of the season than Marner, who recorded 22 primary assists in his first 24 games. On January 3, Marner tied a Maple Leaf record for fastest goal to start a game by scoring seven seconds into a game against the Minnesota Wild. Marner scored again within the same period but the Leafs lost 4–3 to the Wild. On January 17, 2019, Marner recorded a goal during a 4–2 win over the league-leading Tampa Bay Lightning, becoming the first player in Maple Leafs franchise history to begin his NHL career with three consecutive 60-point seasons. On February 23, during a 5–3 win over the rival Montreal Canadiens, Marner recorded two assists to record the 200th point of his NHL career. He finished the regular season leading the team in scoring and third in the NHL with assists with career-highs of 26 goals, 68 assists and 94 points, becoming the first Maple Leaf to record at least 90 points in a season since Mats Sundin in 1996–97.
On September 13, 2019, Marner signed a six-year, $65.358 million contract with the Maple Leafs. At the start of the 2019–20 season, Marner was named an alternate captain for the team. On November 9, 2019, during a game against the Philadelphia Flyers, Marner fell awkwardly onto his leg and was expected to miss a minimum 4 weeks due to an ankle injury. He played strongly in his return on December 4 in a loss against the Colorado Avalanche. On December 23, 2019, Marner recorded his 2nd career five-point game (two goals and three assists) in thrilling 8–6 win over the Carolina Hurricanes at the Leafs 3rd annual Next Generation Game. Down 6–4 in the 3rd period, Marner sparked the Leafs comeback when he one-timed a spinning cross-ice pass from Auston Matthews to cut the Hurricanes lead. Mitch then set up Tyson Barrie for the game tying goal 53 seconds later. Just 6 seconds after tying, Marner stole the puck and scored the game-winning breakaway goal. Mitch had recorded the Leafs' previous five-point game on February 10, 2018. On January 11, 2020, he was selected to participate in the NHL All-Star Game for the first time in his career. On February 7, 2020, Marner recorded his 200th NHL assist on a late overtime goal scored by John Tavares in a 5–4 win over the Anaheim Ducks.
The regular season ended abruptly due to the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Months later, the NHL arranged to hold the 2020 Stanley Cup playoffs in a bubble, with Eastern Conference games held in Toronto. The Maple Leafs faced the Columbus Blue Jackets in the qualifying round, and lost 3–2. Marner managed only four assists in five games, attracting criticism from fans and commentators for his lack of playoff production.
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and resultant limitations on cross-border travel, the 2020–21 NHL season occurred under a vastly different arrangement than previously, with the Leafs grouped in an all-Canadian North Division and playing exclusively within that division for the regular season. On April 15, 2021, Marner became the fourth player in Maple Leafs history to record at least five consecutive seasons with 40 assists. The Maple Leafs finished first in the North Division, and faced the Montreal Canadiens in the first round of the 2021 Stanley Cup playoffs, where they were considered the heavy favourites to win, which would have been the team's first playoff series win since 2004. The Leafs lost the first game of the series, but won the next three to take a seeming stranglehold. However, they went on to lose the next three games and the series 4–3, the team's fifth-straight early exit. Marner again scored only four assists in the post-season, this time in seven games, further amplifying criticism of his perceived underperformance. At the end of the year, Marner was named to the NHL First All-Star Team on right wing, the first time a Maple Leafs player was named to the NHL's First All-Star team since Börje Salming in 1977.
With the restoration of the traditional season, Marner enjoyed another highly successful regular season, recording 35 goals and 62 assists in 72 games. Marner, Matthews and newcomer Michael Bunting formed one of the most successful forward lines in the league for much of the year. On February 26, 2022, Marner recorded a career high four goals and six points to help the Toronto Maple Leafs to a 10-7 win over the Detroit Red Wings. It was the first NHL hat-trick and four-goal game in his career. After recording a natural hat-trick in the second period, Marner capped off his night by scoring the Leafs' tenth goal, his fourth of the game, on a Michael Bunting breakaway drop-pass that Marner started deploying that season. The last time the Maple Leafs recorded 10 goals in a game was a 10-2 victory on Jan. 4, 2007 over the Boston Bruins. Having accrued 97 points, Marner hoped to become only the fourth Maple Leaf player to break the 100-point barrier, but coach Sheldon Keefe opted to sit him out of the final game of the season to prepare for the playoffs. Marner admitted it was "definitely tough," but said that "at the same time, I want to just make sure I'm ready to go." At the end of the year, Marner was again named to the NHL First All-Star team as the league's best right winger, joining teammate Auston Matthews on the first team.
Advancing into the Stanley Cup playoffs, Marner and the Maple Leafs drew the Tampa Bay Lightning, two-time defending champions, in the first round. Marner had not scored a goal in eighteen playoff games prior to the beginning of the series, and in light of disappointing results against both the Blue Jackets and the Canadiens, how he would perform against the Lightning was subject to considerable speculation. In Game 1 of the series against the Lightning, Marner scored his first playoff goal since April 11, 2019, as part of a 5–0 Leafs victory. He had two assists as well, nearly equaling his totals from each of the previous two playoff series in a single game.
At the 2016 IIHF World Junior Championships in Helsinki, Marner and Dylan Strome each scored four goals and two assists in five games to lead Canada in scoring. Canada reached the quarterfinals but was eliminated by hosts Finland. Marner scored twice in the game, both times to bring Canada back to an even score, but it was not enough to overcome the eventual gold medalists.
Marner made his Canada senior team debut at the 2017 IIHF World Championship, where team Canada won silver. Scoring 12 points in 10 games, Marner was placed in the top ten in scoring and was only second to Nathan MacKinnon in team scoring.
Marner was born in Markham, Ontario, and spent the majority of his life in the neighbourhood of Thornhill. His parents are Paul and Bonnie Marner, and he has an older brother, Christopher, who is four years older. The Marners consider themselves an animal family; they currently own two pets: a cat named Burbank and a chocolate Labrador named Winston.
Marner attended Hill Academy, a private school focused on athletics, located in Vaughan. He would later go to Blyth Academy. At Blyth, Marner partnered with Knights teammates Christian Dvorak and Owen MacDonald to establish a café known as MOD Feast, with "MOD" being an acronym for each creators names (Marner, Owen and Dvorak). The group offered "bagels and stuff", with Fridays being designated to serving pizza.
Growing up, Marner was a fan of the Toronto Maple Leafs, the team that eventually drafted him. He was also a fan of the Chicago Blackhawks and Pittsburgh Penguins due to the presence of his two favourite players, Patrick Kane and Sidney Crosby. Marner has listed his favourite movie as Step Brothers, his favourite television show as The Big Bang Theory and cited his favourite video games as the Grand Theft Auto and Call of Duty series.
In May 2022, Marner was the victim of a carjacking, in which his Range Rover was stolen but he was uninjured.
Regular season and playoffsEdit
|2012–13||Don Mills Flyers||GTHL||55||41||45||86||38||—||—||—||—||—|
|2012–13||St. Michael's Buzzers||OJHL||6||1||3||4||0||14||3||1||4||0|
|2016–17||Toronto Maple Leafs||NHL||77||19||42||61||40||6||1||3||4||0|
|2017–18||Toronto Maple Leafs||NHL||82||22||47||69||28||7||2||7||9||4|
|2018–19||Toronto Maple Leafs||NHL||82||26||68||94||22||7||2||2||4||2|
|2019–20||Toronto Maple Leafs||NHL||59||16||51||67||16||5||0||4||4||2|
|2020–21||Toronto Maple Leafs||NHL||55||20||47||67||20||7||0||4||4||4|
|2021–22||Toronto Maple Leafs||NHL||72||35||62||97||16||7||2||6||8||2|
Awards and honoursEdit
|Second All-Rookie Team||2014|||
|OHL All-Star||2015, 2016|
|First All-Star Team||2015, 2016|||
|Jim Mahon Memorial Trophy||2015|||
|Red Tilson Trophy||2016|||
|Robertson Cup Champion||2016|||
|Wayne Gretzky 99 Award||2016|||
|CHL Top Prospects Game||2015|
|CHL Player of the Year||2016|||
|CHL Memorial Cup champion||2016|||
|Memorial Cup All-Star team||2016|||
|Stafford Smythe Memorial Trophy||2016|||
|Ed Chynoweth Trophy||2016|||
|Rookie of the Month||January 2017|||
|NHL All-Rookie Team||2017|||
|NHL All-Star Game||2020|||
|NHL First All-Star Team||2021, 2022|
|2020||Justin Bieber: Seasons||Guest Appearance|||
|2021||All or Nothing: Toronto Maple Leafs||Self|||
- "Mitchell Marner Stats and News". NHL.com. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
- Robson, Dan. "The Skinny on Mitch Marner". sportsnet.ca. Retrieved April 25, 2018.
- Saltzman, Aaron (January 25, 2020). "Elite talent: The private school education of NHL All-Stars". CBC News Business. Retrieved November 30, 2021.
- McNair, Brian (May 16, 2014). "Mitchell Marner's road to the Memorial Cup started in vaughan". DurhamRegion.com. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- Bras, Kristopher (March 28, 2015). "London Knights Mitchell Marner A Force To Be Reckoned With". Hockey Now. Archived from the original on May 22, 2015. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- Pyette, Ryan (April 9, 2013). "London Knights take Mitch Marner with first round pick in OHL draft 0". London Free Press.
- "Marner Commits to Knights". London Knights Official Website. August 22, 2013.
- "Marner Wins Jim Mahon Memorial Trophy". londonknights.com. March 24, 2015.
- "Maple Leafs sign Marner to entry-level contract". National Hockey League. July 28, 2015. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- "Mitch Marner Wins Red Tilson Trophy". ontariohockeyleague.com. May 3, 2016.
- "Marner wins '99' Award as OHL Playoff MVP". ontariohockeyleague.com. May 11, 2016.
- "2016 MasterCard Memorial Cup Awards & All-Stars". ontariohockeyleague.com. June 1, 2016.
- "2016 MasterCard Memorial Cup Awards & All-Stars – Memorial Cup".
- McGran, Kevin (October 11, 2016). "Marner makes Leafs' roster with mad skills". Toronto Star. TorStar. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
- Alter, David (October 15, 2015). "Mitchell Marner scores in Maple Leafs win". National Hockey League. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
- "Mitchell Marner's first goal gets Punjabi treatment". National Hockey League. October 15, 2016. Retrieved October 16, 2016.
- "Toronto Maple Leafs at Winnipeg Jets gamecentre". MSN Sports. October 19, 2016.
- "Mitch Marner latest young Leaf to star, records first multi-point game". Sportsnet. October 27, 2016.
- "Marner scores twice in Leafs' 2-1 win over Sabres". USA Today. November 3, 2016.
- "Van Riemsdyk has 3 goals to lift Leafs over Predators 6-2". CBSSports. November 15, 2016.
- "Mitchell Marner named NHL Rookie of the Month". National Hockey League. February 1, 2018. Retrieved October 10, 2018.
- Billinghurst, Will (March 24, 2017). "Leafs Rookies Setting Franchise Records". thehockeywriters.com. The Hockey Writers. Retrieved December 17, 2017.
- "Maple Leafs' Mitch Marner: Sets new franchise record for assists". cbssports. March 31, 2017.
- "Mitch Marner". Hockey Reference.
- "Putting Maple Leafs 2017 rookie performances into perspective". Sportsnet.
- Johnston, Chris (December 19, 2017). "Mitch Marner breaks out as Maple Leafs celebrate birthday bash". Sportsnet.ca. Toronto: Sportsnet. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
- "Mitch Marner with career-high 5 points, Leafs beat Senators". sportsnet.ca. Toronto. February 10, 2018. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
- Proteau, Adam (April 10, 2018). "Series preview: Leafs, Bruins promises to be close, emotional". National Hockey League. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
- Forbes, Andrew (April 12, 2018). "Leafs, Bruins and the Numbers Game". thehockeywriters.com. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
- @PR_NHL (April 24, 2018). "Mitch Marner became the first @MapleLeafs player to record a point streak of 5+ games in a playoff year since Brian Leetch in 2004 (0-6—6 in 6 GP). #NHLStats #StanleyCup" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Matthews, Tavares score 2 each, Maple Leafs beat Stars 7-4". National Post. Dallas. October 9, 2018. Retrieved October 9, 2018.
- McCarthy, Dave (October 27, 2018). "Maple Leafs lose Matthews, win game against Jets". National Hockey League. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
Marner had two assists to give him 100 in his NHL career
- TSN,  "Most Primary Assists", 'NHL'
- Myers, Dan (January 3, 2019). "Postgame Hat Trick: Wild 4, Maple Leafs 3". National Hockey League. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
- @PR_NHL (January 17, 2019). "Marner became the first player in @MapleLeafs franchise history to begin his NHL career with three consecutive 60-point seasons. #NHLStats #TORvsTBL" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- @PR_NHL (February 23, 2019). "Mitch Marner has notched the 200th point of his NHL career. #NHLStats #TORvsTBL" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Maple Leafs Agree to Terms With Mitch Marner". National Hockey League. September 13, 2019. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
- Zeisberger, Mike (October 2, 2019). "Tavares named captain of Maple Leafs, first in three seasons". National Hockey League. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
- "Matthews scores twice, Maple Leafs beat Senators in opener". Yahoo Sports. October 3, 2019. Retrieved October 3, 2019.
- "Maple Leafs score five in third period to beat Hurricanes in matinee game". Sportsnet.com. December 23, 2019. Retrieved December 23, 2019.
- "Leafs' Marner, Canucks' Hughes among 'last men in' for NHL All-Star Game". Sportsnet.ca. January 11, 2020. Retrieved April 16, 2021.
- @LeafsPR (February 7, 2020). "Mitch Marner's assist in overtime was the 200th of his NHL career. #LeafsForever" (Tweet). Retrieved April 16, 2021 – via Twitter.
- Rosen, Dan (August 10, 2020). "Maple Leafs denied playoff run again with Game 5 loss to Blue Jackets". National Hockey League. Retrieved May 2, 2022.
- Simmons, Steve (May 1, 2022). "A more mature Mitch Marner should excel in the playoffs for Maple Leafs". National Post. Retrieved May 2, 2022.
- @PR_NHL (April 15, 2021). "That's another 4️⃣0️⃣-assist season for @Marner93. #NHLStats" (Tweet). Retrieved April 16, 2021 – via Twitter.
- Mirtle, James (May 30, 2021). "Make no mistake, the Maple Leafs losing this series would be the biggest collapse of them all". The Athletic. Retrieved March 14, 2022.
- "2021 Stanley Cup Playoffs: Canadiens pull off massive series comeback while Leafs head to offseason full of questions". The Athletic. May 31, 2021. Retrieved March 14, 2022.
- Public Relations, NHL (June 29, 2021). "NHL Announces 2020-21 First and Second All-Star Teams". NHL. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
- Luszczyszyn, Dom; Goldman, Shayna (May 1, 2022). "2022 NHL playoff preview: Maple Leafs vs. Lightning". The Athletic. Retrieved May 2, 2022.
- Hogg, Dave (February 26, 2022). "Marner scores four goals, six points, Maple Leafs hold off Red Wings". NHL. Retrieved February 26, 2022.
- Masters, Mark (April 28, 2022). "'Tough' to give up shot at 100 points, but Marner focused on feeling 100 per cent". TSN. Retrieved May 2, 2022.
- Public Relations, NHL (June 21, 2022). "NHL announces 2021-22 First and Second All-Star Teams". NHL. Retrieved June 21, 2022.
- Fox, Luke (May 2, 2022). "Marner dispels drought in Maple Leafs' bloody Game 1 blowout vs. Lightning". Sportsnet. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
- "Player Statistics by Team – Team Canada, 2016 IIHF World Junior Championships" (PDF). IIHF. January 2, 2016. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- "Game Summary, Finland-Canada Quarterfinals, 2016 IIHF World Junior Championships" (PDF). IIHF. January 2, 2016. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- "Canada Coming Home from Worlds with Silver". hockeycanada.ca. May 21, 2017. Retrieved April 25, 2018.
- McGran, Kevin (July 9, 2015). "Mitch Marner's journey to be Maple Leafs' top pick". Toronto Star. Retrieved September 2, 2015.
- Rutherford, Kristina (February 23, 2015). "A Big Knight Every Night". Sportsnet Magazine. Retrieved April 15, 2016.
- "Mitch Marner – 2015 NHL Draft Prospects". National Hockey League. Retrieved September 2, 2015.
- "Maple Leafs' Mitch Marner joins ownership group of major esports company". CBS Sports. July 30, 2020. Retrieved July 31, 2020.
- "Toronto Maple Leaf Mitch Marner victim of armed carjacking in Etobicoke - Toronto | Globalnews.ca". Global News. Retrieved May 17, 2022.
- "Travis Konecny named rookie of the year". Ontario Hockey League. April 14, 2015. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
- "OHL announces 2014–15 All-Star Teams". Ontario Hockey League. May 20, 2015. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
- "Marner wins Jim Mahon Memorial Trophy". Ontario Hockey League. March 24, 2015. Retrieved April 15, 2016.
- "Mitch Marner Named OHL Most Outstanding Player of the Year". Ontario Hockey League. May 3, 2016. Retrieved May 3, 2016.
- "London Knights win Robertson Cup". Ontario Hockey League. May 11, 2016. Archived from the original on June 5, 2016. Retrieved May 11, 2016.
- "Marner wins 99 Trophy as Playoff MVP". Ontario Hockey League. May 11, 2016. Archived from the original on June 9, 2016. Retrieved May 11, 2016.
- Cicerella, Kyle (May 28, 2016). "Mitch Marner named CHL player of the year". CBC Sports. Retrieved November 30, 2021.
- "NHL announces 2016-17 All-Rookie Team". National Hockey League. June 21, 2017. Retrieved June 21, 2017.
- "Perron, Oshie, Marner, Hughes named Last Men In winners". National Hockey League. Retrieved January 12, 2020.
- "Justin Bieber: Seasons: All the Celebrity Cameos Featured on Show". ScreenRant. May 28, 2020. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
- "Auston Matthews on the Toronto Maple Leafs' secret 'Coffee Gang', Amazon All or Nothing docuseries and learning from playoff failures". Toronto Sun. October 2, 2021. Retrieved September 2, 2022.