Minimum wage in the United States
The minimum wage in the United States is set by US labor law and a range of state and local laws. Employers generally have to pay workers the highest minimum wage prescribed by federal, state, and local law. Since July 24, 2009, the federal government has mandated a nationwide minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. As of January 2018,[update] there were 29 states with a minimum wage higher than the federal minimum. From 2017 to 2018, eight states increased their minimum wage levels through automatic adjustments, while increases in eleven other states occurred through referendum or legislative action.
While the federal minimum wage is $7.25, most states and nearly all cities have higher minimum wages, with the result that over 90% of American minimum wage workers earn more than the federal minimum wage. The effective nationwide minimum wage, (the wage that the median minimum wage worker earns), is $11.80 as of May 2019. This is the highest it has been since at least 1994, the earliest year effective minimum wage data was available.
The purchasing power of the federal minimum wage peaked in 1968 at $1.60 ($12.00 in 2018 dollars) If the minimum wage in 1968 had kept up with labor's productivity growth, it would have reached $19.33 in 2017. In 2019, the Congressional Budget Office released a report which estimated that raising the federal minimum wage to $15 an hour would benefit 17 million workers, but also cause 1.3 million people to lose their jobs.
A 2016 Pew survey found that 52% of voters supported a $15 federal minimum wage with 89% of Black, 71% of Latino, and 44% of White voters in favor. In 2018,[update] about 2% of White, Asian, and Latino workers earned the federal minimum wage or less. Amongst Black workers, the percentage was about 3%.
- 1 History
- 2 Legislation
- 3 Historical trend
- 4 Economic effects
- 5 Commentary
- 6 Polls
- 7 List by jurisdiction
- 8 Large corporations
- 9 Low-paying occupations, 2006 and 2009
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Minimum wage legislation emerged at the end of the nineteenth century from the desire to end sweated labor which had developed in the wake of industrialization. Sweatshops employed large numbers of women and young workers, paying them what were considered nonliving wages that did not allow workers to afford the necessaries of life. Besides substandard wages, sweating was also associated with long work hours and unsanitary and unsafe work conditions. From the 1890s to the 1920s, during the Progressive Era, a time of social activists and political reform across the United States, progressive reformers, women's organizations, religious figures, academics, and politicians all played an important role in getting state minimum wage laws passed throughout the United States.
The first successful attempts at using minimum wage laws to ameliorate the problem of nonliving wages occurred in the Australian state of Victoria in 1896. Factory inspector reports and newspaper reporting on the conditions of sweated labor in Melbourne, Victoria led in 1895 to the formation of the National Anti-Sweating League which pushed the government aggressively to deal legislatively with the problem of substandard wages. The government, following the recommendation of the Victorian Chief Secretary Alexander Peacock, established wage boards which were tasked with establishing minimum wages in the labor trades which suffered from unlivable wages. During the same time period, campaigns against sweated labor were occurring in the United States and England.
As in Australia, civic concern for sweated labor developed in the United States towards the end of the Gilded Age. In New York state in 1890, a group of female reformers who were worried about the harsh conditions of sweated labor in the country formed the Consumer's League of the City of New York. The consumer group sought to improve working conditions by boycotting products which were made under sweated conditions and did not conform to a code of "fair house" standards drawn up by them. Similar, consumer leagues formed throughout the United States, and in 1899, they united under the National Consumer League (NCL) parent organization. Consumer advocacy, however, was extremely slow at changing conditions in the sweated industries. When NCL leaders in 1908 went to an international anti-sweatshop conference in Geneva, Switzerland and were introduced to Australian minimum wage legislation, which had successfully dealt with sweated labor, they came home believers and made minimum wage legislation part of their national platform.
In 1910, in conjunction with advocacy work led by Florence Kelley of the National Consumer League, the Women's Trade Union League (WTLU) of Massachusetts under the leadership of Elizabeth Evans took up the cause of minimum wage legislation in Massachusetts. Over the next two years, a coalition of social reform groups and labor advocates in Boston pushed for minimum wage legislation in the state. On June 4, 1912, Massachusetts passed the first minimum wage legislation in the United States, which established a state commission for recommending non-compulsory minimum wages for women and children. The passage of the bill was significantly assisted by the Lawrence textile strike which had raged for ten weeks at the beginning of 1912. The strike brought national attention to the plight of the low wage textile workers, and pushed the state legislatures, who feared the magnitude of the strike, to enact progressive labor legislation.
By 1923, fifteen U.S. states and the District of Columbia had passed minimum wage laws, with pressure being placed on state legislatures by the National Consumers League in a coalition with other women's voluntary associations and organized labor. The United States Supreme Court of the Lochner era (1897–1937), however, consistently invalidated labor regulation laws. Advocates for state minimum wage laws hoped that they would be upheld under the precedent of Muller v. Oregon (1908), which upheld maximum working hours laws for women on the grounds that women required special protection that men did not. The Supreme Court, however, did not extend this principle to minimum wage laws.:518 The court ruled in Adkins v. Children's Hospital (1923) that the District of Columbia's minimum wage law was unconstitutional, because the law interfered with the ability of employers to freely negotiate wage contracts with employees. The court also noted that women did not require any more special protection by the law, following the passage in 1920 of the Nineteenth Amendment, which gave women the right to vote and equal legal status.
In 1933, the Roosevelt administration during the New Deal made the first attempt at establishing a national minimum wage regiment with the National Industrial Recovery Act, which set minimum wage and maximum hours on an industry and regional basis. The Supreme Court, however, in Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States (1935) ruled the act unconstitutional, and the minimum wage regulations were abolished. Two years later after President Roosevelt's overwhelming reelection in 1936 and discussion of judicial reform, the Supreme Court took up the issue of labor legislation again in West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish (1937) and upheld the constitutionality of minimum wage legislation enacted by Washington state and overturned the Adkins decision which marked the end of the Lochner era. In 1938, the minimum wage was re-established pursuant to the Fair Labor Standards Act, this time at a uniform rate of $0.25 per hour (equivalent to $4.45 in 2018). The Supreme Court upheld the Fair Labor Standards Act in United States v. Darby Lumber Co. (1941), holding that Congress had the power under the Commerce Clause to regulate employment conditions.
The 1938 minimum wage law only applied to "employees engaged in interstate commerce or in the production of goods for interstate commerce," but in amendments in 1961 and 1966, the federal minimum wage was extended (with slightly different rates) to employees in large retail and service enterprises, local transportation and construction, state and local government employees, as well as other smaller expansions; a grandfather clause in 1990 drew most employees into the purview of federal minimum wage policy, which now set the wage at $3.80.
The federal minimum wage in the United States was reset to its current rate of $7.25 per hour in July 2009. Some U.S. territories (such as American Samoa) are exempt. Some types of labor are also exempt: Employers may pay tipped labor a minimum of $2.13 per hour, as long as the hour wage plus tip income equals at least the minimum wage. Persons under the age of 20 may be paid $4.25 an hour for the first 90 calendar days of employment (sometimes known as a youth, teen, or training wage) unless a higher state minimum exists. The 2009 increase was the last of three steps of the Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2007, which was signed into law as a rider to the U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans' Care, Katrina Recovery, and Iraq Accountability Appropriations Act, 2007, a bill that also contained almost $5 billion in tax cuts for small businesses.
Some politicians in the United States advocate linking the minimum wage to the consumer price index, thereby increasing the wage automatically each year based on increases to the consumer price index. Linking the minimum wage to the consumer price index avoids the erosion of the purchasing power of the minimum wage with time because of inflation. In 1998 Washington state became the first state to approve consumer price indexing for its minimum wage. In 2003 San Francisco, California and Santa Fe, New Mexico were the first cities to approve consumer price indexing for their minimum wage. Oregon and Florida were the next states to link their minimum wages to the consumer price index. Later in 2006, voters in six states (Arizona, Colorado, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, and Ohio) approved statewide increases in the state minimum wage. The amounts of these increases ranged from $1 to $1.70 per hour, and all increases were designed to annually index to inflation. As of 2018, the minimum wage is indexed to inflation in 17 states.
Living wage protestsEdit
|New York City||$21.55|
Since 2012, a growing protest and advocacy movement called "Fight for $15", initially growing out of fast food worker strikes, has advocated for an increase in the minimum wage to a living wage. Since the start of these protests, a number of states and cities have increased their minimum wage. In 2014 Connecticut for instance passed legislation to raise the minimum wage from $8.70 to $10.10 per hour by 2017, making it one of about six states at the time to aim at or above $10.00 per hour. In 2014 and 2015, several cities, including San Francisco, Seattle, Los Angeles, and Washington D.C. passed ordinances that gradually increase the minimum wage to $15.00 per hour. In 2016 New York and California became the first states to pass legislation that would gradually raise the minimum wage to $15 per hour in each state, followed by Massachusetts in 2018.
In April 2014, the U.S. Senate debated the minimum wage on the federal level by way of the Minimum Wage Fairness Act. The bill would have amended the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA) to increase the federal minimum wage for employees to $10.10 per hour over the course of a two-year period. The bill was strongly supported by President Barack Obama and many of the Democratic Senators, but strongly opposed by Republicans in the Senate and House. Later in 2014, voters in the Republican-controlled states of Alaska, Arkansas, Nebraska and South Dakota considered ballot initiatives to raise the minimum wage above the national rate of $7.25 per hour, which were successful in all four states. The results provided evidence that raising minimum wage has support across party lines.
In April 2017, Senator Bernie Sanders and Senator Patty Murray, backed by 28 of the Senate's Democrats, introduced new federal legislation which would raise the minimum wage to $15 per hour by 2024 and index it to inflation. The Raise the Wage Act of 2017, which was simultaneously introduced in the House of Representatives with 166 Democratic cosponsors, would raise the minimum wage to $9.25 per hour immediately, and then gradually increase it to $15 per hour by 2024, while simultaneously raising the minimum wage for tipped workers and phasing it out. The legislation was introduced according to Senator Bernie Sanders to make sure that every worker has at least a modest and decent standard of living.
In the United States, different states are able to set their own minimum wages independent of the federal government. When the state and federal minimum wage differ the higher wage prevails. As of January 2018,[update] there were 29 states with a minimum wage higher than the federal minimum. Washington D.C. has the highest minimum wage at $14.00 per hour while California, Massachusetts, and Washington have the highest state minimum wage at $12.00 per hour. A number of states have also in recent years enacted state preemption laws, which restrict local community rights, and bar local governments from setting their own minimum wage amounts. As of 2017,[update] state preemption laws for local minimum wages have passed in 25 states.
Legislation has passed recently in multiple states that significantly raises the minimum wage. California, Illinois, and Massachusetts are all set to raise their minimum wages to $15.00 per hour by January 1, 2023 for California and Massachusetts and by 2025 for Illinois. Colorado is set to raise its minimum wage from $9.30 per hour to $12 per hour by January 1, 2020, rising $0.90 per year. New York has also passed legislation to increase its minimum wage to $15.00 per hour over time, with certain counties and larger companies set on faster schedules than others. A number of other cities and states across the country are also debating and enacting legislation to increase the minimum wage for low wage workers to a livable wage.
Some government entities, such as counties and cities, observe minimum wages that are higher than the state as a whole. In 2003 San Francisco, California and Santa Fe, New Mexico were the first two cities to introduce local minimum wage ordinances. Another device to increase wages locally are living wage ordinances, which generally apply only to businesses that are under contract to the local government itself. In 1994 Baltimore, Maryland was the first city in the United States to pass such a living wage ordinance. These targeted living wage ordinances for city contract workers have led in subsequent years to citywide local minimum wage laws which apply to all workers.
In the current wave of minimum wage legislative action, Seattle, Washington was the first city to pass on June 2, 2014 a local ordinance to increase the minimum wage for all workers to $15.00 per hour, which phases in over seven years. This ordinance followed the referendum in SeaTac, Washington in November 2013, which raised on a more limited scale the local minimum wage to $15.00 for transportation and hospitality workers. Numerous other cities have followed Seattle's example since. San Francisco became the first major city in the U.S. to reach a minimum wage of $15.00 per hour on July 1, 2018. New York City's minimum wage will be $15.00 per hour by the end of 2018. The minimum wage in Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., will be $15.00 per hour in 2020. Similarly, the minimum wage in Minneapolis, Minnesota will be $15.00 per hour by 2022. A growing number of other California cities have also enacted local minimum wage ordinances to increase the minimum wage to $15.00 per hour, including Berkeley, El Cerrito, Emeryville, Mountain View, Oakland, Richmond, and San Jose.
Some minimum wage ordinances have an exemption for unionized workers. For instance, the Los Angeles City Council approved a minimum salary in 2014 for hotel workers of $15.37 per hour which has such an exemption. This led in some cases to longtime workers at unionized hotels such as the Sheraton Universal making $10.00 per hour, whereas non-union employees at a non-union Hilton less than 500 feet away making at least $15.37 as mandated by law for non-unionized employees. Similar exemptions have been adopted in other cities. As of December 2014, unions were exempt from minimum wage ordinances in Chicago, Illinois, SeaTac, Washington, and Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, as well as the California cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Long Beach, San Jose, Richmond, and Oakland. In 2016, the District of Columbia Council passed a minimum wage ordinance that included a union waiver, but Mayor Vincent Gray vetoed it. Later that year, the council approved an increase without the union waiver.
The federal minimum wage was introduced in 1938 at the rate of $0.25 per hour (equivalent to $4.45 in 2018). By 1950 the minimum wage had risen to $0.75 per hour. The minimum wage had its highest purchasing power in 1968, when it was $1.60 per hour (equivalent to $11.53 in 2018). The real value of the Federal minimum wage in 2016 dollars has decreased by one-third since 1968. The minimum wage would be $11 in 2016 if its real value had remained at the 1968 level. From January 1981 to April 1990, the minimum wage was frozen at $3.35 per hour, then a record-setting minimum wage freeze. From September 1, 1997 through July 23, 2007, the federal minimum wage remained constant at $5.15 per hour, breaking the old record. In 2009 the minimum wage was adjusted to $7.25 where it has remained fixed for the past ten years.
The purchasing power of the federal minimum wage has fluctuated. Since 1984, the purchasing power of the federal minimum wage has decreased. Measured in real terms (adjusted for inflation) using 1984 dollars, the real minimum wage was $3.35 in 1984, $2.33 in 1994, $1.84 in 2004, and $1.46 in 2014. If the minimum wage had been raised to $10.10 in 2014, that would have equated to $4.40 in 1984 dollars. This would have been equal to a 31% increase in purchasing power, despite the nominal value of the minimum wage increasing by 216% in the same time period.
The economic effects of raising the minimum wage are unclear. Adjusting the minimum wage may affect current and future levels of employment, prices of goods and services, economic growth, income inequality, and poverty. The interconnection of price levels, central bank policy, wage agreements, and total aggregate demand creates a situation in which conclusions drawn from macroeconomic analysis are highly influenced by the underlying assumptions of the interpreter.
In neoclassical economics, the law of demand states that—all else being equal—raising the price of any particular good or service reduces the quantity demanded. Therefore, neoclassical economists argue that—all else being equal—raising the minimum wage will have adverse effects on employment. Conceptually, if an employer does not believe a worker generates value equal to or in excess of the minimum wage, they do not hire or retain that worker.
Other economists of different schools of thought argue that a limited increase in the minimum wage does not affect or increases the number of jobs available. Economist David Cooper for instance estimates that a higher minimum wage would support the creation of at least 85,000 new jobs in the United States. This divergence of thought began with empirical work on fast food workers in the 1990s which challenged the neoclassical model. In 1994, economists David Card and Alan Krueger studied employment trends among 410 restaurants in New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania following New Jersey's minimum wage hike (from $4.25 to $5.05) in April 1992. They found "no indication that the rise in the minimum wage reduced employment." In contrast, a 1995 analysis of the evidence by David Neumark found that the increase in New Jersey's minimum wage resulted in a 4.6% decrease in employment. Neumark's study relied on payroll records from a sample of large fast-food restaurant chains, whereas the Card-Krueger study relied on business surveys.
A literature review conducted by David Neumark and William Wascher in 2007 (which surveyed 101 studies related to the employment effects of minimum wages) found that about two-thirds of peer-reviewed economic research showed a positive correlation between minimum wage hikes and increased unemployment—especially for young and unskilled workers. Neumark's review further found that, when looking at only the most credible research, 85% of studies showed a positive correlation between minimum wage hikes and increased unemployment.
Statistical meta-analysis conducted by Tom Stanley in 2005 in contrast found that there is evidence of publication bias in minimum wage literature, and that correction of this bias shows no relationship between the minimum wage and unemployment. In 2008 Hristos Doucouliagos and Tom Stanley conducted a similar meta-analysis of 64 U.S. studies on disemployment effects and concluded that Card and Krueger's initial claim of publication bias was correct. Moreover, they concluded, "Once this publication selection is corrected, little or no evidence of a negative association between minimum wages and employment remains."
The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) in 2014 estimated the theoretical effects of a federal minimum wage increase under two scenarios: an increase to $9.00 and an increase to $10.10. According to the report, approximately 100,000 jobs would be lost under the $9.00 option, whereas 500,000 jobs would be lost under the $10.10 option (with a wide range of possible outcomes). The Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR) in contrast in 2013 found in a review of multiple studies since 2000 that there was "little or no employment response to modest increases in the minimum wage." CEPR found in a later study that job creation within the United States is faster within states that raised their minimum wage. In 2014 the state with the highest minimum wage in the nation, Washington, exceeded the national average for job growth in the United States. Washington had a job growth rate 0.3% faster than the national average job growth rate.
The CBO in 2019 estimated the theoretical effects of a federal minimum wage increase under three scenarios: increases per hour to $10, $12 and $15 by 2025. Under the $15 scenario, in 2025 up to 27 million workers could see increases to their average weekly earnings while 3.7 million workers could lose employment. The latter statistic, in CBO's estimation would rise over time in any wage increase scenario as capital allocation replaces some workers. Wage increases would be heavily skewed (40%) towards those already earning above the minimum wage with more than 80% of benefits accruing to more educated workers living above the poverty line (Table 5). The number of persons in poverty would be reduced by 1.3 million (assuming no tax implications from increased income). The CBO notes that it does not consider the inflationary effects of these policies when estimating the change in poverty level as these estimates, while increasing inflation, are uncertain. Additionally, the CBO assumed that the weight of benefits would accrue to those below the poverty level based on historical wage increase levels. They noted that data on the minimum wage tends to assume the opposite (that benefits accrue to those above the poverty level), but that that data was not definitive enough to allow for estimation in their work. Some aspects of the CBO study are summarized in the table below.
|Workers below new Minimum Wage that could see wage increase (millions)||1.5||5||17|
|Workers above new Minimum Wage that could see wage increase (millions)||2||6||10|
|Change in employment in an average week (millions)||-0.05||-0.3 Median / 0 - -0.8 range||-1.3 Median / 0 - -3.7 range|
|Change in the number of people in poverty (millions)||-0.05||-0.4||-1.3|
|Change in Real Annual Income: Families below poverty threshold (billions of 2018 dollars)||0.4||2.3||7.7|
|Change in Real Annual Income: Families between one and three times the poverty threshold (billions of 2018 dollars)||0.3||2.3||14.2|
|Change in Real Annual Income: Families between three and six times the poverty threshold (billions of 2018 dollars)||-0.05||-0.3||-2.1|
|Change in Real Annual Income: Families with more than six times the poverty threshold (billions of 2018 dollars)||-0.6||-5.1||-28.4|
|Change in Real Annual Income: All families (billions of 2018 dollars)||-0.1||-0.8||-8.7|
A 2012 study led by Joseph Sabia estimated that the 2004-6 New York State minimum wage increase (from $5.15 to $6.75) resulted in a 20.2% to 21.8% reduction in employment for less-skilled, less-educated workers. Similarly, a study led by Richard Burkhauser in 2000 concluded that minimum wage increases "significantly reduce the employment of the most vulnerable groups in the working-age population—young adults without a high school degree (aged 20-24), young black adults and teenagers (aged 16-24), and teenagers (aged 16-19)."
The Economist wrote in December 2013 in sum that: "A minimum wage, providing it is not set too high, could thus boost pay with no ill effects on jobs...Some studies find no harm to employment from federal or state minimum wages, others see a small one, but none finds any serious damage...High minimum wages, however, particularly in rigid labour markets, do appear to hit employment. France has the rich world's highest wage floor, at more than 60% of the median for adults and a far bigger fraction of the typical wage for the young. This helps explain why France also has shockingly high rates of youth unemployment: 26% for 15- to 24-year-olds."
In 2018, a study from the University of Washington found that increasing the minimum wage in Seattle resulted in minimum wage earners making $125 less each month due to employers's cutting hours.
Conceptually, raising the minimum wage increases the cost of labor, ceteris paribus. Thus, employers may accept lower profits, raise their prices, or both. If prices increase, consumers may demand a lesser quantity of the product, substitute other products, or switch to imported products, due to the effects of price elasticity of demand. Marginal producers (those who are barely profitable enough to survive) may be forced out of business if they cannot raise their prices sufficiently to offset the higher cost of labor. Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago research from 2007 has shown that restaurant prices rise in response to minimum wage increases. However, there are studies that show that higher prices for products due to increased labor cost are usually only by about 0.4% of the original price.
Effects on crimeEdit
A 2016 White House report based on "back of envelope calculations and literature review" argued that higher hourly wages led to less crime. The study by the Council of Economic Advisers calculated that "raising the minimum wage reduces crime by 3 to 5 percent." To get those numbers, the study assumed that "such a minimum wage increase would have no employment impacts, with an employment elasticity of 0.1 the benefits would be somewhat lower."
In contrast in a 1987 journal article, Masanori Hashimoto noted that minimum wage hikes lead to increased levels of property crime in areas affected by the minimum wage after its increase. According to the article, by decreasing employment in poor communities, total legal trade and production are curtailed. The report also argued that to compensate for the decrease in legal avenues for production and consumption, poor communities increasingly turn to illegal trade and activity.
Whether growth (GDP, a measure of both income and production) increases or decreases depends significantly on whether the income shifted from owners to workers results in an overall higher level of spending. The tendency of a consumer to spend their next dollar is referred to as the marginal propensity to consume or MPC. The transfer of income from higher income owners (who tend to save more, meaning a lower MPC) to lower income workers (who tend to save less, with a higher MPC) can actually lead to an increase in total consumption and higher demand for goods, leading to increased employment. Recent research has shown that higher wages lead to greater productivity.
The CBO reported in February 2014 that income (GDP) overall would be marginally higher after raising the minimum wage, indicating a small net positive increase in growth. Raising the minimum wage to $10.10 and indexing it to inflation would result in a net $2 billion increase in income during the second half of 2016, while raising it to $9.00 and not indexing it would result in a net $1 billion increase in income.
Additionally, a study by Overstreet in 2019 examined increases to the minimum wage in Arizona. Utilizing data spanning from 1976 to 2017, Overstreet found that a 1% increase in the minimum wage was significantly correlated with a 1.13% increase in per capita income in Arizona. This study could show that smaller increases in minimum wage may not distort labor market as significantly as larger increases experienced in other cities and states. Thus, the small increases experienced in Arizona may have actually led to a slight increase in economic growth.
An increase in the minimum wage is a form of redistribution from higher-income persons (business owners or "capital") to lower income persons (workers or "labor") and therefore should reduce income inequality. The CBO estimated in February 2014 that raising the minimum wage under either scenario described above would improve income inequality. Families with income more than 6 times the poverty threshold would see their incomes fall (due in part to their business profits declining with higher employee costs), while families with incomes below that threshold would rise. Writing in The Atlantic, journalist Derek Thompson summarized several studies which indicate that both state-level minimum wage increases and tighter labor markets caused wages to grow faster for lower income workers than higher income workers during the 2018-2019 time period.
Among hourly-paid workers in 2016, 701,000 earned the federal minimum wage and about 1.5 million earned wages below the minimum. Together, these 2.2 million workers represented 2.7% of all hourly-paid workers.
The CBO estimated in February 2014 that raising the minimum wage would reduce the number of persons below the poverty income threshold by 900,000 under the $10.10 option versus 300,000 under the $9.00 option. Similarly, Arindrajit Dube, professor of economics at University of Massachusetts Amherst, found in a 2017 study "robust evidence that higher minimum wages lead to increases in incomes among families at the bottom of the income distribution and that these wages reduce the poverty rate." According to the study "a 10 percent increase in the minimum wage reduces the nonelderly poverty rate by about 5 percent."
In contrast, research conducted by David Neumark and colleagues in 2004 found that minimum wages are associated with reductions in the hours and employment of low-wage workers. A separate study by the same researchers found that minimum wages tend to increase the proportion of families with incomes below or near the poverty line. Similarly, a 2002 study led by Richard Vedder, professor of economics at Ohio University, concluded that "The empirical evidence is strong that minimum wages have had little or no effect on poverty in the U.S. Indeed, the evidence is stronger that minimum wages occasionally increase poverty…"
According to a large majority of economists, minimum wage increases result in a variety of negative effects for lower-skilled workers including reduced employment, reduced hours, reduced benefits, and less safe working conditions.
Federal budget deficitEdit
The CBO reported in February 2014 that "[T]he net effect on the federal budget of raising the minimum wage would probably be a small decrease in budget deficits for several years but a small increase in budget deficits thereafter. It is unclear whether the effect for the coming decade as a whole would be a small increase or a small decrease in budget deficits." On the cost side, the report cited higher wages paid by the government to some of its employees along with higher costs for certain procured goods and services. This might be offset by fewer government benefits paid, as some workers with higher incomes would receive fewer government transfer payments. On the revenue side, some would pay higher taxes and others less.
|New York City||$3.86|
A 2015 survey conducted by the University of New Hampshire Survey Center found that a majority of economists believes raising the minimum wage to $15 per hour would have negative effects on youth employment levels (83%), adult employment levels (52%), and the number of jobs available (76%). Additionally, 67% of economists surveyed believed that a $15 minimum wage would make it harder for small businesses with less than 50 employees to stay in business.
- 46.8% favored eliminating it
- 1.3% favored decreasing it
- 14.3% favored keeping it the same
- 5.2% favored increasing it by about 50 cents per hour
- 15.6% favored increasing it by about $1 per hour
- 16.9% favored increasing it by more than $1 per hour
In 2014, over 600 economists signed a letter in support of increasing the minimum wage to $10.10 with research suggesting that a minimum wage increase could have a small stimulative effect on the economy as low-wage workers spend their additional earnings, raising demand and job growth. Also, seven recipients of the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences were among 75 economists endorsing an increase in the minimum wage for U.S. workers and said "the weight" of economic research shows higher pay doesn't lead to fewer jobs.
According to a February 2013 survey of the University of Chicago IGM Forum, which includes approximately 40 economists:
- 34% agreed with the statement that "Raising the federal minimum wage to $9 per hour would make it noticeably harder for low-skilled workers to find employment", with 32% disagreeing and 24% uncertain
- 42% agreed that "...raising the minimum wage to $9 per hour and indexing it to inflation...would be a desirable policy", with 11% disagreeing or strongly disagreeing and 32% uncertain.
According to a fall 2000 survey conducted by Fuller and Geide-Stevenson, 73.5% (27.9% of which agreed with provisos) of American economists surveyed[How many?] agreed that minimum wage laws increase unemployment among unskilled and young workers, while 26.5% disagreed with the statement.
Economist Paul Krugman advocated raising the minimum wage moderately in 2013, citing several reasons, including:
- The minimum wage was below its 1960s purchasing power, despite a near doubling of productivity;
- The great preponderance of the evidence indicates there is no negative impact on employment from moderate increases; and
- A high level of public support, specifically Democrats and Republican women.
Major political partiesEdit
Democratic candidates, elected officials, and activists support an increase in the minimum wage. In his 2013 State of the Union Address, President Barack Obama called for an increase in the federal minimum wage to $9 an hour; several months later, Democrats Tom Harkin and George Miller proposed legislation to increase the federal minimum wage to $10.10; and in 2015, congressional Democrats introduced a proposal to increase the federal minimum wage to $12 an hour. These efforts did not succeed, but increases in city and state minimum wages prompted congressional Democrats to continue fighting for an increase on the federal level. After much internal party debate, the party's official platform adopted at the 2016 Democratic National Convention stated: "We should raise the federal minimum wage to $15 an hour over time and index it, give all Americans the ability to join a union regardless of where they work, and create new ways for workers to have power in the economy so every worker can earn at least $15 an hour."
Most Republican elected officials oppose action to increase the minimum wage, and have blocked Democratic efforts to increase the minimum wage. Republican leadership such as Speakers of the House John Boehner and Paul Ryan have opposed minimum wage increases. Some Republicans oppose having a minimum wage altogether, while a few, conversely, have supported minimum wage increases or indexing the minimum wage to inflation.
The Pew Center reported in January 2014 that 73% of Americans supported raising the minimum wage from $7.25 to $10. By party, 53% of Republicans and 90% of Democrats favored this action. Pew found a racial difference for support of a higher minimum wage in 2017 with most blacks and Hispanics supporting a $15.00 federal minimum wage, and 54% of whites opposing it.
A Lake Research Partners poll in February 2012 found the following:
- Strong support overall for raising the minimum wage, with 73% of likely voters supporting an increase to $10 and indexing it to inflation during 2014, including 58% who strongly support the action;
- Support crosses party lines, with support from 91% of Democrats, 74% of Independents, and 50% of Republicans; and
- A majority (56%) believe that raising the minimum wage will help the economy, 16% believe it won't make a difference, and only 21% felt it would hurt the economy.
List by jurisdictionEdit
This is a list of the minimum wages (per hour) in each state and territory of the United States, for jobs covered by federal minimum wage laws. If the job is not subject to the federal Fair Labor Standards Act, then state, city, or other local laws may determine the minimum wage. A common exemption to the federal minimum wage is a company having revenue of less than $500,000 per year while not engaging in any interstate commerce.
Under the federal law, workers who receive a portion of their salary from tips, such as waitstaff, are required only to have their total compensation, including tips, meet the minimum wage. Therefore, often, their hourly wage, before tips, is less than the minimum wage. Seven states, and Guam, do not allow for a tip credit. Additional exemptions to the minimum wage include many seasonal employees, student employees, and certain disabled employees as specified by the FLSA.
In addition, some counties and cities within states may implement a higher minimum wage than the rest of their state. Sometimes this higher wage applies only to businesses that contract with the local government, while in other cases the higher minimum applies to all work.
|Type||Min. wage ($/h)||Notes|
|Tipped||$2.13||The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 has been requiring a minimum wage of $2.13 for tipped workers with the expectation that wages plus tips total no less than $7.25 per hour since September 1, 1991. The employer must pay the difference if total income does not add up to $7.25 per hour.|
|Non-tipped||$7.25||Per the Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2007 (FMWA) since July 24, 2009.|
|Youth (First 90 calendar days only)||$4.25||The Fair Labor Standards Act has since August 20, 1996 allowed for persons under the age of 20 to be paid $4.25 for the first 90 calendar days of their employment.|
The average US minimum wage per capita (2017) is $8.49 based on the population size of each state and generally represents the average minimum wage experienced by a person working in one of the fifty US states. Cities, counties, districts, and territories are not included in the calculation. As of October 2016, there have been 29 states with a minimum wage higher than the federal minimum. From 2014 to 2015, nine states increased their minimum wage levels through automatic adjustments, while increases in 11 other states occurred through referendum or legislative action. Beginning in January 2019, Washington D.C has the highest minimum wages in the country, at $14.00 per hour. New York City's minimum wage for companies with 11 or more employees became $15.00 per hour on December 31, 2018. On the same day, NYC's hourly minimum wage for companies with 10 or fewer employees became $13.50. The minimum wage in Illinois will reach $15 per hour by 2025 with increases beginning in 2020.
|Automatic indexed adjustment||Notes|
|Alabama||None[c]||No||Local laws preempted in 2016 with the signing of the Alabama Uniform Minimum Wage and Right-to-Work Act. The Act was subsequently found to be unconstitutional by the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals, but that opinion has been vacated and the case is pending before an en banc panel.|
|Alaska||$9.89||$9.89||Yes||Minimum wage increased to $9.89 on January 1, 2019.|
|Arizona||$11.00||$7.50||Yes||Voters passed Proposition 206 in 2016 scheduling a series of wage increases which will be completed next year on January 1, 2020 when Arizona's minimum wage will be $12.00. Starting on January 1, 2021 the minimum wage will be tied to inflation.|
|Arkansas||$9.25||$2.63||No||Voters passed Issue 5 in 2018 to schedule a series of wage increases starting with $9.25/hour in 2019, $10.00 in 2020, and $11.00 in 2021.|
|California||$12.00||$12.00||Yes||Minimum wage increased to $12.00 for business with 26 employees or more; $11.00 for business with 25 employees or fewer, effective on January 1, 2019 and increases to $15.00 by 2022. At least 20 California cities had a minimum wage higher than the state minimum on January 1, 2018:
|Colorado||$11.10||$8.08||Yes||On January 1, 2019, the minimum wage increased to $11.10 and will increase to $12.00 on January 1, 2020. On January 1, 2021, it will be adjusted in line with the Consumer Price Index (CPI). The tipped wage is $3.02 less than the minimum wage.|
|Connecticut||$11.00||$6.59||Yes||In 2019, the CT government passed a law raising the minimum wage to $11.00 on October 1, 2019, with future increases in later years scheduled as follows:
|Delaware||$9.25||$2.23||$8.75||No||Minimum wage increased to $9.25 effective on October 1, 2019.|
|Florida||$8.46||$5.44||Yes||Minimum wage is increased annually on September 30 (effective January 1 of the following calendar year) based upon a cost of living formula (the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers, not seasonally adjusted, for the South Region or a successor index as calculated by the United States Department of Labor, using the rate of inflation for the 12 months prior to September 1). Florida's minimum wage increased to $8.46 and the tipped minimum wage to $5.44 on January 1, 2019.|
|Georgia||$5.15||$2.13||No||Only applicable to employers of 6 or more employees. The state law excludes from coverage any employment that is subject to the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act when the federal rate is greater than the state rate.|
|Hawaii||$10.10||$9.35||No||Minimum wage increased to $10.10 on January 1, 2018. Tipped employees earn 75 cents less than the current state minimum wage.|
|Illinois||$8.25||$4.95||$7.75||No||Employers may pay anyone under the age of 18, or anyone for the first 90 days of employment, fifty cents less. Tipped employees earn 60% of the minimum wage (employers may claim credit for tips, up to 40% of wage). There is a training wage for tipped employees. In February 2019, the Illinois General Assembly and Governor J.B. Pritzker approved a statewide minimum wage rising to $15 by 2025. Increases will begin on January 1, 2020 to $9.25 and rise to $10 by July 1, 2020. The rate will increase $1 each year until 2025 reaching $15.
|Iowa||$7.25||$4.35||No||Most small retail and service establishments grossing less than $300,000 annually are not required to pay the minimum wage. A tipped employee who makes $30.00 per month or more in tips, can be paid 60% of the minimum wage, i.e. as little as $4.35 per hour. Increased minimum wage laws in Johnson and Linn counties were nullified by the legislature.|
|Kansas||$7.25||$2.13||No||Kansas had the lowest legislated, non-tipped worker minimum wage in the U.S., $2.65 per hour, until it was raised to $7.25, effective January 1, 2010.|
|Kentucky||$7.25||$2.13||No||Louisville: $8.10 from July 1, 2015 and increases to $9.00 by 2017. However, the Kentucky Supreme Court ruled that localities do not have authority to increase the minimum wage.|
|Maine||$11.00||$5.50||Yes||Tipped rate is half of the current state minimum wage. On July 6, 2015, the city council of Portland voted 6-3 to raise the city's minimum wage to $10.10 beginning on January 1, 2016 – an increase of 34%. Note: The tipped wage returns to 50% of the regular minimum wage starting January 1, 2018. The minimum wage will increase to $12 on January 1, 2020.|
|Maryland||$10.10||$3.63||No||Minimum wage is $10.10 as of July 1, 2018.|
For employees working in Montgomery County, the minimum wage is $12.50 per hour for businesses with 50 or fewer employees. $13.00 per hour for businesses with 51 or more employees effective July 1, 2019. County Council bill 12-16 was enacted on January 17, 2017 to adjust the minimum wage to $15 and base future adjustments on the Consumer Price Index, but was later vetoed by the County Executive.
|Massachusetts||$12.00||$4.35||No||Minimum wage increased to $12.00 ($4.35 for tipped workers) on January 1, 2019. Massachusetts is the only state in the country that mandates time-and-a-half for retail workers working on Sunday. With state minimum wage at $12 an hour the effective minimum wage for a retail worker working on Sunday is $16.80 an hour. As of 2017, Massachusetts has the largest gap between the hourly minimum wage for tipped workers ($4.35) and the general minimum wage ($12).|
The "Grand Bargain" passed in 2018 raises wages on the following schedule, and phases out time-and-a-half while prohibiting employers from requiring work on Sundays and holidays against employee wishes.
|Michigan||$9.45||$3.59||$4.25 (training) $8.03 (youth)||Yes||Annual minimum wage increases, linked to the Consumer Price Index, will start on February 1, 2019, and shall not exceed 3.5%. There is no increase in minimum wage if the unemployment rate rises to or above 8.5% in the previous year. Tipped workers must earn at least standard Michigan minimum wage once tips are included in their wages.|
|Minnesota||$9.86||$9.65||$7.87 (for small employers; training; youth; and employees in J-1 status working for hotels, motels, lodging establishments, or resorts)||Yes||Small employers, whose annual receipts are less than $500,000 and who do not engage in interstate commerce, can pay their employees $7.25 per hour. Overtime applies after 48 hours per week. Note: For large employers, the minimum wage became $9.86 on January 1, 2019. For small employers, the minimum wage became $8.04 on January 1, 2019. Beginning January 1, 2018, all minimum wage rates will increase by the national implicit price deflator or 2.5%, whichever is lower.|
|Missouri||$8.60||$4.30||Yes||On November 6, 2018 Missouri passed Proposition B, which increased the minimum wage to $8.60 on January 1, 2019 and increases to $9.45 on January 1, 2020; $10.30 January 1, 2021; $11.15 January 1, 2022; and $12.00 January 1, 2023. The minimum wage would afterwards be adjusted based on changes in the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers.|
A state law passed July 5, 2017 prevents Missouri cities and local governments from setting a higher minimum wage.
|Montana||$8.50||$8.50||Yes||Minimum wage rate is automatically adjusted annually based on the U.S. Consumer Price Index, and increased to $8.50 on January 1, 2019. Income from tips cannot offset an employee's pay rate. The state minimum wage for business with less than $110,000 in annual sales is $4.00.|
|Nebraska||$9.00||$2.13||No||Minimum wage increased to $9.00 January 1, 2016.|
|Nevada||$8.25||$8.25||Yes||The minimum wage has been $8.25 ($1 higher than the federal minimum) since July 1, 2010. Employers who offer health benefits can pay employees $7.25.Assembly Bill 456, signed on June 12, 2019, raises the minimum wage in Nevada by 75 cents each year until it reaches $12 an hour. Employers who offer health benefits can continue to pay employees $1 per hour less at the Lower Tier rate.|
|New Jersey||$10.00||$2.63||Yes||Minimum wage increased to $10 on July 1, 2019. On January 17, 2019, Governor Phil Murphy and state legislative leaders passed an agreement to raise the minimum wage to $15 by 2024, with a bill to raise the minimum wage passed and signed by the Governor. The next wage increase will occur in January 1, 2020, when the wage will increase to $11 by 2020, followed by a $1 increase every year ($12 in 2021, $13 in 2022, and $14 in 2023) until 2024 when it'll reach to $15. Wages for tipped workers are expected to increased to $5.13 by 2022.|
|New Mexico||$7.50||$2.13||No||Santa Fe: $10.84 since January 1, 2015. Albuquerque: $8.75 since January 1, 2015.|
|New York||$11.10||Varies||Yes||As of July 24, 2009 there has been a minimum for exempt employees of $543.75 per week. Tipped employee minimum ranges from $4.90 to $5.65 depending on industry. Effective December 31, 2013, there have been different rules for the minimum cash wage for tipped employees outside of the hospitality industry, (e.g., in car washes and in salons). For workers earning more than $1.95 on average per hour in tips, the minimum cash wage has been $6.05 per hour; for workers earning between $1.20 and $1.95 in tips on average per hour, the cash wage has been $6.80.|
A 2016 law changed the minimum wage over the next six years. "Large" employers have 11 or more employees, and "small" have between 1 and 10. "Downstate" includes Nassau, Suffolk, and Westchester counties. As of December 31, 2018: NYC large employers: $15.00; NYC small employers: $13.50; Downstate employers: $12.00; Upstate employers: $11.10. As of December 31, 2019: NYC large employers: $15.00; NYC small employers: $15.00; Downstate employers: $13.00; Upstate employers: $12.50. As of December 31, 2020: NYC large employers: $15.00; NYC small employers: $15.00; Downstate employers: $14.00; Upstate employers: $12.50. As of December 31, 2021: NYC large employers: $15.00; NYC small employers: $15.00; Downstate employers: $15.00; Upstate employers: Set by Commissioner of Labor based on economic conditions, up to $15.00.
Tipped food service workers will be paid $7.50 per hour, or two-thirds of the applicable minimum wage rate rounded to the nearest $0.05, whichever is higher.
|North Carolina||$7.25||$2.13||No||The employer may take credit for tips earned by a tipped employee and may count them as wages up to the amount permitted in section 3(m) of the Fair Labor Standards Act.|
|North Dakota||$7.25||$4.86||No||Tipped minimum is 67% of the minimum wage.|
|Ohio||$8.55||$4.30||$7.25 under 16 years old||Yes||The rate is $7.25 for employers grossing $350,000 or less. The rate is adjusted annually on January 1 based on the U.S. Consumer Price Index. Ohio's minimum wage increased to $8.55 ($4.30 for tipped employees) on January 1, 2019|
|Oklahoma||$7.25||$2.13||No||Minimum wage for employers grossing under $100,000 and with fewer than 10 employees per location is $2.00. (OK Statutes 40-197.5).|
|Oregon||$11.00 (rural counties)
$12.50 (Portland metro)
|$11.00 (rural counties)
$11.25 (non-rural counties)
$12.50 (Portland metro)
|Yes||On March 2, 2016, Senate Bill 1532 was signed into law, increasing minimum wage depending on the county. Beginning July 1, 2019 the minimum wage increased to $11.25 for non-rural counties and to $11.00 for rural counties, thereafter increasing each year by fixed amounts until June 30, 2022 when the minimum wage will be $14.75 for the Portland metro area, $13.50 for other non-rural counties, and $12.50 for rural counties. Thereafter, the minimum wage will be adjusted each year based on the U.S. Consumer Price Index. Non-rural counties are defined as Benton, Clackamas, Clatsop, Columbia, Deschutes, Hood River, Jackson, Josephine, Lane, Lincoln, Linn, Marion, Multnomah, Polk, Tillamook, Wasco, Washington, and Yamhill counties. Rural counties are defined as Baker, Coos, Crook, Curry, Douglas, Gilliam, Grant, Harney, Jefferson, Klamath, Lake, Malheur, Morrow, Sherman, Umatilla, Union, Wallowa, Wheeler counties. The Portland Metro rate ($1.25 over the non-rural rate) applies to employers located within the urban growth boundary (UGB) of the Portland metropolitan service district.|
|Rhode Island||$10.50||$3.89||No||Minimum wage is $10.50 as of January 1, 2019.|
|South Dakota||$9.10||$4.425||Yes||Minimum wage increased to $9.10 on January 1, 2019, and is indexed to inflation.|
|Texas||$7.25||$2.13||No||Applies to all workers in the state, excluding patients of the Texas Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation who have diminished production capacity and who work on behalf of the Department; their salary is calculated at the minimum wage times a percentage of their diminished capacity.|
|Vermont||$10.78||$5.39||Yes||Vermont's minimum wage is now indexed to inflation and increased to $10.78 on January 1, 2019|
|Washington||$12.00||$12.00||$10.20||Yes||Minimum wage increases to $13.50 in 2020, then annually by a voter-approved cost-of-living adjustment based on the federal Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W). Seattle: $12.00 for businesses with fewer than 500 employees, $16.00 for businesses with 500 employees or more, and for all businesses by 2021. SeaTac: $15.64 for airport-related businesses, since January 1, 2018. Union workshops are exempt from SeaTac's $15 minimum wage law.|
|West Virginia||$8.75||$2.62||No||Minimum wage increased to $8.75 on December 31, 2015. The state minimum wage is applicable to employers of six or more employees at one location not involved in interstate commerce and for tipped employees is 30% of the federal minimum wage.|
- Generally applies to employees who make over $30 in tips per month, unless otherwise noted.
- Applies to persons under age 20, for the first 90 days of employment (per FMWA), unless otherwise noted.
- No state minimum wage law. Federal rates apply, although some small businesses exempt from FMWA may not be covered.
|Federal district||Min. wage
|District of Columbia||$14.00||$4.87||None||In accordance with a law signed on June 27, 2016, the minimum wage increased to $14.00 per hour as of July 1, 2019; and $15.00 per hour as of July 1, 2020. As of each successive July 1, the minimum wage will increase by the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers in the Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area for the preceding twelve months.|
The minimum wage for tipped-employees increased to $4.87 per hour as of July 1, 2019; and $5.55 per hour as of July 1, 2020. On June 19, 2018, Initiative 77 passed, increasing the tipped minimum wage to match the standard minimum wage by the year 2026. However, this was repealed by the D.C. Council before it could be enacted.
The minimum wage established by the federal government may be paid to newly hired individuals during their first 90 calendar days of employment, students employed by colleges and universities, and individuals under 18 years of age.
|Territory||Min. wage ($/h)||Tipped
|American Samoa||$4.58–$5.99||$2.13||Varies by industry. On September 30, 2010, President Obama signed legislation that delays scheduled wage increases for 2010 and 2011. On July 26, 2012, President Obama signed S. 2009 into law, postponing the minimum wage increase for 2012, 2013, and 2014. Annual wage increases of $0.40 recommenced on September 30, 2015 and will continue every three years until all rates have reached the federal minimum.|
|Northern Mariana Islands||$7.25||$2.13||Since September 30, 2016. Wages are to go up $0.50 annually until reaching the federal $7.25 rate by 2018. Bill S. 256 to delay the planned increases to the full rate until 2018 passed in September 2013.|
|Puerto Rico||$7.25||$2.13||Following the Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2007, Employers covered by the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)[which?] are subject to the federal minimum wage and all applicable regulations. Employers not covered by the FLSA will be subject to a minimum wage that is at least 70 percent of the federal minimum wage or the applicable mandatory decree rate, whichever is higher. The Secretary of Labor and Human Resources may authorize a rate based on a lower percentage for any employer who can show that implementation of the 70 percent rate would substantially curtail employment in that business. Puerto Rico also has minimum wage rates that vary according to the industry. These rates range from a minimum of $5.08 to $7.25 per hour.|
|U.S. Virgin Islands||$10.50||$4.20||The Virgin Islands' minimum wage increased to $9.50 on June 1, 2017 for all employees, with the exception of tourist service and restaurant employees (or those businesses with gross annual receipts of less than $150,000 set at $4.30). It further increased to $10.50 on June 1, 2018.|
Some large employers in the traditionally low-paying retail sector have declared an internal minimum wage. As of 2018:
Low-paying occupations, 2006 and 2009Edit
Jobs that a minimum wage is most likely to directly affect are those that pay close to the minimum.
According to the May 2006 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates, the four lowest-paid occupational sectors in May 2006 (when the federal minimum wage was $5.15 per hour) were the following:
|Sector||Workers employed||Median wage||Mean wage||Mean annual|
|Food preparation and serving related occupations||11,029,280||$7.90||$8.86||$18,430|
|Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations||450,040||$8.63||$10.49||$21,810|
|Personal care and service occupations||3,249,760||$9.17||$11.02||$22,920|
|Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations||4,396,250||$9.75||$10.86||$22,580|
Two years later, in May 2008, when the federal minimum wage was $5.85 per hour and was about to increase to $6.55 per hour in July 2008, these same sectors were still the lowest-paying, but their situation (according to Bureau of Labor Statistics data) was:
|Sector||Workers employed||Median wage||Mean wage||Mean annual|
|Food preparation and serving related occupations||11,438,550||$8.59||$9.72||$20,220|
|Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations||438,490||$9.34||$11.32||$23,560|
|Personal care and service occupations||3,437,520||$9.82||$11.59||$24,120|
|Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations||4,429,870||$10.52||$11.72||$24,370|
In 2006, workers in the following 13 individual occupations received, on average, a median hourly wage of less than $8.00 per hour:
|Occupation||Workers employed||Median wage||Mean wage||Mean annual|
|Waiters and waitresses||2,312,930||$3.14||$4.27||$11,190|
|Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food||2,461,890||$7.24||$7.66||$15,930|
|Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers||401,790||$7.36||$7.84||$16,320|
|Cooks, fast food||612,020||$7.41||$7.67||$15,960|
|Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers||101,530||$7.64||$8.41||$17,500|
|Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop||524,410||$7.76||$8.15||$16,950|
|Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop||340,390||$7.78||$8.10||$16,860|
|Amusement and recreation attendants||235,670||$7.83||$8.43||$17,530|
|Farmworkers and laborers, crop, nursery, and greenhouse||230,780||$7.95||$8.48||$17,630|
In 2008, two occupations paid a median wage less than $8.00 per hour:
|Occupation||Workers employed||Median wage||Mean wage||Mean annual|
|Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food||2,708,840||$7.90||$8.36||$17,400|
According to the May 2009 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates, the lowest-paid occupational sectors in May 2009 (when the federal minimum wage was $7.25 per hour) were the following:
|Sector||Workers employed||Median wage||Mean wage||Mean annual|
|Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food||2,695,740||$8.28||$8.71||$18,120|
|Waiters and waitresses||2,302,070||$8.50||$9.80||$20,380|
|Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers||402,020||$8.51||$9.09||$18,900|
|Cooks, fast food||539,520||$8.52||$8.76||$18,230|
- Average worker's wage
- Fair Labor Standards Act
- History of labor law in the United States
- Income inequality in the United States
- List of minimum wages by country
- Living wage
- Maximum wage
- Minimum Wage Fixing Convention, 1970
- Minimum wage law
- Price/wage spiral
- United States labor law
- Wage slavery
- Wage theft
- Working poor
- The federal minimum wage applies to states with no set minimum wage and to most workers in states with lower minimum wages.
- "Minimum Wage Laws in the States". Wage and Hour Division (WHD). United States Department of Labor. Retrieved April 19, 2019. Scroll over states on that map to see exact minimum wage by state. See: table.
- Bradley, David H. (February 3, 2016). State Minimum Wages: An Overview (PDF). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
- United States Department of Labor, https://www.dol.gov/general/topic/wages/minimumwage. Retrieved November 20, 2017
- "Minimum Wage Tracker". Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
- Legislatures, National Conference of State. "State Minimum Wages | 2017 Minimum Wage by State". www.ncsl.org. Retrieved December 20, 2017.
- "Raises from Coast to Coast in 2018: Workers in 18 States and 19 Cities and Counties Seeing Minimum Wage Increases on January 1". National Employment Law Project. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
- Smith, Stacey and Garcia, Cardiff. The Real Minimum Wage. NPR. May 16, 2019. 4:45 in the podcast.
- Smith, Stacey and Garcia, Cardiff. The Real Minimum Wage. NPR. May 16, 2019. 6:44 to 7:45 in the podcast.
- Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Retrieved January 2, 2019.
- "Minimum Wage". Wage and Hour Division (WHD). United States Department of Labor. Retrieved December 14, 2017.
- "Working for $7.25 an Hour: Exploring the Minimum Wage Debate". www.rand.org. Wenger, Jeffrey B. Retrieved December 14, 2017.
By 1968, the minimum wage had reached its peak purchasing power of $1.60 per hour ($11.08 in 2016 dollars).CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Low-wage workers will get paid more in 18 states in 2018 – but they could earn much more if the federal minimum wage had kept up with the economy". Business Insider. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
- Selyukh, Alina (July 8, 2019). "$15 Minimum Wage Would Boost 17 Million Workers, Cut 1.3 Million Jobs, CBO Says". NPR. Archived from the original on August 1, 2019. Retrieved October 4, 2019.
Raising the federal minimum wage to $15 an hour by 2025 would increase the pay of at least 17 million people, but also put 1.3 million Americans out of work, according to a study by the Congressional Budget Office released on Monday.
- See the section on Employment for more detailed findings from this study, including employment estimates on raising the wage to $10 or $12 per hour.
- DeSilver, Drew (January 4, 2017). "5 facts about the minimum wage". Pew Research Center.
Overall, 52% of people favored increasing the federal minimum to $15 an hour, but that idea was favored by just 21% of Trump supporters (versus 82% of Clinton backers). And while large majorities of blacks and Hispanics supported a $15 federal minimum wage, 54% of whites opposed it,
- "Characteristics of minimum wage workers, 2018". BLS Reports. United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
- Tritch, Teresa (March 7, 2014). "F.D.R. Makes the Case for the Minimum Wage". New York Times. Retrieved March 7, 2014.
- "Franklin Roosevelt's Statement on the National Industrial Recovery Act". Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum Our Documents. June 16, 1933. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
- Broda, Rudolf; United States. Bureau of Labor Statistics (December 1928). Minimum Wage Legislation in Various Countries: Bulletin of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, No. 467. Bulletin of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. G.P.O. p. 8.
- Willis J., Nordlund (1997). The quest for a living wage : the history of the federal minimum wage program. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. p. 2. ISBN 9780313264122. OCLC 33983425.
- Hammond, Matthew B. (1913). "The Minimum Wage in Great Britain and Australia" (PDF). The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 48: 26. JSTOR 1012009.
- Vivien., Hart (2001). Bound by Our Constitution : Women, Workers, and the Minimum Wage. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 67. ISBN 9781400821563. OCLC 700688619.
- Webb, Sidney (1912). "The Economic Theory of a Legal Minimum Wage". Journal of Political Economy. 20 (10): 973–998. doi:10.1086/252125. JSTOR 1820545.
- Starr, Gerald (1993). Minimum wage fixing : an international review of practices and problems (2nd impression (with corrections) ed.). Geneva: International Labour Office. p. 1. ISBN 9789221025115.
- Hammond, Matthew B. (1913). "The Minimum Wage in Great Britain and Australia". The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 48: 27. JSTOR 1012009.
- Broda, Rudolf; United States. Bureau of Labor Statistics (December 1928). Minimum Wage Legislation in Various Countries: Bulletin of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, No. 467. Bulletin of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. G.P.O. p. 11.
- Jerold L., Waltman (2000). The politics of the minimum wage. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. p. 11. ISBN 9780252025457. OCLC 42072067.
- Vivien, Hart (2001). Bound by Our Constitution : Women, Workers, and the Minimum Wage. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 63. ISBN 9781400821563. OCLC 700688619.
- Vivien, Hart (2001). Bound by Our Constitution : Women, Workers, and the Minimum Wage. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 68. ISBN 9781400821563. OCLC 700688619.
- Kelley, Florence (1912). "Minimum-Wage Laws". Journal of Political Economy. 20 (10): 999–1010. doi:10.1086/252126. JSTOR 1820546.
- Vivien, Hart (2001). Bound by Our Constitution : Women, Workers, and the Minimum Wage. Princeton: Princeton University Press. pp. 70–71. ISBN 9781400821563. OCLC 700688619.
- William P. Quigley, "'A Fair Day's Pay For A Fair Day's Work': Time to Raise and Index the Minimum Wage", 27 St. Mary's L. J. 513, 516 (1996)
- Skocpol, Theda (1992). "Chapter 7: Safeguarding the "Mothers of the Race": Protective Legislation for Women Workers". Protecting soldiers and mothers: the political origins of social policy in the United States. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674717657.
- Theda, Skocpol (1992). Protecting soldiers and mothers : the political origins of social policy in the United States. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 423. ISBN 0674717651. OCLC 25409018.
- Levin-Waldman, Oren M. (December 1, 2015). The Minimum Wage: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO. pp. 12–13. ISBN 9781440833953.
- Waltman, Jerold L. (2004). The Case for the Living Wage. Algora Publishing. p. 184. ISBN 9780875863023.
- Text of U.S. v. Darby Lumber Co., 312 U.S. 100 (1941) is available from: Findlaw Justia
- "Minimum Wage". Wage and Hour Division (WHD). United States Department of Labor. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
- "Fact Sheet #32: Youth Minimum Wage – Fair Labor Standards Act" (PDF). Wage and Hour Division (WHD). United States Department of Labor. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- "Indexing the minimum wage for inflation". Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
- "San Francisco Historical Minimum Wage Rates | Office of Labor Standards Enforcement". sfgov.org. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
- "Minimum Wage Tracker". Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
- "City Minimum Wage Laws: Recent Trends and Economic Evidence" (PDF). www.nelp.org. National Employment Law Project. April 2016. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
- "ACORN and Unions Increase Working Wages Across the Country". Common Dreams. November 11, 2006. Archived from the original on June 18, 2013.
- The living wage per hour for an individual is calculated for a family unit with two working adults and two children. Basic needs include food, childcare, medical care, housing, transportation, and other basic necessities.
- Glasmeier, Amy (2017). "Introduction to the living wage model". livingwage.mit.edu. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Retrieved December 22, 2017.
- Glasmeier, Amy (2017). "Living Wage Calculation for Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land, TX". livingwage.mit.edu. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Retrieved April 6, 2018.
- Glasmeier, Amy (2017). "Living Wage Calculation for Cleveland–Elyria, OH". livingwage.mit.edu. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Retrieved April 6, 2018.
- Glasmeier, Amy (2017). "Living Wage Calculation for Orleans Parish, Louisiana". livingwage.mit.edu. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Retrieved April 6, 2018.
- Glasmeier, Amy (2017). "Living Wage Calculation for Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Roswell, GA". livingwage.mit.edu. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Retrieved April 6, 2018.
- Glasmeier, Amy (2017). "Living Wage Calculation for Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater, FL". livingwage.mit.edu. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Retrieved April 6, 2018.
- Glasmeier, Amy (2017). "Results from the 2017 Data Update". livingwage.mit.edu. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Retrieved April 6, 2018.
- Glasmeier, Amy (2017). "Living Wage Calculation for Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania". livingwage.mit.edu. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Retrieved April 6, 2018.
- Glasmeier, Amy (2017). "Living Wage Calculation for Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL". livingwage.mit.edu. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Retrieved May 5, 2018.
- Glasmeier, Amy (2017). "Living Wage Calculation for Boston–Cambridge–Newton, MA". livingwage.mit.edu. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Retrieved April 6, 2018.
- Glasmeier, Amy (2017). "Living Wage Calculation for Los Angeles County, California". livingwage.mit.edu. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Retrieved April 6, 2018.
- Glasmeier, Amy (2017). "Living Wage Calculation for New York County, New York". livingwage.mit.edu. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Retrieved April 6, 2018.
- Glasmeier, Amy (2017). "Living Wage Calculation for San Francisco County, California". livingwage.mit.edu. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Retrieved April 6, 2018.
- Oakland, Jana Kasperkevic Ronnie Cohen in (April 14, 2016). "Fight for $15 protesters across US demand living wage in day of action". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved December 18, 2017.
- "2016 Minimum Wage by State". ncsl.org. NCSL. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
- Medina, Jennifer; Scheiber, Noam (May 19, 2015). "Los Angeles Lifts Its Minimum Wage to $15 Per Hour". New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
- Staff (May 20, 2015). "A $15 Minimum Wage Bombshell in Los Angeles". New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
- "New York State's Minimum Wage". Welcome to the State of New York. September 20, 2016. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
- Enforcement, Division of Labor Standards. "Minimum wage". Dir.ca.gov. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
- "$15 Minimum Wage, Required Paid Leave Are Coming To Mass., After Gov. Baker Signs 'Grand Bargain'". www.wbur.org. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
- "S. 1737 – Summary". United States Congress. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- Sink, Justin (April 2, 2014). "Obama: Congress has 'clear choice' on minimum wage". The Hill. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- Bolton, Alexander (April 8, 2014). "Reid punts on minimum-wage hike". The Hill. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- Bolton, Alexander (April 4, 2014). "Centrist Republicans cool to minimum wage hike compromise". The Hill. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- Sullivan, Andy (September 15, 2014). "A minimum-wage hike finds hope in U.S. heartland". Reuters. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Weigel, David (April 26, 2017). "Sanders and 21 Democrats introduce bill to raise minimum wage to $15 an hour". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved December 18, 2017.
- "H.R.15 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): Raise the Wage Act". www.congress.gov. May 25, 2017. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
- Carney, Jordain (May 25, 2017). "Sanders, Democrats introduce $15 minimum wage bill". TheHill. Retrieved December 18, 2017.
- "City governments are raising standards for working people—and state legislators are lowering them back down". Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved March 25, 2018.
- "Worker rights preemption in the US: A map of the campaign to suppress worker rights in the states". Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved March 25, 2018.
- Enforcement, Division of Labor Standards. "Minimum wage". Dir.ca.gov. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "Illinois Hourly Minimum Wage Rates by Year - Fair Labor Standards Division". www2.illinois.gov. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
- "Minimum Wage". Colorado Department of Labor and Employment. May 12, 2014. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "Governor Cuomo Signs $15 Minimum Wage Plan and 12 Week Paid Family Leave Policy into Law". Governor.ny.gov. April 4, 2016. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "Minimum Wage". Wage and Hour Division (WHD). United States Department of Labor. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "The Living Wage Movement—Viewpoints | EPI". Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
- Sheridan, Robert (June 3, 2014). "Minimum Wage Groundswell? Seattle, Others Raise Their Statutory Minimum Wage Rates". The National Law Review. Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- "Seattle City takes lead to raise minimum wage to $15 per hour". Seattle News.Net. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- Johnson, Kirk (November 26, 2013). "Voters in SeaTac, Wash., Back $15 Minimum Wage". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
- Fox, Emily Jane. "Washington city votes to raise minimum wage to $15". CNNMoney. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
- "Minimum Wage Ordinance (MWO) - Office of Labor Standards Enforcement". Sfgsa.org. Retrieved July 2, 2018.
- Legislatures, National Conference of State. "State Minimum Wages | 2017 Minimum Wage by State". Ncsl.org. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
- Davis, Aaron C. (June 21, 2016). "D.C. gives final approval to $15 minimum wage". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "Los Angeles City Council approves landmark minimum wage increase". Los Angeles Times. June 3, 2015. Retrieved August 14, 2015.
- "MINIMUM WAGE". MINIMUM WAGE. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
- "Minimum Wage Tracker". Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
- "The mayor of Los Angeles just signed a $15/hr minimum wage bill into law". Business Insider. Reuters. June 13, 2015. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
The city council in September approved a pay increase for hotel workers to $15.37 an hour.
- Peter, Jamison (April 9, 2016). "Outrage after big labor crafts law paying their members less than non-union workers". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
At the Sheraton Universal Hotel, a longtime union property, bellhops, waiters and banquet servers make California's current minimum wage: $10 an hour. (When the hotel ordinance first went into effect, the state minimum was $9.) Those doing the same jobs at a non-union Hilton less than 500 feet away make at least $15.37 under the city's hotel wage law. Neither amount includes tips.
- Minimum wage loophole written to help labor unions, Washington Examiner, December 24, 2014
- Higgins, Sean. "Minimum wage loophole written to help labor unions". Washington Examiner. Retrieved May 21, 2017.
- "CPI Inflation Calculator". U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
- Abrams, Rachel (December 31, 2014). "States' Minimum Wages Rise, Helping Millions of Workers". NYT. Retrieved January 1, 2015.
- "Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, series STTMINWGFG". Retrieved November 20, 2018.
- "Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, series CPALTT01". Retrieved November 20, 2018.
- What Every Economics Student Needs to Know and Doesn't Get in the Usual Principles Text. Routledge. 2014. p. 153.
- "Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers: All Items". Research.stlouisfed.org. October 13, 2017. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "Minimum Wage". Wage and Hour Division (WHD). United States Department of Labor. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "The U.S. Economy Is Suffering from Low Demand. Higher Wages Would Help". Harvard Business Review. February 21, 2018. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
- Hsu, Chang Samuel; Robinson, Paul R. (December 20, 2017). Springer Handbook of Petroleum Technology. Springer. p. 552. ISBN 9783319493473.
- For a review article that analyzes the classical, Keynesian, and underconsumptionist approaches to wages, see Weintraub, Sidney (December 1956). "A Macroeconomic Approach to the Theory of Wages". The American Economic Review. 46 (5): 835–56. JSTOR 1811907.
- Nicholson, Walter; Snyder, Christopher (2012). Microeconomic Theory: Basic Principles and Extensions (11 ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western. pp. 27, 154. ISBN 978-111-1-52553-8.
- Hazlitt, Henry (1979). Economics in One Lesson. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0-517-54823-2.
- Konczal, Mike; Covert, Bryce (October 8, 2014). "The Score: Does the Minimum Wage Kill Jobs?". The Nation. ISSN 0027-8378. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
- "Alan Krueger and David Card. "Minimum Wages and Employment: A Case Study of the Fast-Food Industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania"" (PDF). Davidcard.berkeley.edu. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- Neumark, David; Wascher, William (2000). "Minimum Wages and Employment: A Case Study of the Fast-Food Industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania: Comment". American Economic Review. 90 (5): 1362–1396. doi:10.1257/aer.90.5.1362.
- Neumark, Wascher (2007). Minimum Wages and Employment. Foundations and Trends in Microeconomics.
- Stanley, T. D. (2005). "Beyond Publication Bias". Journal of Economic Surveys. 19 (3): 309. doi:10.1111/j.0950-0804.2005.00250.x.
- Doucouliagos, Hristos; Stanley, T. D. (2009). "Publication Selection Bias in Minimum-Wage Research? A Meta-Regression Analysis". British Journal of Industrial Relations. 47 (2): 406–28. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8543.2009.00723.x.
- Schmitt, John (February 2013). "Why Does the Minimum Wage Have No Discernible Effect on Employment?" (PDF). Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved December 5, 2013. Lay summary – The Washington Post (February 14, 2013).
- CBO (February 2014). "The Effects of a Minimum Wage Increase on Employment and Family Income". Retrieved November 16, 2014.
- "Center for Economic and Policy Research. "Why Does the Minimum Wage Have No Discernible Effect on Unemployment?" March 2013" (PDF). Cepr.net. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- Wolcott, Ben. "2014 Job Creation Faster in States that Raised the Minimum Wage". Cepr.net. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- Stilwell, Victoria (March 8, 2014). "Highest Minimum-Wage State Washington Beats U.S. in Job Creation". Bloomberg.
- CBO-the Effects on Employment and Family Income of Increasing the Federal Minimum Wage-July 8, 2019
- Sabia, Burkhauser, Hansen (2012). Are the Effects of Minimum Wage Increases Always Small? New Evidence From a Case Study of New York State. Industrial and Labor Relations Review.
- Burkhauser, Couch, Wittenburg (2000). Who Minimum Wage Increases Bite: An Analysis Using Monthly Data from the SIPP and the CPS. South Economic Journal
- "The Logical Floor". The Economist. December 14, 2013.
- Bowerman, Mary. "Seattle's $15 minimum wage may be hurting workers, report finds". USA Today. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
- Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, The Minimum Wage, Restaurant Prices, and Labor Market Structure, August 2007
- "Raise the Minimum Wage, Reduce Crime? A new White House report links higher hourly incomes to lower rates of law-breaking." (PDF), COEA, March 3, 2017, retrieved March 3, 2017
- Hashimoto, Masanori (October 18, 1987). "The Minimum Wage Law and Youth Crimes: Time-Series Evidence". The Journal of Law & Economics. 30 (2): 443–64. doi:10.1086/467144. JSTOR 725504.
- "Higher Wages for Low-Income Workers Lead to Higher Productivity". Piie.com. January 13, 2015. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- Overstreet, Dallin. "The Effect of Minimum Wage on Per Capita Income in Arizona: Empirical Analysis." Poverty & Public Policy 11.1-2 (2019): 156-168.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/pop4.249
- "OECD Statistics". Stats.oecd.org. Archived from the original on June 11, 2009. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
- "The Best Economic News No One Wants to Talk About". The Atlantic. October 4, 2019.
What’s happening here? ... Rather, a tight labor market and state-by-state minimum wage hikes have combined to push up wage growth for the poorest workers. The sluggishness of overall wage growth is concealing the fact that the labor market has done wonderful things for wages at the low end.
- "Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers, 2016". BLS Reports. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
- Dube, Arindrajit (February 2017). "Minimum Wages and the Distribution of Family Incomes". IZA Discussion Paper No. 10572. SSRN 2923658.
- "Minimum wages and the distribution of family incomes in the United States | Equitable Growth". Equitable Growth. April 26, 2017. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- Neumark, Shweitzer, Wascher (2004). The Effects of Minimum Wages Throughout the Wage Distribution. Journal of Human Resources.
- Neumark, Shweitzer, Wascher (2005). The Effects of Minimum Wages on the Distribution of Family Incomes: A Non-Parametric Analysis. Journal of Human Resources.
- Vedder, Richard; Gallaway, Lowell (2002). "The minimum wage and poverty among full-time workers". Journal of Labor Research. 23: 41–49. doi:10.1007/s12122-002-1016-4.
- Sherk, James. "$15 Minimum Wages Will Substantially Raise Prices". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- Cassleman, Ben (May 20, 2015). "LA's New Minimum Wage Isn't Worth Anywhere Close To $15". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
- Liu, John C. (July 2013). "Working but Still Struggling: The case for a New York City minimum wage" (PDF). New York City Comptroller's Office. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
- Mankiw, N.G. Essentials of Economics, 8th Edition. Cengage Learning, pp. 31.
- Fowler, Smith (2015). Survey of US Economists on a $15 Minimum Wage. Employment Policies Institute.
- Whaples (2006). Do Economists Agree on Anything? Yes! The Economists' Voice.
- "Over 600 Economists Sign Letter In Support of $10.10 Minimum Wage: Economist Statement on the Federal Minimum Wage". Epi.org. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "600 Economists Now Back A $10.10 Minimum Wage". Huffington Post. January 27, 2014.
- "Economists Hit Back in the Minimum-Wage Wars". The New York Times. March 13, 2014.
- "Over 600 Economists Agree: It's Time To Raise The Minimum Wage - The National Memo - Smart. Sharp. Funny. Fearless". The National Memo. January 27, 2014. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "Seven Nobel Laureates Endorse Higher U.S. Minimum Wage". Bloomberg. January 14, 2014.
- "Seven Nobel Laureates Endorse Increase in U.S. Minimum Wage". Economicpolicyjournal.coms. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 21, 2013. Retrieved December 6, 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Fuller, Dan and Doris Geide-Stevenson (2003): Consensus Among Economists: Revisited, in: Journal of Economic Review, Vol. 34, No. 4, S. 369–387 (PDF)
- Krugman, Paul (February 17, 2013). "Opinion - Raise That Wage". Nytimes.com. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- Greenhouse, Steven; Kasperkevic, Jana (April 15, 2015). "Fight for $15 swells into largest protest by low-wage workers in US history". the Guardian. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
- Teresa Tritch, Where Do Democrats Stand on the Minimum Wage?, New York Times (July 6, 2016).
- Russell Berman, Where the Minimum-Wage Fight Is Being Won, The Atlantic (May 4, 2015).
- Mike Lillis, $15 minimum wage divides Dems, The Hill (July 28, 2016).
- Alex Seitz-Wald, Democrats Add $15 Minimum Wage to Platform, NBC News (July 8, 2017).
- David Weigel, Democrats back $15 minimum wage, but stalemate on Social Security, Washington Post (July 9, 2016).
- Jamelle Bouie, Honest Work, Slate (May 13, 2014).
- Dave Jamieson, GOP Candidates Resoundingly Reject The Idea of a Minimum Wage Hike, HuffPo (November 10, 2015).
- Ramsey Cox, GOP blocks minimum-wage hike, The Hill (April 30, 2014).
- Rich Kirchen, Paul Ryan opposes minimum wage hike, says it would nix jobs, Milwaukee Business Journal (September 2, 2014).
- "Most See Inequality Growing, but Partisans Differ over Solutions". People-press.org. January 23, 2014. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "Lake Research Partners. Public Support for Raising the Minimum Wage. February 2012" (PDF). Nelp.3cdn.net. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "United States Minimum Wage By State 2013". Minimum-Wage.org. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
- "Employee Rights Under the Fair Labor Standards Act" (PDF). Wage and Hour Division (WHD). United States Department of Labor. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- "Minimum Wages for Tipped Employees". U.S. Department of Labor.
- "Exemptions to the Minimum Wage and the FLSA". Minimum-Wage.org. May 25, 2011.
- "Fact Sheet #32: Youth Minimum Wage – Fair Labor Standards Act" (PDF). Dol.gov. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "What is the minimum wage for workers who receive tips? What is the minimum wage for workers who receive tips?". eLaws. United States Department of Labor. Retrieved November 5, 2012.
- "Federal minimum wage will increase to $7.25 on July 24". United States Department of Labor. Retrieved November 5, 2012.
- "Minimum Wage". Wage and Hour Division (WHD). United States Department of Labor. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "Public Law 104–188 104th Congress" (PDF). www.gpo.gov. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
- . January 1, 2019 https://www.paycor.com/resource-center/minimum-wage-by-state-and-2018-increases. Retrieved January 1, 2019. Missing or empty
- "New York City, New York Minimum Wage 2019 - Minimum-Wage.org". www.minimum-wage.org. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
- "New York City, New York Minimum Wage 2019 - Minimum-Wage.org". www.minimum-wage.org. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
- "Pritzker signs bill to increase minimum hourly wage to $15 by 2025". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- "Minimum Wage Tracker". Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
- "Minimum Wages for Tipped Employees". Wage and Hour Division (WHD). United States Department of Labor. January 1, 2013. Retrieved November 25, 2017.
- "Bentley signs bill blocking Birmingham minimum wage". The Montgomery Advertiser. Retrieved February 8, 2019.
- "Alabama HB174 | 2016 | Regular Session". LegiScan. Retrieved February 8, 2019.
- m.ij.org http://m.ij.org/O0Y0g55B0000OWTh0G0s0tS. Retrieved February 8, 2019. Missing or empty
- m.ij.org http://m.ij.org/Q0YB0tS0Wg0T50O0s00F5g0. Retrieved February 8, 2019. Missing or empty
- "Minimum Wage Standard and Overtime Hours". labor.alaska.gov. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
- "Prop. 206: Arizona voters approve $12 minimum wage". azcentral. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
- "Voters in Arkansas just gave 300,000 workers a raise". Vox. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- "Minimum wage". California Department of Industrial Relations. Retrieved August 6, 2010.
- "State of California, Department of Industrial Relations". December 29, 2017. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
- Myers, John; Dillon, Liam (March 28, 2016). "Gov. Brown hails deal to raise minimum wage to $15 as 'matter of economic justice'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
- Levine, Nathaniel (December 28, 2017). "California's minimum wage rises again on Jan. 1. Here's how much". The Sacramento Bee. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
- "Minimum Wage Ordinance | City of Emeryville, CA - Official Website". www.ci.emeryville.ca.us. Retrieved September 2, 2019.
- "Minimum Wage Ordinance (MWO)". Retrieved July 2, 2018.
- "Minimum Wage Ordinance". January 2, 2019.
- "2017 Minimum Wage". Colorado Department of Labor and Employment. Archived from the original on January 3, 2017. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
- "2012 Colorado Minimum Wage Fact Sheet". Colorado DOLE. December 2012. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- "Governor Lamont Signs Minimum Wage Increase". portal.ct.gov, The Office of Governor Ned Lamont. Retrieved October 11, 2019.
- "Minimum Wage increases January 1st". State of Delaware News. December 18, 2018. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
- Florida Statutes Section 448.110(4)(a).
- Note: Federal minimum wage applies to businesses involved in interstate commerce, and to most businesses with gross revenues over $500,000, where state minimum wage is lower.
- "Minimum Wage Change – Spotlight – Georgia Department of Labor". Dol.state.ga.us. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
- "LexisNexis® Custom Solution: Georgia Code Research Tool". Lexisnexis.com. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "Minimum Wage and Overtime". Hawaii Department of Labor and Industrial Relations. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- "Section 44-1502 – Idaho State Legislature". Legislature.idaho.gov. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "Minimum Wage/Overtime FAQ". Illinois Department of Labor. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- Petrella, Dan. "Gov. J.B. Pritzker signs law raising Illinois' minimum wage to $15 an hour by 2025". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- "City of Chicago :: Minimum Wage". www.chicago.gov. Retrieved February 17, 2019.
- "Minimum Wage Ordinance and Regulations | CookCountyIL.gov". www.cookcountyil.gov. Retrieved February 17, 2019.
- "Indiana Minimum Wage Law : $7.25 per hour" (PDF). In.gov. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "Wage Frequently Asked Questions". Iowa Workforce Development. n.d. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- "On Iowa Blocking All Local Minimum Wage and Employment Benefits Laws". Nelp.org. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
- "Sebelius signs bill to raise Kansas minimum wage to $7.25 an hour". Kansas City Business Journal. April 23, 2009.
- Kansas’ minimum wage to change from $2.65 to $7.25 on Jan. 1, Lawrence Journal-World, Scott Rothschild, April 23, 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 7, 2015. Retrieved March 21, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "An Ordinance Relating to Minimum Wage to be Paid to Employees by Employers in Louisville Metro" (PDF). Louisville Kentucky Government. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 27, 2014. Retrieved December 27, 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Barton, Ryland (October 20, 2016). "Kentucky Supreme Court Strikes Down Louisville Minimum Wage Ordinance". 89.3 WFPL News Louisville. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
- "Minimum Wage Poster" (PDF). Maine Department of Labor Standards. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- "Portland City Council votes to raise minimum wage to $10.10 an hour". Pressherald.com. July 7, 2015. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- Cousins, Christopher. "LePage signs bill into law to restore Maine tip credit". The Bangor Daily News. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
- "Title 26, §664: Minimum wage; overtime rate". legislature.maine.gov. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
- Maryland Minimum Wage and Overtime Law – Employment Standards Service (ESS). '"Department of Labor, Licensing & Regulation. State of Maryland.
- Wagner, John. Maryland governor urges minimum-wage rise to $10.10 to help state's lowest-paid workers. The Washington Post. February 11, 2014. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
- Maryland adopts $15 minimum wage by 2025 as lawmakers reject Hogan’s veto. The Washington Post. March 28, 2019. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
- Maryland House Bill 166. Maryland Legislature. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
- "Maryland Minimum Wage and Overtime Law Montgomery County". Maryland Department of Labor, Licensing and Regulation. July 2018.
- "Leggett vetoes $15 minimum wage in Montgomery County". The Washington Post. January 23, 2017.
- "Bill 12-16, Human Rights and Civil Liberties - County Minimum Wage – Amount – Annual Adjustment Veto". Montgomery County Council. January 23, 2017.
- "Minimum Wage Program". Labor and Workforce Development. October 4, 2011. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
- Casteel, Kathryn (February 7, 2017). "The Minimum Wage Movement Is Leaving Tipped Workers Behind". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
- What you need to know about the ‘grand bargain’ that Charlie Baker just signed into law
- "The Regular Rate Riddle in the Massachusetts 'Grand Bargain' Legislation"
- "What is the Michigan Minimum Wage?". Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs. Retrieved January 1, 2018.
- "LARA – New Minimum Wage for Michigan Employees". Michigan.gov. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "LARA – What is the Michigan Minimum Wage?". Michigan.gov. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "Minnesota's minimum wage laws". Minnesota Department of Labor and Industry. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
- "State minimum-wage laws – Labor Standards; Minnesota Department of Labor and Industry". www.dli.mn.gov. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
- "Labor Standards – Minnesota's minimum-wage law". Minnesota Department of Labor and Industry. Retrieved July 2, 2018.
- "Tipped Employees | Missouri Labor". labor.mo.gov. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
- Missouri Proposition B, $12 Minimum Wage Initiative (2018) Last accessed 7 November 2018
- "Minimum wage hike set to reverse in Missouri". Retrieved July 6, 2017.
- "Nebraska Minimum Wage Increase, Initiative 425 (2014)". Ballotpedia.org. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "Minimum Wage Raise Passes In Four GOP States". Huffington Post. November 4, 2014.
- "Nevada's minimum wage and daily overtime rates unchanged for 2013" (PDF). Nevada Office of the Labor Commissioner. April 1, 2013. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- "STATE OF NEVADA MINIMUM WAGE 2019 ANNUAL BULLETIN" (PDF). July 1, 2019. Retrieved October 4, 2019.
- "Minimum Wage – Minimum Wage – NH Department of Labor". Nh.gov. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "Minimum Wage". State of new Jersey. January 2, 2019.
- "New Jersey's Minimum Wage Postcard" (PDF). State of new Jersey. July 5, 2019.
- "Minimum Wage". State of New Jersey. January 2, 2019.
- Marcus, Samantha (January 17, 2019). "N.J. minimum wage to rise to $15 an hour as Murphy, top Dems strike deal". NJ.com.
- "New Jersey's Minimum Wage Postcar" (PDF). State of new Jersey. July 5, 2019.
- living_wage Archived 2015-04-02 at the Wayback Machine
- "Albuquerque Minimum Wage Increase – 2015 – City of Albuquerque". Cabq.gov. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "Minimum Wages – New York State Department of Labor". Labor.state.ny.us. May 8, 2013. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
- Tripp, Noel P.; Jackson Lewis P.C. (December 8, 2013). "New York's New Miscellaneous Wage Order Tip Credit Provision to Impact Businesses Such As Car Washes and Salons". The National Law Review. Retrieved December 10, 2013.
- "New York State Increases Minimum Wage and Enacts Paid Family Leave". Jdsupra.com. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "North Carolina minimum wage". Archived from the original on March 17, 2015. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
- "N.D.C.C. Chapter 34-06: Minimum Wages and Hours". Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
- "State Minimum Wages | 2016 Minimum Wage by State". www.ncsl.org. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
- "Ohio minimum wage to go up 10 cents next week". Cleveland Plain Dealer. December 30, 2010.
- "Your Rights Under the Oklahoma Minimum Wage Act 40O.S.§197.1" (PDF). Okladot.state.ok.us. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "Your Rights Under the Oklahoma Minimum Wage Act" (PDF). Oklahoma Department of Labor. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- "Minimum Wage Rate Summary". Oregon.gov. Retrieved July 2, 2018.
- "Text of SB 1532". Olisleg.state.or.us. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- Kullgren, Ian K. "Oregon House passes minimum wage hike after turbulent debate, sending it to Kate Brown". The Oregonian. February 18, 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 10, 2015. Retrieved March 21, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Minimum Wage, Labor Standards, Workforce Regulation and Safety, RI Department of Labor and Training". www.dlt.ri.gov. Retrieved July 3, 2018.
- "Employment Laws – Minimum Wage". dlr.sd.gov.
- "Labor Code Chapter 62. Minimum Wage". Statutes.legis.state.tx.us. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "INFORMATION ON TIPPED AND SERVICE EMPLOYEES" (PDF). March 2018. Retrieved July 2, 2018.
- Wilson, Reid (June 10, 2014). "Vermont minimum wage will rise to $10.50 an hour". The Washington Post.
- "Virginia Department of Labor and Industry". Doli.virginia.gov. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "Minimum Wage". Washington State Department of Labor and Industries. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- Employees aged 14 or 15 may be paid 85% of the minimum wage.
- "Minimum Wage". Washington State Department of Labor and Industries. Retrieved October 14, 2013.
- "Seattle Minimum Wage Ordinance". Seattle Office of Civil Rights. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
- "Seattle City Council approves historic $15 minimum wage". Seattle Times. June 2, 2014. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- "News List | City of SeaTac". www.seatacwa.gov. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- "SeaTac: The small US town that sparked a movement against low wages". Guardian. February 22, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
- Raising the minimum wage without raising havoc, Washington Post, September 5, 2014
- "West Virginia Code". Legis.state.wv.us. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- Virginia minimum wage Thinkprogress.org, 2014/04/03
- "The Wisconsin's 2009 Minimum Wage Rates". Wisconsin Department of Workforce Development. July 24, 2009.
- Cohen, Kelly. "D.C. raises minimum wage to $15". Washington Examiner. June 28, 2015.
- Davis, Aaron C. "D.C. lawmakers approve $15 minimum wage, joining N.Y., Calif.". The Washington Post. June 7, 2016.
- DeWitt, Jeffrey S. "Fiscal Impact Statement – Fair Shot Minimum wage Amendment Act of 2016". Office of the Chief Financial Officer. Government of the District of Columbia. June 1, 2016.
- "D.C. Council overturns wage hike for bartenders, servers — four months after voters approved it". Washington Post. Retrieved November 2, 2018.
- "District of Columbia Minimum Wage Poster". Department of Employment Services. Government of the District of Columbia. 2016.
- "Wage Rate in American Samoa" (PDF). Wage and Hour Division (WHD). United States Department of Labor.
- "President Obama signs Minimum Wage delay into Law". US Dept of Labor. October 1, 2012.
- "Federal Minimum Wage" (PDF). Dol.gov. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- Kasperowicz, Pete (September 10, 2013). "Dems vote with GOP to delay minimum wage hike in Northern Mariana Islands". Thehill.com. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "EMPLOYEE RIGHTS, THE UNITED STATES VIRGIN ISLANDS DEPARTMENT OF LABOR" (PDF). June 1, 2018. Retrieved July 3, 2018.
- "Virgin Islands Minimum Wage Increases to $8.35 Per Hour". www.vidol.gov. Retrieved November 25, 2017.
- Amazon Sets $15 Minimum Wage For U.S. Employees, Including Temps
- Costco to boost its minimum wage to $14 an hour
- Target Is Raising Its Minimum Wage and Is Making a Big Pledge for 2020
- Walmart to raise its starting wage to $11, give some employees bonuses following tax bill passage
- "National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates United States". US Bureau of Labor Statistics. May 2006. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
- "National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates United States". US Bureau of Labor Statistics. May 2008. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
- "National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates United States". US Bureau of Labor Statistics. May 2009. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
- Minimum wage in the United States at Curlie
- Federal Minimum Wage. United States Department of Labor Wage and Hour Division.
- Minimum Wages for Tipped Employees. United States Department of Labor Wage and Hour Division.
- Inflation Adjusted Minimum Wage by Year. Compares minimum wage adjusted for inflation by year.
- History of Federal Minimum Wage United States Department of Labor Wage and Hour Division.
- U.S. Minimum Wage History. Oregon State University – Wealth and Poverty (Anth 484). Last updated December 26, 2012.
- Maps and charts of minimum wage vs. housing costs – National Low Income Housing Coalition (advocacy group).