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Sayyid Mohammed Hassan Husayni Nouri Shirazi (25 April 1814 – 20 February 1895), commonly known as Mirza Shirazi, was an Iranian Shia marja'. He is known for his 1891 verdict (misunderstood as a fatwa) against the usage of tobacco in what became known as the Tobacco Protest in the Qajar era.

Grand Ayatollah

Mirza Shirazi
Ayatollah Shirzai.jpg
Mirza Shirazi in 1882
TitleGrand Ayatollah
Other namesPersian: میرزای شیرازی
Arabic: آية الله العظمى السيد محمد حسن الشیرازي
Mohammed Hassan Husayni Nouri Shirazi

25 April 1814
Died20 February 1895 (aged 80)
Resting placeNajaf, Iraq
ReligionShia Islam (Usuli Twelver)
Other namesPersian: میرزای شیرازی
Arabic: آية الله العظمى السيد محمد حسن الشیرازي

Born in Shiraz, Iran, Shirazi began his Islamic religious studies at the age of four. He completed his preliminary-level studies by age eight and at age 12, he began advanced lessons in jurisprudence and methodology at the Shiraz seminary. He later left Shiraz to study in Isfahan and Shi'ite holy city of Karbala in Iraq. At the age of 29, he began studying under Sheikh Morteza Ansari in Najaf. Upon Ansari's death in 1864, Shirazi succeeded him as marja'. In 1874, he settled in Samarra, where he established the city's first Shia seminary.

Among his notable students were his son-in-law, Sayyed Ali Akbar Falasiri, who first proposed the boycott to him, Sayyed Mohammed Kazem Yazdi, Mulla Mohammad-Kazem Khorasani, Mirza Mohammad Taqi Shirazi (called as Mirza the second), Sheikh Fazlollah Noori Tabrasi, Mirza Husain Noori Tabarsi and Mirza Ismael Shirazi. He died in Samarra at the age of 80 and his body is buried in the Imam Ali Mosque.[1]


Education in IsfahanEdit

Tobacco Protest verdict issued by Mirza Shirazi in 1891

Mirza Hasan to his stated on 17 Safar 1248 AH (1205 Solar) into Isfahan.The school "sadr" class and group lessons, Mohammad Taqi Razi joined at first because of the low number of students He did not provide for the possibility of talking to the teacher and asking questions .For this reason, along with a handful of students interested in the Master begged a certain time for questions to be put at their disposal.Sheikh Razi welcomed the proposal and then in the plenary session of the course, several private meeting was held with the presence of Mirza Hasan and his friends until the death of Sheikh continued.After the death of Muhammad Taqi Razi, in the course of Hassan Bidabadi known as Madras, were present before the age of twenty, he was allowed discretion. He spent ten years in Isfahan and in addition to the presence of Ebrahim Kalbasi Bidabadi "[2]

Political and social activitiesEdit

  • One of the major events that occurred during his life, ban Tobacco Protest.After the award of concession tobacco to a foreign company in four cities,People to lead four students Mirza Shirazi Widespread protests began.Sheikh Fazlullah Nuri in Tehran, Isfahan Aghanajafi Isfahan, Shiraz and Tabriz Sayed Ali Akbar fal asir Jawad Tabrizi were the leaders of this movement. His historical verdict on the treaty at the time of the Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar tobacco monopoly, as people brought to the scene of the Shah, was forced to terminate the contract tobacco.With this verdict, the political struggle against the colonial treaty is considered a religious duty and their strong opposition. So that the Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar was forced to pay compensation, to terminate the contract disgraceful.The historic decision by Mirza Shirazi tobacco ban was imposed on Samarra.The historic decision by Mirza Shirazi tobacco ban was imposed on Samarra."[3]
  • Defend the oppressed Shiites in Afghanistan in 1309 AH
  • Shiite unity created in the year 1311 AH
  • Training and sending missionaries, especially for sensitive areas and under, such as India, Kashmir, Afghanistan, the Caucasus, ... and Iraq
  • Avoid violating Islamic law
  • Iran to send its representative to sensitive areas such as the martyr Mostafa Mousavi
  • The founders and leaders of the generation "legitimate constitutional" martyr Sheikh Fazlollah Noori, Aghanajafi Isfahani, ...

Notable studentsEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Ayatollah Mirza Mohammad Hasan Shirazi Archived 2007-09-20 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Mirza Shirazi. Ayatollah.
  3. ^ Politics, Protest and Piety in Qajar Iran. Tobacco Protest.

External linksEdit