Miquelon-Langlade (French pronunciation: [miklɔ̃ lɑ̃ɡlad]) is the larger but less populated of the two communes (municipalities) making up the French overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, located to the south of Newfoundland in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.[3] It consists of three geological islands: Miquelon, Langlade and Le Cap, connected with tombolos. The communal seat is the settlement of Miquelon, on the northern tip, where the entire island's permanent population of 580 (as of 2019) is located. Miquelon Airport provides flights to Montreal and to nearby Saint-Pierre Airport.

Aerial view of Miquelon town
Aerial view of Miquelon town
Flag of Miquelon-Langlade
Coat of arms of Miquelon-Langlade
Location of Miquelon-Langlade
Coordinates: 47°06′00″N 56°22′45″W / 47.100000°N 56.3792°W / 47.100000; -56.3792
Overseas collectivitySaint Pierre and Miquelon
 • Mayor (2020–2026) Franck Detcheverry[1]
205 km2 (79 sq mi)
 • Density2.8/km2 (7.3/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC−03:00
 • Summer (DST)UTC−02:00
INSEE/Postal code
97501 /97500
Elevation0–240 m (0–787 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Geography edit

Rocky shore of Miquelon
Northern coast of Miquelon Island

Located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, west of Newfoundland's Burin Peninsula, Miquelon-Langlade covers a total land area of 205 km2 (79 sq mi). It comprises three islands connected by tombolos: Le Cap in the north, Miquelon (Grand Miquelon) in the center, and Langlade (Petite Miquelon) in the south.

On the south of the Miquelon Island is a large lagoon known as the Grand Barachois which is host to a large population of seals and other wildlife. Miquelon is also a well known destination for bird watching.

An 8 mi (13 km) long tombolo sandspit called La Dune connects Miquelon and Langlade.[4] In the eighteenth century it was still possible to sail a boat between Miquelon and Langlade, but by the end of that century La Dune had closed in to form an isthmus between the islands.[5]

Located at 3 mi (4.8 km) west of Saint Pierre Island, Langlade is an ancient peneplain drained by numerous short rivers, including the Belle, the largest, which flows to the northwest.[6] The coast of Langlade is lined with steep cliffs, except to the northwest.

Climate edit

Köppen–Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as sub-Arctic (Dfc).[7] Summers are mild while winters are cold. It receives precipitation all year.

Climate data for Miquelon-Langlade
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −0.1
Daily mean °C (°F) −3.5
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −6.8
Average precipitation mm (inches) 124
Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 8 6 5 6 7 6 7 5 6 9 9 10 84
Source 1: Climate-Data.org (altitude: 1m)[7]
Source 2: Storm247.com for rainy days[8]

Etymology edit

The village of Miquelon c. 1930

The name Miquelon is of Basque origin and means "Michael", as several fishermen with this name were established in the island. In 1579, the names Micquetõ, Micquelle appeared for the first time in Martin de Hoyarçabal's navigational pilot. The name evolved over time into Miclon, Micklon, and finally Miquelon.

Demographics edit

The capital of the commune, Miquelon, is located on the north, along a tombolo that connects the formerly separate island of Le Cap with the northwestern part of Miquelon Island. It lies north of a shallow lagoon (barachois) and has a small harbour protected with constructed breakwaters along the eastern side of the isthmus.

On the northern coast of Langlade, there are settlements in coves of Anse du Gouvernement, Anse aux Soldats and Le Ruisseau Debons, consisting mainly of holiday cottages.[9][10]

The population of Miquelon-Langlade is mainly of Basque and Acadian ancestry.

Transportation edit

Miquelon can be reached by boat or by plane from Saint Pierre and is served by Miquelon Airport which is located adjacent to the settlement of Miquelon. The airport is served by Air Saint-Pierre with flights both to Saint-Pierre Airport and Canada.

The main asphalt road runs from the capital along the eastern coast of Miquelon, across the Langlade tombolo and ending in Le Ruisseau Debons on Langlade. A ferry service connects the capital town with Anse du Gouvernement on Langlade in summer months.[11]

Facilities edit

There is a school facility on the island, Ecole du socle de Miquelon. It houses the private contracted nursery school / preschool Soeur Hilarion, the public elementary school Les Quatre Temps, and the public junior high school Collège de Miquelon.[12] As of the 2014–2015 school year the junior high school had 25 students.[13]

The government high school / sixth-form programmes serving Miquelon are at Lycée-Collège d'État Émile Letournel on Saint-Pierre island.

The Centre Médical de Miquelon has basic medical care facilities for residents, while more advanced services are available on Saint Pierre as well as in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Répertoire national des élus: les maires" (in French). data.gouv.fr, Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises. 13 September 2022.
  2. ^ Téléchargement du fichier d'ensemble des populations légales en 2019, INSEE
  3. ^ Limits of Oceans and Seas (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 8, 2011.
  4. ^ Transport Miquelonnais Archived 2011-07-24 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "Transport Miquelonnais – Geographical situation". Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2010-06-12.
  6. ^ Saint Pierre & Miquelon. Territorial Collectivity of France, in the North America Archived 2012-03-30 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ a b "Climate: Miquelon-Langlade – Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
  8. ^ "Commune de Miquelon-Langlade in Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon, Saint Pierre and Miquelon – Climate". Storm247.com. Archived from the original on 2013-12-14. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
  9. ^ "Présentation de Langlade". Les Coureurs de l'Isthme (in French). 2019-05-10. Retrieved 2022-02-18.
  10. ^ "Vacances de printemps au ruisseau Debons - Saint-Pierre et Miquelon la 1ère". Saint-Pierre et Miquelon la 1ère (in French). 2018-05-09. Retrieved 2022-02-18.
  11. ^ "Le site de débarquement des passagers du Jeune France saturé à Langlade - Saint-Pierre et Miquelon la 1ère". Saint-Pierre et Miquelon la 1ère (in French). 2018-08-02. Retrieved 2022-02-18.
  12. ^ "Ecole du socle de Miquelon." National Education Service of Saint Pierre and Miquelon. Retrieved on September 14, 2016.
  13. ^ "Ecole du socle de Miquelon >Présentation." National Education Service of Saint Pierre and Miquelon. Retrieved on September 14, 2016.

External links edit