Minar-e-Pakistan (Urdu: مینارِ پاکستان) is a national monument located in Lahore, Pakistan.[2] The tower was built between 1960 and 1968 on the site where the All-India Muslim League passed the Lahore Resolution (which was latter called Pakistan Resolution) on March 23, 1940 - the first official call for a separate and independent homeland for the Muslims of British India, as espoused by the two-nation theory. The resolution eventually helped lead to the emergence of an independent Pakistani state in 1947.[3][4] The tower is located in the middle of an urban park, called Greater Iqbal Park.[5]

مینارِ پاکستان
Minar e Pakistan 2021.jpg
Minar-e-Pakistan is located in Lahore
Location within Lahore
Minar-e-Pakistan is located in Pakistan
Minar-e-Pakistan (Pakistan)
General information
StatusNational Tower of Pakistan
TypePublic monument
LocationLahore, Punjab
Coordinates31°35′33″N 74°18′34″E / 31.5925°N 74.3095°E / 31.5925; 74.3095Coordinates: 31°35′33″N 74°18′34″E / 31.5925°N 74.3095°E / 31.5925; 74.3095
Construction started23 March 1960
Completed21 October 1968
Roof70 metres (230 ft)[1]
Design and construction
ArchitectNasreddin Murat-Khan
Structural engineerA Rehman Niazi
Services engineerMian Abdul Ghani Mughal
Main contractorMian Abdul khaliq company


The tower reflects a blend of Mughal/Islamic and modern architecture.

The tower was designed and supervised by, Nasreddin Murat-Khan a Russian-born Pakistani architect and civil engineer.[6] The foundation stone was laid on 23 March 1960. Construction took eight years, and was completed on 21 October 1968 at an estimated cost of Rs 7,058,000. The money was collected by imposing an additional tax on cinema and horse racing tickets at the demand of Akhter Husain, governor of West Pakistan. Today, the minaret provides a panoramic view to visitors who can climb up the stairs or access the top, by means of an elevator.


The monument sits atop a plinth

The base is about 8 metres above the ground. The tower rises about 62 metres on the base, the total height of the minar is about 70 metres above the ground. The unfolding petals of the flower-like base are 9 metres high. The diameter of the tower is about 9.75 meters. The rostrum is built of patterned tiles, and faces Badshahi Mosque. The base comprises four platforms. To symbolise the humble beginning of the freedom struggle, first platform is built with uncut stones from Taxila, second platform is made of hammer-dressed stones, whereas third platform is of chiselled stones. Polished white marble at the fourth and final platform depicts the success of the Pakistan Movement.[7] The structure uses the imagery of crescents and stars, signs that symbolize the culture of Pakistan, similarly seen in the National Flag.[5]

Mr. Mukhtar Masood, a prolific writer and the then–deputy commissioner of Lahore, was one of the members of the Building Committee. Mian Abdul Khaliq and Company. Services engineer Mian Abdul Ghani Mughal went on to build many other landmarks of Pakistan including Gaddafi Stadium Lahore, City Hospital Gujranwala, Chand da Qila By-Pass Gujranwala, Lords Hotel, and University of Punjab Campus Gujranwala and 9 floors


At the base, there are floral inscriptions on ten converging white marble Commemorative plaques. The inscriptions include the text of Lahore Resolution in Urdu, Bengali and English, and Delhi Resolution's text, which was passed on 9 April 1946. On different plaques, Quranic verses and 99 names of Allah are inscribed in Arabic calligraphy, whereas National Anthem of Pakistan in Urdu and Bengali, excerpts from the speeches of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, in Urdu, Bengali and English, along with few couplets of Allama Iqbal include the other important inscriptions.[7]


Tower construction was started in 1960 and completed 8 years later, in 1968.[5] The estimated budget to complete the great construction was near Rs.70 Lakh (7 million). Money to complete this project was collected from Pakistani people, as they were charged 10 to 15 Rs extra tax at the theater/cinema. It is the combination of Islamic as well as national culture. The tower base is shaped like a flower. The monument is covered with parks and flowers. Its location is used for political and religious events. It is also known as "Liberty Tower of Pakistan".


Minar-e-Pakistan is considered the national emblem of Pakistan,[8] and an expression of post-colonial national identity.[citation needed]


On February 21, 1999, Indian PM Atal Bihari Vajpayee became the first Indian leader to visit Minar-e-Pakistan (previous Indian state visits to Pakistan had not visited Lahore).[9] Vajpayee's visit was compared to Nixon's visit to China.[10]

Minar-e-Pakistan has served as the location for a number of rallies.[11] The rallies have often caused damage to the surrounding flora, according to the Parks and Horticulture Authority. In 2014, the Punjab government considered banning any political or non-political large gatherings.[12]

On 14 August 2021, a female tiktoker got sexually assaulted by a crowd who picked up that woman, tore off her clothes and threw her up in the air. The absence of security guards at the monument and the delayed police response were criticized and lead to discussions about violence against women in Pakistan[13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][by whom?]


See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Minar-e-Pakistan: Reliving History". pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  2. ^ Google maps. "Address of Minar-e-Pakistan". Google Maps. Retrieved 23 September 2013. {{cite web}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  3. ^ Baloch, Shah Meer (19 August 2021). "Hundreds of men in Pakistan investigated over mass sexual assault on woman". Guardian. Guardian. Retrieved 19 August 2021.
  4. ^ Chabba, Seerat. "Pakistan: Outpouring of anger after woman assaulted by over 400 men". DW News. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  5. ^ a b c Khan, Ahmed Z. (1 March 2013). "On Design and Politics of Co-producing Public Space: The Long Marches and the Reincarnation of the 'Forecourt' of the Pakistani Nation". International Journal of Islamic Architecture. 2 (1): 125–156. doi:10.1386/ijia.2.1.125_1.
  6. ^ Meral Murat Khan. "Remembrance: The man behind the masterpiece". Dawn. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
  7. ^ a b Amna Jamal (2002) The Pakistan Day memorial. Dawn. 23 March. Retrieved 12 February 2008
  8. ^ James Minahan. The Complete Guide to National Symbols and Emblems. ABC-CLIO. p. 141.
  9. ^ Raj Kumar Singh. Relations of NDA and UPA with Neighbours. pp. 80–81.
  10. ^ Nicholas J. Wheeler. Trusting Enemies: Interpersonal Relationships in International Conflict. Oxford University Press. p. 211.
  11. ^ "PTI to stage rally at Minar-e-Pakistan today". The News International. 23 March 2013.
  12. ^ "City diary : Govt mulls banning public rallies at Minar-i-Pakistan". Dawn. 25 November 2014.
  13. ^ Arjio, Nazeer (25 August 2021). "Pakistan Needs To Devise A Strategy Against Widespread Sexual Terrorism". The Friday Times. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  14. ^ Hyat, Kamila (27 August 2021). "The world of women". The News International. Retrieved 19 September 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  15. ^ "Outrage in Pakistan after hundreds of men crowd female TikToker, tearing her clothes". The Independent. 19 August 2021. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  16. ^ "Pakistan: Outpouring of anger after woman assaulted by over 400 men". Deutsche Welle. 18 August 2021. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  17. ^ Kirmani, Dr Nida. "The past few months have been harrowing for Pakistani women". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
  18. ^ "Medical report of Ayesha Akram reveals severe bruises on victim's body". MM News TV. 20 August 2021. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
  19. ^ "Minar-e-Pakistan incident: Victim's medico-legal assessment completed | Dunya News". video.dunyanews.tv. 20 August 2021. Retrieved 13 October 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  20. ^ "Minar-e-Pakistan incident: 126 men identified, SC takes notice | SAMAA". Samaa TV. Retrieved 13 October 2021.

External linksEdit