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Established in 1826 after the Auspicious Incident, the Ministry of War lasted up to the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. Within the ministry there were offices for procurement, combat arms, peacetime military affairs, mobilization, and for promotions.

Contents

List of War ministers since 1908Edit

Minister of War Took office Left office Time in office
1Rüşdü, ÖmerÖmer Rüşdü Paşa [tr]
(1843–1922)
23 July 19087 August 190815 days
2Pasha, RexhepRexhep Pasha Mati
(1842–1908)
7 August 190821 August 1908 †14 days
3Rıza, AliAli Rıza Pasha
(1842–1908)
21 August 190828 April 1909250 days
4Hulusi, SalihSalih Hulusi Pasha
(1864–1939)
28 April 190912 January 1910259 days
5Şevket, MahmudMahmud Şevket Pasha
(1856–1913)
12 January 191029 July 19122 years, 199 days
6Pasha, NazimNazim Pasha
(1848–1913)
29 July 191222 January 1913177 days
(5)Şevket, MahmudMahmud Şevket Pasha
(1856–1913)
23 January 191311 June 1913140 days
7Izzet, AhmedAhmed Izzet Pasha
(1864–1937)
18 June 19135 October 1913109 days
8Mahmud, ÇürüksuluÇürüksulu Mahmud Pasha
(1864–1931)
5 October 19133 January 191490 days
9Pasha, EnverEnver Pasha
(1881–1922)
3 January 19144 October 19184 years, 274 days
(7)Izzet, AhmedAhmed Izzet Pasha
(1864–1937)
14 October 191811 November 191828 days
10Abdullah, KölemenKölemen Abdullah Pasha
(1846–1937)
11 November 191819 December 191838 days
11Çobanlı, CevatCevat Çobanlı
(1870–1938)
19 December 191813 January 191925 days
12Yaver, ÖmerÖmer Yaver Paşa [tr]
(1861–1931)
13 January 191924 February 191942 days
13Ferid, AliAli Ferid Pasha24 February 19194 March 19198 days
14Ahmed, AbukAbuk Ahmed Paşa [tr]
(1859–1923)
4 March 19192 April 191929 days
15Şakir, MehmetMehmet Şakir Pasha [tr]
(1855–1919)
2 April 191919 May 191947 days
16Turgut, ShevketShevket Turgut Pasha
(1857–1924)
19 May 191929 June 191941 days
(13)Ferid, AliAli Ferid Pasha29 May 191921 July 191922 days
(6)Pasha, NazimNazim Pasha
(1848–1913)
21 July 191913 August 191923 days
17Şefik, SüleymanSüleyman Şefik Pasha
(1860–1946)
13 August 19192 October 191950 days
18Mersinli, CemalCemal Mersinli
(1860–1946)
12 October 191921 January 1920101 days
(4)Hulusi, SalihSalih Hulusi Pasha
(1864–1939)
21 January 19203 February 192013 days
19Çakmak, FevziFevzi Çakmak
(1876–1950)
3 February 19205 April 192062 days
Ferid, DamatDamat Ferid Pasha
(1853–1923)
Acting
5 April 192010 June 192066 days
20Hamdi, AhmetAhmet Hamdi Pasha10 June 192030 July 192050 days
21Hüsnü, HüseyinHüseyin Hüsnü Pasha [tr]31 July 192021 October 192082 days
22Hüsnü, HüseyinÇürüksulu Ziya Pasha [tr]
(1870–1940)
21 October 19204 November 19222 years, 14 days

War CouncilEdit

Chief of the General Staff Took office Left office Time in office
1Izzet, AhmedAhmed Izzet Pasha
(1864–1937)
15 August 19081 January 19145 years, 139 days
2Pasha, EnverEnver Pasha
(1881–1922)
3 January 19144 October 19184 years, 274 days
(1)Izzet, AhmedAhmed Izzet Pasha
(1864–1937)
4 October 19183 November 191830 days
3Çobanlı, CevatCevat Çobanlı
(1870–1938)
3 November 191824 December 191851 days
4Çakmak, FevziFevzi Çakmak
(1876–1950)
24 December 191814 May 1919141 days
(3)Çobanlı, CevatCevat Çobanlı
(1870–1938)
14 May 19192 August 191980 days
5Pasha, HadiHadi Pasha2 August 191912 September 191941 days
6Pasha, HadiAli Fuat Cebesoy
(1882–1968)
12 September 19199 October 191927 days
(3)Çobanlı, CevatCevat Çobanlı
(1870–1938)
9 October 191916 February 1920130 days
7Turgut, ShevketShevket Turgut Pasha
(1857–1924)
16 February 192019 April 192063 days
8Pasha, NazifNazif Pasha19 April 19202 May 192013 days
(5)Pasha, HadiHadi Pasha2 May 192019 May 192017 days

British Naval MissionEdit

The British Naval Mission was led by:

[1]

French Gendarmerie MissionEdit

French Gendarmerie Mission was led by General Moujen.

German Military MissionEdit

Since the first attempts of Sultan Selim III to modernise the Ottoman Army, Prussia has provided it with military know-how.[2][3] Colonel von Götze, secret negotiator of the Prussian king and military attaché, already came in 1798 on invitation from the Sultan to inspect Turkish units.[2][3] Once Sultan Mahmud II (1808-1839), for the same purpose, abolished the old-fashioned Janissary corps in 1826, it was again Prussia who helped reform the military: future Field Marshal Helmuth von Moltke, at the time Captain of the Prussian General Staff, and Lieutenant von Berg from the First Special Regiment, were detached to Istanbul in 1835, where Moltke stayed until 1939.[2][3] Moltke's fame led to the creation of a myth sorrounding his role in the establishment of a historic relation between Turkey in Germany, where in fact his role was rather minor, his main value being in the memoirs he wrote and which became the primary lecture for all Prussian and German officers who followed him to the Ottoman Empire.[2] In 1844, Prussian Colonel Kuczkonski [probably a typo in the source, actually Colonel Fritz von Kuczkowski] arrived in Istanbul, where he helped implement secrets plans designed by the Sultan and aiming at reforming the police in the Turkish capital city.[3] Sultans Abdulmecid (1839-1861) and Abdulaziz (1861-1876) did continue reforming the Army with the help of Prussian know-how, but they preferred hiring retired officers who trained and commanded Turkish units, prominently during the Crimean War (1853-1856).[2] Finally, Sultan Abdulhamid II (1876-1908) introduced the official Prussian (German) Military Committees in the Ottoman Empire.[2] In his and Bismarck's time, Germany appeared to be the only European Power that not interested in expanding into Ottoman territory.[2] After 1880, Abdulhamid began a sustained policy of bringing German military and civilian officers to his realm, and of putting them in a leading position in the effort of reforming the Army.[2] As a result, several German officers arrived between 1882–83, including Colonel Kähler as Head of Commission, followed in this position between 1883-1895 by Major Baron Colmar von der Goltz, who would stay in the Ottoman Empire almost uninterruptedly until his death in April 1916 in Baghdad.[2] Kähler, as aide-de-camp to the Sultan, as well as the other Germans became highly-paid Ottoman officers, but the body that paid their salaries was controlled by European bankers, and they served without cutting their ties with the German army.[2] Von der Goltz was most influential by reorganising the military education and infrastructure.[2] He was the only German officer who managed to influence Turkish generals, who viewed with displeasure the aloof attitude of Kähler's group.[2] Von der Goltz also managed to influence the decisions of the Ottomans when it came to arm deals towards buying German, rather than British weapons.[2]

The German military mission became the third most important command center (Sultan, Minister of War, Head of Mission) for the Ottoman Army.[citation needed]

The initial contact was established during the Balkan Wars by Grand Vizier Said Halim Pasha and Minister of War Ahmed Izzet Pasha. The Kaiser Wilhelm II sent the mission of General Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz, which served two periods in Turkey within two years (8 months total).[citation needed]

The German mission was accredited from 27 October 1913 to 1918. General Otto Liman von Sanders, previously commander of the 22nd Division, was assigned by the Kaiser Wilhelm II to Constantinople.[4] Germany considered an Ottoman-Russian war to be imminent, and Liman von Sanders was a general with excellent knowledge of the Imperial Russian Army.[citation needed]

The Ottoman Empire was undecided about which side to take in a future war involving the German Empire, British Empire, French Third Republic and Russian Empire, eventually joining the Central Powers led by the German Empire. The 9th article of the German Military Mission stated that in case of a war the contract[dubious ] would be annulled.[citation needed]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The International Significance of British Naval Missions to the Ottoman Empire, 1908–1914". Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Edip Öncü, The Beginnings of Ottoman-German Partnership: Diplomatic and Military Relations Between Germany and the Ottoman Empire Before the First World War. A Master’s Thesis. Department of History, Bilkent University, Ankara, September 2003. Accessed 30 June 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d Orientalismus, Kolonialismus und Moderne: Zum Bild des Orients in der deutschsprachigen Kultur 1900, Springer-Verlag, p. 59, footnote 30, M&P Schriftenreihe, 2016, ISBN 9783476042583. Accessed 30 June 2019.
  4. ^ "Von Sanders Dies. Famous Marshal. German Commander Defended Gallipoli For Turks Against The British. Vanquished In Palestine. Began Reorganization Of Sultan's Armies In 1913. Honored By Former Kaiser". The New York Times. Associated Press. August 25, 1929. Retrieved 2010-07-04. Field Marshal Otto K.B. Liman von Sanders, who directed operations against the British in Gallipoli during the World War, died on Thursday in Munich at the age of 74. ...